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Review of the CO2 Geological Storage Using Nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 Foam (나노입자기반 CO2 폼을 이용한 CO2 지중저장에 대한 기술적 고찰)

  • Son, Han Am
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.213-220
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    • 2020
  • When CO2 foam is injected into the saline aquifer, the relative permeability of CO2 decreases and its viscosity increases, thereby reducing mobility in porous media and ultimately improving CO2 storge with enhanced sweep efficiency. In general, surfactants were used to fabricate CO2 foam. Recently, nanoparticles have been used to form stable foam than surfactant. This paper introduces CO2 storage technology using nanoparticle stabilized CO2 foam. If the surface of the hydrophilic nanoparticles is partially modified into a CO2-philic portion, the particles have an affinity for CO2 and water, thus forming a stable CO2 foam even in deep saline aquifers under high temperature and high salinity conditions, thereby it can be stored in the pores of the rock. In terms of economics, injection method using nanopaticle-stabilized CO2 foam is more expensive than the conventional CO2 injection, but it is estimated that it will have price competitiveness because the injection efficiency is improved. From an environmental point of view, it is possible to inject chemical substances such as surfactants and nanomaterials into aquifers or reservoirs for specific purposes such as pollutant removal and oil production. However, some studies have shown that nanoparticles and surfactants are toxic to aquatic animals, so environmentally proven substances should be used. Therefore, further research and development will be needed to study the production and injection of nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foam that are environmentally safe and economically reasonable.

Effect of Permeability Anisotropy on the Effective Radius of Grout Bulb in Horizontal Permeation Grouting - Numerical Study (투수계수 이방성을 고려한 수평 약액 그라우트 구근의 침투 유효 반경에 관한 수치해석적 연구)

  • Baek, Seung-Hun;Joo, Hyun-Woo;Kwon, Tae-Hyuk;Han, Jin-Tae;Lee, Ju-Hyung;Yoo, Wan-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.36 no.11
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    • pp.149-156
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    • 2020
  • Permeation grouting effectively enhances soil strength and decreases permeability of soil; however, the flow of grout is heavily affected by anisotropy of hydraulic conductivity in layers. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of permeability anisotropy on the effective radius of horizontal permeation grout using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We modeled the horizontal permeation grout flow as a two-phase viscous fluid flow in porous media, and the model incorporated the chemical diffusion and the viscosity variation due to hardening. The numerical simulation reveals that the permeability anisotropy shapes the grout bulb to be elliptic and the dissolution-driven diffusion causes a gradual change in grout pore saturation at the edge of the grout bulb. For the grout pore saturations of 10%, 50% and 90%, the horizontal and vertical radii of grout bulb are estimated when the horizontal-to-vertical permeability ratio varies from 0.01 to 100, and the predictive model equations are suggested. This result contributes to more efficient design of injection strategy in formation layers with permeability anisotropy.

Method for Evaluating Radionuclide Transport in Biosphere by Calculating Elapsed Transport Time (이동 경과 시간 계산을 이용한 생물권에서의 방사성 핵종 이동 평가 방법)

