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Innovative approaches to the health problems of rural Korea (한국농촌보건(韓國農村保健)의 문제점(問題點)과 개선방안(改善方案))

  • Loh, In-Kyu
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.5-9
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    • 1976
  • The categories of national health problems may be mainly divided into health promotion, problems of diseases, and population-economic problems which are indirectly related to health. Of them, the problems of diseases will be exclusively dealt with this speech. Rurality and Disease Problems There are many differences between rural and urban areas. In general, indicators of rurality are small size of towns, dispersion of the population, remoteness from urban centers, inadequacy of public transportation, poor communication, inadequate sanitation, poor housing, poverty, little education lack of health personnels and facilities, and in-accessibility to health services. The influence of such conditions creates, directly or indirectly, many problems of diseases in the rural areas. Those art the occurrence of preventable diseases, deterioration and prolongation of illness due to loss of chance to get early treatment, decreased or prolonged labour force loss, unnecessary death, doubling of medical cost, and economic loss. Some Considerations of Innovative Approach The followings art some considerations of innovative approaches to the problems of diseases in the rural Korea. 1. It would be essential goal of the innovative approaches that the damage and economic loss due to diseases will be maintained to minimum level by minimizing the absolute amount of the diseases, and by moderating the fee for medical cares. The goal of the minimization of the disease amount may be achieved by preventive services and early treatment, and the goal of moderating the medical fee may be achieved by lowering the prime cost and by adjusting the medical fees to reasonable level. 2. Community health service or community medicine will be adopted as a innovative means to disease problems. In this case, a community is defined as an unit area where supply and utilization of primary service activities can be accomplished within a day. The essential nature o the community health service should be such activities as health promotion, preventive measures, medical care, and rehabilitation performing efficiently through the organized efforts of the residents in a community. Each service activity should cover all members of the residents in a community in its plan and performance. The cooperation of the community peoples in one of the essential elements for success of the service program, The motivations of their cooperative mood may be activated through several ways: when the participation of the residents in service program of especially the direct participation of organized cooperation of the area leaders art achieved through a means of health education: when the residents get actual experience of having received the benefit of good quality services; and when the health personnels being armed with an idealism that they art working in the areas to help health problems of the residents, maintain good human relationships with them. For the success of a community health service program, a personnel who is in charge of leadership and has an able, a sincere and a steady characters seems to be required in a community. The government should lead and support the community health service programs of the nation under the basis of results appeared in the demonstrative programs so as to be carried out the programs efficiently. Moss of the health problems may be treated properly in the community levels through suitable community health service programs but there might be some problems which art beyond their abilities to be dealt with. To solve such problems each community health service program should be under the referral systems which are connected with health centers, hospitals, and so forth. 3. An approach should be intensively groped to have a physician in each community. The shortage of physicians in rural areas is world-wide problem and so is the Korean situation. In the past the government has initiated a system of area-limited physician, coercion, and a small scale of scholarship program with unsatisfactory results. But there might be ways of achieving the goal by intervice, broadened, and continuous approaches. There will be several ways of approach to motivate the physicians to be settled in a rural community. They are, for examples, to expos the students to the community health service programs during training, to be run community health service programs by every health or medical schools and other main medical facilities, communication activities and advertisement, desire of community peoples to invite a physician, scholarship program, payment of satisfactory level, fulfilment of military obligation in case of a future draft, economic growth and development of rural communities, sufficiency of health and medical facilities, provision of proper medical care system, coercion, and so forth. And, hopefully, more useful reference data on the motivations may be available when a survey be conducted to the physicians who are presently engaging in the rural community levels. 4. In communities where the availability of a physician is difficult, a trial to use physician extenders, under certain conditions, may be considered. The reason is that it would be beneficial for the health of the residents to give them the remedies of primary medical care through the extenders rather than to leave their medical problems out of management. The followings are the conditions to be considered when the physician extenders are used: their positions will be prescribed as a temporary one instead of permanent one so as to allow easy replacement of the position with a physician applicant; the extender will be under periodic direction and supervision of a physician, and also referral channel will be provided: legal constraints will be placed upon the extenders primary care practice, and the physician extenders will used only under the public medical care system. 5. For the balanced health care delivery, a greater investment to the rural areas is needed to compensate weak points of a rurality. The characteristics of a rurality has been already mentioned. The objective of balanced service for rural communities to level up that of urban areas will be hard to achieve without greater efforts and supports. For example, rural communities need mobile powers more than urban areas, communication network is extremely necessary at health delivery facilities in rural areas as well as the need of urban areas, health and medical facilities in rural areas should be provided more substantially than those of urban areas to minimize, in a sense, the amount of patient consultation and request of laboratory specimens through referral system of which procedures are more troublesome in rural areas, and more intensive control measures against communicable diseases are needed in rural areas where greater numbers of cases are occurred under the poor sanitary conditions.

