• Title, Summary, Keyword: Precipitation

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Analysis of Precipitation Distribution in the region of Gangwon with Spatial Analysis (I): Classification of Precipitation Zones and Analysis for Seasonal and Annual Precipitation (공간분석을 이용한 강원도 지역의 강수분포 분석 (I): 강수지역 구분과 계절별 및 연평균 강수량 분석)

  • Um, Myoung-Jin;Jeong, Chang-Sam;Cho, Won-Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.103-113
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    • 2009
  • In this study, we separated the precipitation zones using the geographic location of stations and precipitation characteristics (monthly, seasonal, annual) in Gangwon province. Precipitation data of 66 weather stations (meterological office: 11 locations, auto weather system (AWS): 55 places) were used, and statistical method, K-means cluster method, was conducted for division of the precipitation regions. As the results of regional classification, the five zones of precipitation (Yongdong: 1 region, Youngseo: 4 regions) were separated. Seasonal average precipitation in spring is similar throughout Gangwon Province, seasonal average precipitation in summer has high values at Youngseo, and seasonal average precipitation in autumn and winter have high values at Youngdong. The some areas, the vicinity of Misiryeong and Daegwallyeong, happens the orographic precipitation in spatial analysis, but the orographic effects didn't occur for the whole Gangwon areas. However, to achieve more accurate results, the expansion of observatories per elevation and AWS data are demanded.

Effect of precipitation on soil respiration in a temperate broad-leaved forest

  • Jeong, Seok-Hee;Eom, Ji-Young;Park, Joo-Yeon;Chun, Jung-Hwa;Lee, Jae-Seok
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2018
  • Background: For understanding and evaluating a more realistic and accurate assessment of ecosystem carbon balance related with environmental change or difference, it is necessary to analyze the various interrelationships between soil respiration and environmental factors. However, the soil temperature is mainly used for gap filling and estimation of soil respiration (Rs) under environmental change. Under the fact that changes in precipitation patterns due to climate change are expected, the effects of soil moisture content (SMC) on soil respiration have not been well studied relative to soil temperature. In this study, we attempt to analyze relationship between precipitation and soil respiration in temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest for 2 years in Gwangneung. Results: The average soil temperature (Ts) measured at a depth of 5 cm during the full study period was $12.0^{\circ}C$. The minimum value for monthly Ts was $-0.4^{\circ}C$ in February 2015 and $2.0^{\circ}C$ in January 2016. The maximum monthly Ts was $23.6^{\circ}C$ in August in both years. In 2015, annual precipitation was 823.4 mm and it was 1003.8 mm in 2016. The amount of precipitation increased by 21.9% in 2016 compared to 2015, but in 2015, it rained for 8 days more than in 2016. In 2015, the pattern of low precipitation was continuously shown, and there was a long dry period as well as a period of concentrated precipitation in 2016. 473.7 mm of precipitation, which accounted for about 51.8% of the precipitation during study period, was concentrated during summer (June to August) in 2016. The maximum values of daily Rs in both years were observed on the day when precipitation of 20 mm or more. From this, the maximum Rs value in 2015 was $784.3mg\;CO_2\;m^{-2}\;h^{-1}$ in July when 26.8 mm of daily precipitation was measured. The maximum was $913.6mg\;CO_2\;m^{-2}\;h^{-1}$ in August in 2016, when 23.8 mm of daily precipitation was measured. Rs on a rainy day was 1.5~1.6 times higher than it without precipitation. Consequently, the annual Rs in 2016 was about 12% higher than it was in 2015. It was shown a result of a 14% increase in summer precipitation from 2015. Conclusions: In this study, it was concluded that the precipitation pattern has a great effect on soil respiration. We confirmed that short-term but intense precipitation suppressed soil respiration due to a rapid increase in soil moisture, while sustained and adequate precipitation activated Rs. In especially, it is very important role on Rs in potential activating period such as summer high temperature season. Therefore, the accuracy of the calculated values by functional equation can be improved by considering the precipitation in addition to the soil temperature applied as the main factor for long-term prediction of soil respiration. In addition to this, we believe that the accuracy can be further improved by introducing an estimation equation based on seasonal temperature and soil moisture.

On the Study of the Seasonality Precipitatio over South Korea (남한의 강수 계절성에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Hee-Jung;Kim, Hee-Jong;Yoon, Ill-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 2006
  • This study analyzes the seasonality precipitation using precipitation data from 1973 to 2001 over South Korea. The Seasonality Index and Annual variation of the Seasonality Precipitation were investigated from sixty-three observation stations. The Seasonality Precipitation means the degree of the precipitation falling intensively for some specific months. Spatially, precipitation that has a strong characteristic of regional shower is defined as seasonal precipitation. Precipitation forms are changed with various reasons and mainly the sporadic and local shower precipitation after rain spell in summer. Especially there appears a tendency that this kind of precipitation is sharply increasing in 1990's. Seasonality Index is used as a method to understand seasonal precipitation. If the yearly rainfall is concentrated for some specific months, Seasonality Index is growing gradually. It is confirmed that there is a tendency that all the from sixty-two observation stations Seasonality Index. While Seasonality Index over South of Korea concentrated from June to August because of the summer rain spell in the past ($1973{\sim}1982$), there appears to be a tendency that it concentrated from August and September since the mid 1990's. From the analysis of seasonal precipitation intensity distribution, most of southern Korea is under seasonality precipitation intensity 4. The seasonality precipitation intensity classification results are as follow: most of the observation stations were on a scale intensity of 3 and 4 in the past but currently reads seasonality precipitation intensities of 5 and 6.