  • Ko, Nak-Youl;Ji, Sung-Hoon
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.18 no.2_spc
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    • pp.305-315
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    • 2020
  • For geological disposal of radioactive wastes, a method was proposed to evaluate the radionuclide transport in the biosphere by calculating the elapsed time of nuclide migration. The radionuclides were supposed to be introduced from a natural barrier and reached a large surface water body following a groundwater flow in a shallow subsurface. The biosphere was defined as a shallow subsurface environment that included aquifers on a host rock. Using the proposed method, a calculation algorithm was established, and a computer code that implemented the algorithm was developed. The developed code was verified by comparing the simulation results of the simple cases with the results of the analytical solution and a public program, which has been widely used to evaluate the radiation dose using the radionuclide transport near the surface. A case study was constructed using the previous research for radionuclide transport from the hypothetical geological disposal repository. In the case study, the code calculated the mass discharge rate of radionuclide to a stream in the biosphere. Because the previous research only demonstrated the transport of radionuclides from the hypothetical repository to the host rock, the developed code in the present study could help identify the total transport of radionuclide along the complete pathway.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research : A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2016 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향 : 2016년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Seon;Park, Jun-Seok;Ihm, Pyeong Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.327-340
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    • 2017
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2016. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering have been reviewed as groups of flow, heat and mass transfer, the reduction of pollutant exhaust gas, cooling and heating, the renewable energy system and the flow around buildings. CFD schemes were used more for all research areas. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the results of the long-term performance variation of the plate-type enthalpy exchange element made of paper, design optimization of an extruded-type cooling structure for reducing the weight of LED street lights, and hot plate welding of thermoplastic elastomer packing. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, the heat transfer characteristics of a finned-tube heat exchanger in a PCM (phase change material) thermal energy storage system, influence of flow boiling heat transfer on fouling phenomenon in nanofluids, and PCM at the simultaneous charging and discharging condition were studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, one-dimensional flow network model and porous-media model, and R245fa in a plate-shell heat exchanger were studied. (3) Various studies were published in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration/energy system, system control. In the refrigeration cycle category, subjects include mobile cold storage heat exchanger, compressor reliability, indirect refrigeration system with $CO_2$ as secondary fluid, heat pump for fuel-cell vehicle, heat recovery from hybrid drier and heat exchangers with two-port and flat tubes. In the alternative refrigeration/energy system category, subjects include membrane module for dehumidification refrigeration, desiccant-assisted low-temperature drying, regenerative evaporative cooler and ejector-assisted multi-stage evaporation. In the system control category, subjects include multi-refrigeration system control, emergency cooling of data center and variable-speed compressor control. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, fifteenth studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, renewable energies, etc. Proposed designs, performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which could be help for improving the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the analyses of indoor thermal environments controlled by portable cooler, the effects of outdoor wind pressure in airflow at high-rise buildings, window air tightness related to the filling piece shapes, stack effect in core type's office building and the development of a movable drawer-type light shelf with adjustable depth of the reflector. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy consumption analysis in office building, the prediction of exit air temperature of horizontal geothermal heat exchanger, LS-SVM based modeling of hot water supply load for district heating system, the energy saving effect of ERV system using night purge control method and the effect of strengthened insulation level to the building heating and cooling load.