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The Effect of Shading on Pedestrians' Thermal Comfort in the E-W Street (동-서 가로에서 차양이 보행자의 열적 쾌적성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Nam-Hyong;Lee, Chun-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.60-74
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    • 2018
  • This study was to investigate the pedestrian's thermal environments in the North Sidewalk of E-W Street during summer heatwave. We carried out detailed measurements with four human-biometeorological stations on Dongjin Street, Jinju, Korea ($N35^{\circ}10.73{\sim}10.75^{\prime}$, $E128^{\circ}55.90{\sim}58.00^{\prime}$, elevation: 50m). Two of the stations stood under one row street tree and hedge(One-Tree), two row street tree and hedge (Two-Tree), one of the stations stood under shelter and awning(Shelter), while the other in the sun (Sunlit). The measurement spots were instrumented with microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure microclimate, radiation from the six cardinal directions at the height of 1.1m so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) from 24th July to 21th August 2018. The radiant temperature of sidewalk's elements were measured by the reflective sphere and thermal camera at 29th July 2018. The analysis results of 9 day's 1 minute term human-biometeorological data absorbed by a man in standing position from 10am to 4pm, and 1 day's radiant temperature of sidewalk elements from 1:16pm to 1:35pm, showed the following. The shading of street tree and shelter were mitigated heat stress by the lowered UTCI at mid and late summer's daytime, One-Tree and Two-Tree lowered respectively 0.4~0.5 level, 0.5~0.8 level of the heat stress, Shelter lowered respectively 0.3~1.0 level of the heat stress compared with those in the Sunlit. But the thermal environments in the One-Tree, Two-Tree and Shelter during the heat wave supposed to user "very strong heat stress" while those in the Sunlit supposed to user "very strong heat stres" and "exterme heat stress". The main heat load temperature compared with body temperature ($37^{\circ}C$) were respectively $7.4^{\circ}C{\sim}21.4^{\circ}C$ (pavement), $14.7^{\circ}C{\sim}15.8^{\circ}C$ (road), $12.7^{\circ}C$ (shelter canopy), $7.0^{\circ}C$ (street funiture), $3.5^{\circ}C{\sim}6.4^{\circ}C$ (building facade). The main heat load percentage were respectively 34.9%~81.0% (pavement), 9.6%~25.2% (road), 24.8% (shelter canopy), 14.1%~15.4% (building facade), 5.7% (street facility). Reducing the radiant temperature of the pavement, road, building surfaces by shading is the most effective means to achieve outdoor thermal comfort for pedestrians in sidewalk. Therefore, increasing the projected canopy area and LAI of street tree through the minimal training and pruning, building dense roadside hedge are essential for pedestrians thermal comfort. In addition, thermal liner, high reflective materials, greening etc. should be introduced for reducing the surface temperature of shelter and awning canopy. Also, retro-reflective materials of building facade should be introduced for the control of reflective sun radiation. More aggressively pavement watering should be introduced for reducing the surface temperature of sidewalk's pavement.