Comparison of Chemical Characteristics in Wet and Bulk Precipitation Collected in the Iksan Area (익산지역에서 자동 및 수동채취방식에 따른 강수의 화학적 특성 비교)

  • 강공언
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.381-396
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    • 2004
  • In order to understand the precipitation acidity and chemical composition of ion species in Iksan area as well as to know the difference of chemical characteristics in precipitation samples from the viewpoint of precipitation sampling method, precipitation samples were collected by wet-only automatic precipitation sampler and bulk manual precipitation sampler in Iksan, from March 2003 to August 2003. The mean pH of precipitation was 5.0. There was a little significant difference in the mean value of pH between automatic and manual sampler. However, pH values of some precipitation samples were lower in automatic sampler than in manual sampler, especially in case of precipitation samples with small rainfall for March 2003. The mean concentrations of each ions in precipitation were generally a little higher in precipitation samples collected by the manual sampler than in those collected by the automatic sampler because of accumulation of dry deposition on the surface of glass funnel installed at the manual sampler during the sampling period or no rainfall. Dominant species determining the acidity of precipitation, were N $H_4$$^{[-10]}$ and nss-C $a^{2+}$ for cations and nss-S $O_4$$^{2-}$ and N $O_3$$^{[-10]}$ for anions. The mean concentration of N $H_4$$^{+}$ and nss-C $a^{2+}$ were 31 $\mu$eq/L and 9 $\mu$eq/L for the automatic sampler and 40 ueq/L and 16 ueq/L for the manual sampler, respectively. In addition, nss-S $O_4$$^{2-}$ and N $O_3$$^{[-10]}$ were 27 $\mu$eq/L and 13 $\mu$eq/L for the automatic sampler and 32 $\mu$eq/L and 17 $\mu$eq/L for the manual sampler, respectively. Although the concentrations of the acidifying ions of nss-S $O_4$$^{2-}$ and N $O_3$$^{[-10]}$ were about 3 times higher than those for foreign pristine sites, precipitation acidity were estimated to be natural due to the neutralization reaction of the alkaline species of N $H_4$$^{+}$ and nss-C $a^{2+}$ with its higher concentrations. Considering the ratios of nss-S $O_4$$^{2-}$/N $O_4$$^{[-10]}$ nss-S $O_4$$^{2-}$, it was found that ammonium sulphate was dominant in Iksan precipitation. The major non-sea salt ions were maximum concentrations for March, but decreased with increasing of precipitation amount.on amount.

Climatological Features of Summer Precipitation in Korea (우리나라 여름철 강수량의 기후적 분포 특성)

  • Jo, Ha-Man;Choe, Yeong-Jin;Gwon, Hyo-Jeong
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.247-256
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    • 1997
  • Some climatological features of summer precipitation in Korea were studyed using the precipitation data of 15 stations of Korea Meteorological Administration where more than 30 years data since 1961 are available. The study included statistical analysis of precipitation by climatological normal values, and comparison of inter-annual variation of annual precipitation, summer precipitation and precipitation during the Changma. The relationships between them were also analyzed. It was revealed that, in Korea, more than half of annual precipitation was concentrated in summer season (June to August), and it was usually influenced by the Changma. The ratio of summer and Changma precipitation to the annual precipitation showed that effect of Changma was bigger in the central inland area, while comparatively smaller in the east coastal area and Cheju Island due to topographical effects. It was also shown that the fluctuation of the annual precipitation was less variable than those of summer and Changma precipitations. Thus, it was suggested that understanding the variation features of summer precipitation associated with monsoon activities was very important to figure out the change of annual precipitation for the national water resources planning.

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Estimating the Total Precipitation Amount with Simulated Precipitation for Ungauged Stations in Jeju Island (미계측 관측 강수 자료 생성을 통한 제주도 지역의 수문총량 추정)

  • Kim, Nam-Won;Um, Myoung-Jin;Chung, Il-Moon;Heo, Jun-Haeng
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.45 no.9
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    • pp.875-885
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the total precipitation amount in Jeju Island was estimated with the simulated precipitation for ungauged stations missing precipitation data using the spatial precipitation analysis. The missing data were generated through the modified multiple linear regression in this study, and the analysis of spatial precipitation was conducted with the PRISM(Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slope Model). The generated data with modified multiple linear regression model have similar pattern with original data. Thus, the model in this study shows good applicability to estimate the missing data. The difference of annual average precipitation between Case 1 (original data) and Case 2 (modified data) appears very small ratio which is about 1.5%. However, the difference of annual average precipitation according to elevation shows the large ratio up to 37.4%. As the results, the method of estimating missing data in this study would be useful to calculate the total precipitation amount at the low station density area and the places with the high spatial variation of precipitation.