SCIATIC NERVE REGENERATION USING CALCIUM PHOSPHATE COATED CONDUIT AND BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR GENE-TRANSFECTED SCHWANN CELL IN RAT (인회석 박막 피복 도관과 Brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) 유전자 이입 슈반세포를 이용한 백서 좌골신경 재생에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Won-Jae;Ahn, Kang-Min;Hwang, Soon-Jeong;Choung, Pill-Hoon;Kim, Myung-Jin;Kim, Nam-Yeol;Yoo, Sang-Bae;Jahng, Jeong-Won;Kim, Hyun-Man;Kim, Joong-Soo;Kim, Yun-Hee;Kim, Soung-Min;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.199-218
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    • 2005
  • Purpose of Study: Peripheral nerve regeneration depends on neurotrophism of distal nerve stump, recovery potential of neuron, supporting cell like Schwann cell and neurotrophic factors such as BDNF. Peripheral nerve regeneration can be enhanced by the conduit which connects the both sides of transected nerve. The conduit maintains the effects of neurotrophism and BDNF produced by Schwann cells which can be made by gene therapy. In this study, we tried to enhance the peripheral nerve regeneration by using calcium phosphate coated porous conduit and BDNF-Adenovirus infected Schwann cells in sciatic nerve of rats. Materials and Methods: Microporous filter which permits the tissue fluid essential for nerve regeneration and does not permit infiltration of fibroblasts, was made into 2mm diameter and 17mm length conduit. Then it was coated with calcium phosphate to improve the Schwann cell adhesion and survival. The coated filter was evaluated by SEM examination and MTT assay. For effective allogenic Schwann cell culture, dorsal root ganglia of 1-day old rat were extracted and treated with enzyme and antimitotic Ara-C. Human BDNF cDNA was obtained from cDNA library and amplified using PCR. BDNF gene was inserted into adenovirus shuttle vector pAACCMVpARS in which E1 was deleted. We infected the BDNF-Ad into 293 human mammary kidney cell-line and obtained the virus plaque 2 days later. RT-PCR was performed to evaluate the secretion of BDNF in infected Schwann cells. To determine the most optimal m.o.i of BDNF-Ad, we infected the Schwann cells with LacZ adenovirus in 1, 20, 50, 75, 100, 250 m.o.i for 2 hours and stained with ${\beta}$-galactosidase. Rats(n=24) weighing around 300g were used. Total 14mm sciatic nerve defect was made and connected with calcium phosphate coated conduits. Schwann cells$(1{\times}10^6)$ or BDNF-Ad infected Schwann cells$(1{\times}10^6)$ were injected in conduit and only media(MEM) was injected in control group. Twelve weeks after surgery, degree of nerve regeneration was evaluated with gait analysis, electrophysiologic measurements and histomorphometric analysis. Results: 1. Microporous Millipore filter was effective conduit which permitted the adhesion of Schwann cells and inhibited the adhesion of fibroblast. We could enhance the Schwann cell adhesion and survival by coating Millipore filter with calcium phosphate. 2. Schwann cell culture technique using repeated treatment of Ara-C and GDNF was established. The mean number of Schwann cells obtained 1 and 2 weeks after the culture were $1.54{\pm}4.0{\times}10^6$ and $9.66{\pm}9.6{\times}10^6$. 3. The mRNA of BDNF in BDNF-Ad infected Schwann cells was detected using RT-PCR. In Schwann cell $0.69\;{\mu}g/{\mu}l$ of DNA was detected and in BDNF-Adenovirus transfected Schwann cell $0.795\;{\mu}g/{\mu}l$ of DNA was detected. The most effective infection concentration was determined by LacZ Adenovirus and 75 m.o.i was found the most optimal. Conclusion: BDNF-Ad transfected Schwann cells successfully regenerated the 14mm nerve gap which was connected with calcium phosphate coated Millipore filter. The BDNF-Ad group showed better results compared with Schwann cells only group and control group in aspect to sciatic function index, electrophysiologic measurements and histomorphometric analysis.

Experimental and Numerical Study on the Effect of the Rain Infiltration with the Increase of Surface Temperature (지표면 온도상승이 빗물의 토양침투에 미치는 영향에 대한 실험 및 수치 해석적 연구)

  • Shin, Nara;Shin, Mi Soo;Jang, Dong Soon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.422-429
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    • 2013
  • It is generally known that the increase of the Earth surface temperature due to the global warming together with the land desertification by rapid urban development has caused severe climate and weather change. In desert or desertification land, it is observed that there are always severe flooding phenomena, even if desert sand has the high porosity, which could be believed as the favorable condition of rain water infiltration into ground water. The high runoff feature causes possibly another heavy rain by quick evaporation with the depletion of underground water due to the lack of infiltration. The basic physics of desert flooding is reasonably assumed due to the thermal buoyancy of the higher temperature of the soil temperature than that of the rain drop. Considering the importance of this topic associated with water resource management and climate disaster prevention, no systematic investigation has, however, been reported in literature. In this study, therefore, a laboratory scale experiment together with the effort of numerical calculation have been performed to evaluate quantitatively the basic hypothesis of run-off mechanism caused by the increase of soil temperature. To this end, first, of all, a series of experiment has been made repeatedly with the change of soil temperature with well-sorted coarse sand having porosity of 35% and particle diameter, 2.0 mm. In specific, in case 1, the ground surface temperature was kept at $15^{\circ}C$, while in case 2 that was high enough at $70^{\circ}C$. The temperature of $70^{\circ}C$ was tested as this try since the informal measured surface temperature of black sand in California's Coachella Valley up to at 191 deg. $^{\circ}F$ ($88^{\circ}C$). Based on the experimental study, it is observed that the amount of runoff at $70^{\circ}C$ was higher more than 5% compared to that at $15^{\circ}C$. Further, the relative amount of infiltration by the decrease of the surface temperature from 70 to $15^{\circ}C$ is about more than 30%. The result of numerical calculation performed was well agreed with the experimental data, that is, the increase of runoff in calculation as 4.6%. Doing this successfully, a basic but important research could be made in the near future for the more complex and advanced topic for this topic.