One-stop Evaluation Protocol of Ischemic Heart Disease: Myocardial Fusion PET Study (허혈성 심장 질환의 One-stop Evaluation Protocol: Myocardial Fusion PET Study)

  • Kim, Kyong-Mok;Lee, Byung-Wook;Lee, Dong-Wook;Kim, Jeong-Su;Jang, Yeong-Do;Bang, Chan-Seok;Baek, Jong-Hun;Lee, In-Su
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: In the early stage of using PET/CT, it was used to damper revision but recently shows that CT with MDCT is commonly used and works well for an anatomical diagnosis. This hospital makes the accuracy and convenience more higher in the diagnosis and evaluate of coronary heart disease through concurrently running myocardial perfusion SPECT examination, myocardial PET examination with FDG, and CT coronary artery CT angiography(coronary CTA) used PET/CT with 64-slice. This report shows protocol and image based on results from about 400 coronary heart disease examinations since having 64 channels PET/CT in July 2007. Materials and Methods: An Equipment for this examination is 64-slice CT and Discovery VCT (DVCT) that is consisted of PET with BGO ($Bi_4Ge_3O_{12}$) scintillation crystal by GE health care. First myocardial perfusion SPECT with pharmacologic stress test to reduce waiting time of a patient and get a quick diagnosis and evaluation, and right after it, myocardial FDG PET examination and coronary CTA run without a break. One-stop evaluation protocol of ischemic heart disease is as follows. 1)Myocardial perfusion SPECT with pharmacologic stress: A patient is injected with $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI 10 mCi and does not have any fatty food for myocardial PET examination and drink natural water with ursodeoxcholic acid 100 mg and we get SPECT image in an hour. 2)Myocardial FDG PET: To reduce blood fatty content and to increase uptake of FDG, we used creative oral glucose load using insulin and Acipimox to according to blood acid content. A patient is injected with $^{18}F$-FDG 5 mCi for reduction of his radiation exposure and we get a gated image an hour later and get delay image when we need. 3) Coronary CTA: The most important point is to control heart rate and to get cooperation of patient's breath. In order to reduce a heart rate of him or her below 65 beats, let him or her take beta blocker 50 mg ~ 200 mg after a consultation with a doctor about it and have breath-practices then have the examination. Right before the examination, we spray isosorbide dinitrate 3 to 5 times to lower tension of bessel wall and to extension a blood wall of a patient. It makes to get better the shape of an anatomy. At filming, a patient is injected CT contrast with high pressure and have enough practices before the examination in order to have no problem. For reduction of his radiation exposure, we have to do ECG-triggered X-ray tube modulation exposure. Results: We evaluate coronary artery stenosis through coronary CTA and study correlation (culprit vessel check) of a decline between stenosis and perfusion from the myocardial perfusion SPECT with pharmacologic stress, coronary CTA, and can check viability of infarction or hibernating myocardium by FDG PET. Conclusion: The examination makes us to set up a direction of remedy (drug treatment, PCI, CABG) because we can estimate of effect from remedy, lesion site and severity. In addition, we have an advantage that it takes just 3 hours and one-stop in that all of process of examinations run in succession and at the same time. Therefore it shows that the method is useful in one stop evaluation of ischemic heart disease.

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Development of an Offline Based Internal Organ Motion Verification System during Treatment Using Sequential Cine EPID Images (연속촬영 전자조사 문 영상을 이용한 오프라인 기반 치료 중 내부 장기 움직임 확인 시스템의 개발)

  • Ju, Sang-Gyu;Hong, Chae-Seon;Huh, Woong;Kim, Min-Kyu;Han, Young-Yih;Shin, Eun-Hyuk;Shin, Jung-Suk;Kim, Jing-Sung;Park, Hee-Chul;Ahn, Sung-Hwan;Lim, Do-Hoon;Choi, Doo-Ho
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2012
  • Verification of internal organ motion during treatment and its feedback is essential to accurate dose delivery to the moving target. We developed an offline based internal organ motion verification system (IMVS) using cine EPID images and evaluated its accuracy and availability through phantom study. For verification of organ motion using live cine EPID images, a pattern matching algorithm using an internal surrogate, which is very distinguishable and represents organ motion in the treatment field, like diaphragm, was employed in the self-developed analysis software. For the system performance test, we developed a linear motion phantom, which consists of a human body shaped phantom with a fake tumor in the lung, linear motion cart, and control software. The phantom was operated with a motion of 2 cm at 4 sec per cycle and cine EPID images were obtained at a rate of 3.3 and 6.6 frames per sec (2 MU/frame) with $1,024{\times}768$ pixel counts in a linear accelerator (10 MVX). Organ motion of the target was tracked using self-developed analysis software. Results were compared with planned data of the motion phantom and data from the video image based tracking system (RPM, Varian, USA) using an external surrogate in order to evaluate its accuracy. For quantitative analysis, we analyzed correlation between two data sets in terms of average cycle (peak to peak), amplitude, and pattern (RMS, root mean square) of motion. Averages for the cycle of motion from IMVS and RPM system were $3.98{\pm}0.11$ (IMVS 3.3 fps), $4.005{\pm}0.001$ (IMVS 6.6 fps), and $3.95{\pm}0.02$ (RPM), respectively, and showed good agreement on real value (4 sec/cycle). Average of the amplitude of motion tracked by our system showed $1.85{\pm}0.02$ cm (3.3 fps) and $1.94{\pm}0.02$ cm (6.6 fps) as showed a slightly different value, 0.15 (7.5% error) and 0.06 (3% error) cm, respectively, compared with the actual value (2 cm), due to time resolution for image acquisition. In analysis of pattern of motion, the value of the RMS from the cine EPID image in 3.3 fps (0.1044) grew slightly compared with data from 6.6 fps (0.0480). The organ motion verification system using sequential cine EPID images with an internal surrogate showed good representation of its motion within 3% error in a preliminary phantom study. The system can be implemented for clinical purposes, which include organ motion verification during treatment, compared with 4D treatment planning data, and its feedback for accurate dose delivery to the moving target.