Study on the Tendency of Acid Rain in Korea (우리나라에서의 산성우 연구동향에 관하여)

  • Lee, Joon-Bae;Bae, Jeong-O
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 1993
  • This reviews investigate to compare acid precipitation that caused by air pollutant. The ecosystem investigated the effect of acid precipitation. The study of foreign acid precipitation and acid precipitation of Korea investigated and injury of acid precipitation is prevented and consider a plan that it is presented.

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Optimization of the Lowry Method of Protein Precipitation from the H. influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine Using Deoxycholic Acid and Hydrochloric Acid

  • Kim, Hyun-Sung;Kim, Sang-Joon;Kim, Hui-Jung;Kim, Han-Uk;Ahn, Sang-Joem;Hur, Byung-Ki
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2006
  • The Lowry method was used in this study to measure protein in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines (polyribosylibitol phosphate-tetanus toxoid; PRP-TT) using deoxycholic acid (DOC) to induce protein precipitation. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) did not induce precipitation adequately from the Hib conjugate bulk and the freeze-dried Hib conjugate product. Its yield was approximately 50%. The matrix structure of Hib conjugate inhibits precipitation by TCA. Although the Lowry method can be carried out without precipitation in Hib conjugate bulk when no residual impurities (adipic acid dihydrazide [ADH], 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propyl) carbodiimide-HCI [EDAC], phenol and cyanogens bromide [CNBr], etc.) are present, it cannot be used for Hib conjugate products that contain sucrose 8.5%, because 8.5% concentration of sucrose enhanced the protein concentration. DOC- and HCl-induced precipitation is an alternative method for evaluating the protein content of the Hib conjugate bulk and the Hib conjugate product. The precipitation was optimal with a final concentrate of 0.1% for DOC at $4^{\circ}C$ and pH 2. This Lowry method, using DOC/HCI precipitation to induce protein precipitation, was confirmed a consistent, reproducible, and valid test for proteins in Hib conjugate bulk and its freeze-dried product.

Estimation of Atmospheric Mercury Wet-deposition to Lake So-yang (대기 중 수은의 습식 침적 평가: 소양호를 중심으로)

  • Ahn, Myung-Chan;Han, Young-Ji
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.693-703
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    • 2008
  • The important source of the mercury in water-column is the influx of atmosphere mercury, via dry and wet deposition. In this study, wet deposition of mercury was estimated to be $14.56{\mu}g/m^2$ during 15 months at the Lake Soyang, which is a little higher than those observed in the several rural US Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) sites with similar precipitation depth. The mercury concentration in precipitation did not show a positive correlation with atmospheric RGM (reactive gaseous mercury) concentration, while maintaining good correlation with atmospheric $PM_{2.5}$ at Soyang Dam. This result suggests that the contribution of particulate Hg to the total Hg wet deposition should be more significant than that of RGM. In this study, both precipitation depth and precipitation type affected the amount of wet deposition and the concurrent mercury levels in precipitation. There was generally an inverse relationship between precipitation depth and Hg concentration in precipitation. Precipitation type was another factor that exerted controls on the Hg concentration in precipitation. As a result, the highest concentration of Hg was observed in snow, followed by in mixture (snow+rain) and in rain.

Estimation of Precipitation Recharge in the Pyungchang River Basin Using SCS-CN Method (SCS-CN방법을 이용한 평창강 유역의 강수 함양량 선정)

  • Lee Seung Hyun;Bae Sang Keun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1033-1039
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    • 2004
  • The methodology developed by Soil Conservation Service for determination of runoff value from precipitation is applied to estimate the precipitation recharge in the Pyungchang river basin. Two small areas of the basin are selected for this study. The CN values are determined by considering the type of soil, soil cover and land use with the digital map of 1:25,000. Forest covers more than $94{\%}$ of the study area.. The CN values for the study area vary between 47 in the forest area and 94 in the bare soil under AMC 2 condition. The precipitation recharge rate is calculated for the year when the precipitation data is available since 1990. To obtain the infiltration rate, the index of CN and five day antecedent moisture conditions are applied to each precipitation event during the study period. As a result of estimation, the value of precipitation recharge ratio in the study area vary between $15.2{\%}\;and\;35.7{\%}$ for the total precipitation of the year. The average annual precipitation recharge rate is $26.4{\%}\;and\;26.8{\%}$, meaning 377.9mm/year and 397.5mm/year in each basin.