Analysis of Football Fans' Uniform Consumption: Before and After Son Heung-Min's Transfer to Tottenham Hotspur FC (국내 프로축구 팬들의 유니폼 소비 분석: 손흥민의 토트넘 홋스퍼 FC 이적 전후 비교)

  • Choi, Yeong-Hyeon;Lee, Kyu-Hye
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.91-108
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    • 2020
  • Korea's famous soccer players are steadily performing well in international leagues, which led to higher interests of Korean fans in the international leagues. Reflecting the growing social phenomenon of rising interests on international leagues by Korean fans, the study examined the overall consumer perception in the consumption of uniform by domestic soccer fans and compared the changes in perception following the transfers of the players. Among others, the paper examined the consumer perception and purchase factors of soccer fans shown in social media, focusing on periods before and after the recruitment of Heung-Min Son to English Premier League's Tottenham Football Club. To this end, the EPL uniform is the collection keyword the paper utilized and collected consumer postings from domestic website and social media via Python 3.7, and analyzed them using Ucinet 6, NodeXL 1.0.1, and SPSS 25.0 programs. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. First, the uniform of the club that consistently topped the league, has been gaining attention as a popular uniform, and the players' performance, and the players' position have been identified as key factors in the purchase and search of professional football uniforms. In the case of the club, the actual ranking and whether the league won are shown to be important factors in the purchase and search of professional soccer uniforms. The club's emblem and the sponsor logo that will be attached to the uniform are also factors of interest to consumers. In addition, in the decision making process of purchase of a uniform by professional soccer fan, uniform's form, marking, authenticity, and sponsors are found to be more important than price, design, size, and logo. The official online store has emerged as a major purchasing channel, followed by gifts for friends or requests from acquaintances when someone travels to the United Kingdom. Second, a classification of key control categories through the convergence of iteration correlation analysis and Clauset-Newman-Moore clustering algorithm shows differences in the classification of individual groups, but groups that include the EPL's club and player keywords are identified as the key topics in relation to professional football uniforms. Third, between 2002 and 2006, the central theme for professional football uniforms was World Cup and English Premier League, but from 2012 to 2015, the focus has shifted to more interest of domestic and international players in the English Premier League. The subject has changed to the uniform itself from this time on. In this context, the paper can confirm that the major issues regarding the uniforms of professional soccer players have changed since Ji-Sung Park's transfer to Manchester United, and Sung-Yong Ki, Chung-Yong Lee, and Heung-Min Son's good performances in these leagues. The paper also identified that the uniforms of the clubs to which the players have transferred to are of interest. Fourth, both male and female consumers are showing increasing interest in Son's league, the English Premier League, which Tottenham FC belongs to. In particular, the increasing interest in Son has shown a tendency to increase interest in football uniforms for female consumers. This study presents a variety of researches on sports consumption and has value as a consumer study by identifying unique consumption patterns. It is meaningful in that the accuracy of the interpretation has been enhanced by using a cluster analysis via convergence of iteration correlation analysis and Clauset-Newman-Moore clustering algorithm to identify the main topics. Based on the results of this study, the clubs will be able to maximize its profits and maintain good relationships with fans by identifying key drivers of consumer awareness and purchasing for professional soccer fans and establishing an effective marketing strategy.

Studies on the Productivity of Individual Leaf Blade of Paddy Rice (수도의엽신별 생육효과에 관한 연구)

  • Dong-Sam Cho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.18
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 1975
  • Experiment I: A field experiment was conducted in an attempt to find the effect of top-dressing at heading time in different levels of nitrogen application and of different positioned leaf blades formed by the treatment of leaf defoliation at heading time on the ripening and the yield of rice. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Average number of ears per hill and average number of grains per ear in different levels of nitrogen application were increased as the amount of nitrogen applied was increased. while the rate of ripened grains the yield of rough rice and the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice were decreased respectively as the amount of nitrogen applied was increased. 2. The rate of ripened grains and the weight of 1.000 kernels of brown rice in different levels of nitrogen, top-dressing at heading time were larger than those in control and increased. The yield of rough rice although statistically significant differences were not recognized, were numerically increased. 3. The rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice, the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice and the rate of hulling in different treatments of leaf defoliation were remarkably decreased as the degree of leaf-defoliation became larger. 4. The rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice, the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice and the rate of hulling in different combinations of number of remained leaves positioned differently, formed the order of $L_1(flag leaf)>L_2>L_3>L_4$ when only one leaf blade was remained, and were increased as the positions of leaves were higher when two leaf blades. were, remained. 5. In case of decrease in the number of leaf blades positioned differently, by the treatment of leaf. defoliation, rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice, the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice and the rate of hulling were increased as the area of remained leaves became larger and the nitrogen content of a leaf blade was increased. 6. There was a tendency that the increase in the amount of fertilizer application made the rate of ripened grains and the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice reduced in any number of remained leaf blades, but the application of top-dressing at heading. time resulted in the reverse tendency. The yield of rough rice showed a tendency to be increased as the amount of basal dressing and top-dressing increased and for the application of top-dressing at heading time, the yield of rough rice was less at the smaller number of those. 7. The productivity effect of the rate of ripened grains and the yield of brown rice covered by leaf blades was more than 50 per cent and that of the. weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice was not more than 1.0 percent. As the amount of nitrogen application increased the. effect of leaf blades on the rate of ripened. grains and the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice was increased. The effect of leaf blades on the weight of brown rice was increased as the amount of basal dressing-application, but the effect was decreased as the amount of top-dressing at heading time increased, 8. The productivity effects of different positioned leaf blades on the rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice and the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice were in order of $L_1(flag leaf)>L_2>L_3>L_4$ the productivity effects of $L_1$ and $L_2$ had a tendency to be increased as the amount of nitrogen applied was increased. Experiment II: A field experiment was done in order to disclose the effect of the time of nitrogen application on yield component and the effect of different positioned leaves formed by leaf defoliation at heading time on the rate of ripened grains and the yield of rice. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Average number of ears per hill was increased in the treatment of nitrogen application from basal dressing to 22 days before heading and in the treatment of application distributed weekly. Number of grains was increased in the treatment of nitrogen application from 36 days to 15 days before heading. The rate of ripened grains was, lower in the treatment of nitrogen application from top-dressing to 15 days before heading than in that of non-application, was higher in the treatment of nitrogen application within 8 days before heading, and was the lowest in that of application 29 days before heading. The yield of rough rice was the highest in the treatment of nitrogen application from 29 days to 22 days before heading. The weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice was a little high in the treatment of application from 29 days to 8 days before heading. 2. The rate of ripened grains the yield of rough rice, the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice and the rate of hulling in different treatments of leaf defoliation were remarkably decreased as the degree of leaf defoliation got larger and there were highly significant differences among treatments. There was also a recognized interaction between the time of nitrogen application and leaf defoliation. 3. In relation to the rate of ripened grains, the weight of 1. 000 kernels of brown rice and the rate of hulling in different numbers of remained leaves positioned differently and their combinations, the yield components were in order of $L_1(flag leaf)>L_2>L_3>L_4$ when only one leaf was remained, which indicated that the components were increased as the leaf position got higher. When two laves were remained, the rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice and rate of hulling were high in case of the combinations of upper positioned leaves, and the increase in the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice appeared to be affected most]y by flag leaf. When three leaf blades were remained similarly the components were increased with the combination of upper positioned leaf blades. 4. In case of decreased different positioned leaf blades by treatment of leaf defoliation, there was a significant positive regression between the leaf area, the dry matter weight of leaf blades and the nitrogen contents of leaf blades, and rate of ripened grains and the yield of rough rice, but there was no constant tendency between the former components and the weight of 1. 000 kernels of brown rice. 5. The closer the time of fertilizer application to heading time, the more the rate of ripened grains and the weight of 1, 000 kernels was decreased by defoliation, and the less were the remained leaf blades, the more remarkable was the tendency. The rate of ripened grains and the weight of 1. 000 kernels was increased by the top-dressing after heading time as the number of remained leaf blades. When the number of remained leaf blades was small the yield of rough rice was increased as the time of fertilizer application was closer to heading time. 6. Discussing the productivity effects of different organs in different times of nitrogen application, the productivity effect of a leaf blade on the rate of ripened grains was higher as the time of nitrogen application got later, and in the treatment of non-fertilization the productivity effect of a leaf blade and that of culm were the same. In the productivity effect on the yield of brown rice, the effect of culm covered more than 50 percent independently on the time of nitrogen application, and the tendency was larger in the treatment of non-fertilizer. The productivity effect of culm on the weight of 1. 000 kernels of brown rice was more than 90 percent, and the productivity effect of a leaf blade was increased as the time of application got later. 7. The productivity effect of a leaf blade in different positions on the rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice and the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice had a tendency to be increased as the time of application got later and as the position of leaf blades got higher. In the treatment of weekly application through the entire growing period, the rate of ripened grains and the yield of rough rice were affected by flag leaf and the second leaf at the same level, the but the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice was affected by flag leaf with more than 60 percent of the yield of total leaves.

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A Study on Jurisdiction under the International Aviation Terrorism Conventions (국제항공테러협약의 관할권 연구)

  • Kim, Han-Taek
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.59-89
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    • 2009
  • The objectives of the 1963 Tokyo Convention cover a variety of subjects, with the intention of providing safety in aircraft, protection of life and property on board, and promoting the security of civil aviation. These objectives will be treated as follows: first, the unification of rules on jurisdiction; second, the question of filling the gap in jurisdiction; third, the scheme of maintaining law and order on board aircraft; fourth, the protection of persons acting in accordance with the Convention; fifth, the protection of the interests of disembarked persons; sixth, the question of hijacking of aircraft; and finally some general remarks on the objectives of the Convention. The Tokyo Convention mainly deals with general crimes such as murder, violence, robbery on board aircraft rather than aviation terrorism. The Article 11 of the Convention deals with hijacking in a simple way. As far as aviation terrorism is concerned 1970 Hague Convention and 1971 Montreal Convention cover the hijacking and sabotage respectively. The Problem of national jurisdiction over the offence and the offender was as tangled at the Hague and Montreal Convention, as under the Tokyo Convention. Under the Tokyo Convention the prime base of jurisdiction is the law of the flag (Article 3), but concurrent jurisdiction is also allowed on grounds of: territorial principle, active nationality and passive personality principle, security of the state, breach of flight rules, and exercise of jurisdiction necessary for the performance of obligations under multilateral agreements (Article 4). No Criminal jurisdiction exercised in accordance with national law is excluded [Article 3(2)]. However, Article 4 of the Hague Convention(hereafter Hague Article 4) and Article 5 of the Montreal Convention(hereafter Montreal Article 5), dealing with jurisdiction have moved a step further, inasmuch as the opening part of both paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Hague Article 4 and the Montreal Article 5 impose an obligation on all contracting states to take measures to establish jurisdiction over the offence (i.e., to ensure that their law is such that their courts will have jurisdiction to try offender in all the circumstances covered by Hague Article 4 and Montreal Article 5). The state of registration and the state where the aircraft lands with the hijacker still on board will have the most interest, and would be in the best position to prosecute him; the paragraphs 1(a) and (b) of the Hague Article 4 and paragraphs 1(b) and (c) of the Montreal Article 5 deal with it, respectively. However, paragraph 1(b) of the Hague Article 4 and paragraph 1(c) of the Montreal Article 5 do not specify if the aircraft is still under the control of the hijacker or if the hijacker has been overpowered by the aircraft commander, or if the offence has at all occurred in the airspace of the state of landing. The language of the paragraph would probably cover all these cases. The weaknesses of Hague Article 4 and Montreal Article 5 are however, patent. The Jurisdictions of the state of registration, the state of landing, the state of the lessee and the state where the offender is present, are concurrent. No priorities have been fixed despite a proposal to this effect in the Legal Committee and the Diplomatic Conference, and despite the fact that it was pointed out that the difficulty in accepting the Tokyo Convention has been the question of multiple jurisdiction, for the reason that it would be too difficult to determine the priorities. Disputes over the exercise of jurisdiction can be endemic, more so when Article 8(4) of the Hague Convention and the Montreal Convention give every state mentioned in Hague Article 4(1) and Montreal Article 5(1) the right to seek extradition of the offender. A solution to the problem should not have been given up only because it was difficult. Hague Article 4(3) and Montreal Article 5(3) provide that they do not exclude any criminal jurisdiction exercised in accordance with national law. Thus the provisions of the two Conventions create additional obligations on the state, and do not exclude those already existing under national laws. Although the two Conventions do not require a state to establish jurisdiction over, for example, hijacking or sabotage committed by its own nationals in a foreign aircraft anywhere in the world, they do not preclude any contracting state from doing so. However, it has be noted that any jurisdiction established merely under the national law would not make the offence an extraditable one under Article 8 of the Hague and Montreal Convention. As far as international aviation terrorism is concerned 1988 Montreal Protocol and 1991 Convention on Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detention are added. The former deals with airport terrorism and the latter plastic explosives. Compared to the other International Terrorism Conventions, the International Aviation Terrorism Conventions do not have clauses of the passive personality principle. If the International Aviation Terrorism Conventions need to be revised in the future, those clauses containing the passive personality principle have to be inserted for the suppression of the international aviation terrorism more effectively. Article 3 of the 1973 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons, Including Diplomatic Agents, Article 5 of the 1979 International Convention against the Taking of Hostages and Article 6 of the 1988 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation would be models that the revised International Aviation Terrorism Conventions could follow in the future.

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A Study on the Meaning and Cultural Properties Value of Rock-Go-Board from the Viewpoint of Site and Location Characteristics (입지와 장소 특성으로 본 암각바둑판의 의미와 문화재적 가치)

  • Park, Joo Sung;Rho, Jae Hyun;Sim, Woo Kyung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.172-205
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    • 2011
  • Go bears significant meanings in terms of cultural and entertaining functions in Asia Eastern such as China and Japan. Beyond the mere entertaining level, it produces philosophical and mythic discourse as well. As a part of effort to seek an identity of Korean traditional garden culture, this study traced back to find meanings of rock-go-board and taste for the arts which ancestors pursued in playing Go game, through analysis and interpretation of correlation among origin of place name, nearby scenery, carved letters and vicinal handed-down place name. At the same time, their position, shape and location types were interpreted through comprehensive research and analysis of stone-go-boards including rock-go-board. Particularly, it focused on the rock names related to Sundoism(仙道) Ideal world, fixed due to a connection between traces of Sundoism and places in a folk etymology. Series of this work is to highlight features of the immortal sceneries, one of traditional landscaping ideals, by understanding place identity and scenic features of where the rock-go-boards are carved. These works are expected to become foundation for promotion and preservation of the traditional landscaping remains. The contents of this study could be summarized as follows; First, round stone and square board for round sky and angled land, black and white color for harmony of yin and yang and 361paths for rotating sky are symbols projecting order of universe. Sayings of Gyuljungjirak(橘中之樂), Sangsansaho(商山四皓), Nangagosa(爛柯故事) formed based on the idea of eternity stand for union of sky and sun. It indicates Go game which matches life and nature spatiotemporally and elegant taste for arts pursuing beauty and leisure. Second, the stone-go-boards found through this research, are 18 in total. 3 of those(16.1%), Gangjin Weolnamsaji, Yangsan Sohanjeong and Banryongdae ones were classified into movable Seokguk and 15(83.9%) including Banghakdong were turned out to be non-movable rock-go-boards carved on natural rocks. Third, upon the result of materializing location types of rock-go-boards, 15 are mountain stream type(83.9%) and 3 are rock peak type(16.1%). Among those, the one at Sobaeksam Sinseonbong is located at the highest place(1,389m). Considering the fact that all of 15 rock-go-boards were found at mountainous areas lower than 500m, it is recognizable that where the Go-boards are the parts of the living space, not far from secular world. Fourth, there are 7 Sunjang(巡將) Go with 17 Hwajeoms(花點), which is a traditional Go board type, but their existences, numbers and shapes of Hwajeom appear variously. Based on the fact, it is recognizable that culture of making go-board had been handed down for an extended period of time. Among the studied rock-goboards, the biggest one was Muju Sasunam[$80(82)cm{\times}80(82)cm$] while the smallest one was Yangsan Sohandjeong Seokguk ($40cm{\times}40cm$). The dimension of length and breadth are both $49cm{\times}48cm$ on average, which is realistic size for actual Go play. Fifth, the biggest bed rock, an under-masonry with carved Go-board on it, was one in Muju Sasunam[$8.7m{\times}7.5m(65.25m^2)$], followed by ones in Hoengseong Chuiseok[$7.8m{\times}6.3m(49.14m^2$] and Goisan Sungukam[$6.7m{\times}5.7m(37.14m^2)$]. Meanwhile, the smallest rock-go-board was turned out to be one in Seoul Banghak-dong. There was no consistency in directions of the Go-boards, which gives a hint that geographical features and sceneries of locations were considered first and then these were carved toward an optimal direction corresponding to the conditions. Sixth, rock-go-boards were all located in valleys and peaks of mountains with breathtaking scenery. It seems closely related to ancestors' taste for arts. Particularly, rock-go-boards are apprehended as facilities related to taste for arts for having leisure in many mountains and big streams under the idea of union of sky and human as a primitive communal line. Go became a medium of hermits, which is a traditional image of Go-game, and symbol of amusement and entertainment with the idea that Go is an essence of scholar culture enabling to reach the Tao of turning back to nature. Seventh, the further ancient time going back to, the more dreamlike the Go-boards are. It is an evident for that Sundoism, which used to be unacceptable once, became more visible and realistic. Considering the high relation between rock-go-boards and Sundoism relevant names such as Sundoism peak in Danyang Sobaeksan, 4 hermits rock in Muju and Sundoism hermit rock in Jangsu, Sundoism hermit rocks and rock-go-boards are sceneries and observation spots to express a communication of worship and longing for Sundoism. Eighth, 3 elements-physical environment such as location type of the rock-go-boards, human activities concentrated on 8 sceneries and Dongcheongugok(洞天九曲) setup and relevancy to Confucian scholars, as well as 'Sangsansaho' motif and 'Nangagosa' symbolic meaning were used as interpretation tools in order to judge the place identity. Upon the result, spatial investigation is required with respect to Sunyoodongcheon(仙遊洞天) concept based on enjoyment to unify with the nature rather than Dongcheongugok concept of neo-Confucian, for Dongcheon and Dongmoon(洞門) motives carved around the rock-go-boards. Generally, places where mountain stream type rock-go-boards were formed were hermit spaces of Confucianism or Sundoism. They are considered to have compromised one other with the change of times. Particularly, in the rock-go-board at the mountain peak, sublimity-oriented advent of Sundoism is considered as a significant factor to control place identity. Ninth, including where the rock-go-boards were established, the vicinal areas are well-known as parts of Dongcheongugok and Palkyung(八景) mostly. In addition, many of Sundoism relevant expressions were discovered even in the neighboring carvings written by scholars and nobility, which means sophisticated taste based on longing for Sundoism world played a significant role in making go-board. The rock-go-board is an integration of cultural phenomena naturally managed by seclusion of scholars in the Joseon Dynasty as well as remains and essence of Korean traditional landscaping. Some rock-go-boards out of 17 discovered in South Korea, including ones in Sobaeksan Sinsunbong, Banghak-dong, Chungju Gongili, Muju Sasunam, Yangsan Eogokdong Banryongdae Seokguk, are damaged such as cracks in rocks or fainted lines by hardships of time and hand stains. Worse yet, in case of Eunyang Bangudae Jipcheongjeong board, it is very difficult to identify the shape due to being buried. Rock-go-boards are valuable sculptures in terms of cultural asset and artwork since they reflect ancestors' love for nature and longing for Sundoism world. Therefore, they should be maintained properly with right preservation method. Not only rock-boards itself but also peripheral places are excellent cultural heritages and crucial cultural assets. In addition, vicinal sceneries of where rock-goboards and pavilion spots are the representative remains of embracing prototype of Korean traditional landscaping and major parts of cultural properties.