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A Monitoring for the Management of Microbiological Hazard in Rice-cake by Climate Change (기후변화에 따른 떡류의 미생물학적 위해관리를 위한 권역별 모니터링)

  • Choi, Song-Yi;Jeong, Se-Hee;Jeong, Myung-Seop;Park, Ki-Hwan;Jeong, Young-Gil;Cho, Joon-Il;Lee, Soon-Ho;Hwang, In-Gyun;Bahk, Gyung-Jin;Oh, Deog-Hwan;Chun, Hyang-Sook;Ha, Sang-Do
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.301-305
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the microbiological contamination levels in rice cakes and rice flour due to climate change in three areas classified to their temperature and precipitation. We investigated the contamination levels of total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens of rice flour and 3 rice cakes such as Garaetteok, Sirutteok and Gyeongdan. Contamination levels of total aerobic bacteria in rice flour were 4.9 log CFU/g. In a total of 70 rice flour, yeasts & molds and coliforms were detected in 42 and 52 samples at the levels of 43 CFU/g and 1.29 log CFU/g, respectively. S. aureus were detected in only 1 rice flour (1.66 log CFU/g) out of 70. In an investigation of contamination levels in rice cakes, the population of total aerobic bacteria were highest in Gyeongdan (5.18 log CFU/g) and coliforms were highest in Gareattock (2.93 log CFU/g). There was no detection of E. coli and B. cereus except for only 1 Gareattock (1.20 log CFU/g). There were no differences of contamination levels among the three areas. If constant monitoring of rice cakes and rice flour is conducted on the basis of this study, it is expected to be able to analyze the change of contamination levels in rice cakes and rice flour due to climate change.

Temporal and Spatial Variability of Phytoplankton Communities in the Nakdong River Estuary and Coastal Area, 2011-2012 (2011-2012년 낙동강 하구 및 연안역에서 식물플랑크톤 군집의 시·공간적 변화)

  • Chung, Mi Hee;Youn, Seok-Hyun
    • The Sea
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.214-226
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    • 2013
  • To understand the changing patterns in phytoplankton communities, we conducted 12 surveys along the Nakdong River, its estuary, and adjacent coastal areas between January 2011 and October 2012 (during the period of barrage construction and sediment dredging). Monthly precipitation ranged from 0 to 502 mm during the survey period, and salinity ranged between 0.1 psu and 0.3 psu in the Nakdong River, regardless of the depth, indicating no seawater influence, while salinity showed large seasonal fluctuations in the estuarine and coastal station, ranging from 0.1 psu to 34.8 psu. A total of 402 phytoplankton species were identified, 178 species from the river and 331 species from the estuary and coastal areas. Phytoplankton standing crop increased in 2012 compared to that in 2011, and was found to be highest in the river, followed by the estuary and coastal areas. Among the top 20 species in frequency of occurrence and dominance, Stephanodiscus spp., Aulacoseira granulata, and Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. were important species along the river-estuary-coastal areas. Diatoms were the major taxonomic group inhabiting the Nakdong river-estuary-coastal areas. A comparison of seasonal dominant phytoplankton species revealed a slight decrease over the years, from 13 species in 2011 to 10 species in 2012. However, no significant difference was found in the diversity of phytoplankton species between the two survey years, although lightly greater diversity was observed in the coastal areas than in the river and estuary. Cluster analysis with community composition data revealed that the community structure varied significantly in 2011 depending on the time of survey, while in 2012, it hardly showed any variation and was simpler. An increase in the phytoplankton standing crop, fewer dominant species, and simpler community structure in 2012 compared to those in 2011 are probably due to the rapid environmental changes along the Nakdong River. To investigate these ecological relationships, it is necessary to conduct further studies focusing on integrated analyses of biocenosis, including phytoplankton with respect to the changes in nutrient distribution, variation of freshwater discharge, and effect area of freshwater in the Nakdong estuary and adjacent coastal areas.

Vulnerability Assessment of Cultivation Facility by Abnormal Weather of Climate Change (이상기후에 의한 재배시설의 취약성 평가)

  • Yoon, Seong-Tak;Lee, Yong-Ho;Hong, Sun-Hee;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Na, Young-Eun;Oh, Young-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.264-272
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    • 2013
  • Climate changes have caused not only changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events, but also temperature and precipitation. The damages on agricultural production system will be increased by heavy rainfall and snow. In this study we assessed vulnerability of crop cultivation facility and animal husbandry facility by heavy rain in 232 agricultural districts. The climate data of 2000 years were used for vulnerability analysis on present status and the data derived from A1B scenario were used for the assessment in the years of 2020, 2050 and 2100, respectively. Vulnerability of local districts was evaluated by three indices such as climate exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, and each index was determined from selected alternative variables. Collected data were normalized and then multiplied by weight value that was elicited in delphi investigation. Jeonla-do and Gangwon-do showed higher climate exposures than the other provinces. The higher sensitivity to abnormal weather was observed from the regions that have large-scale cultivation facility complex compared to the other regions and vulnerability to abnormal weather also was higher at these provinces. In the projected estimation based on the SRES A1B, the vulnerability of controlled agricultural facility in Korea totally increased, especially was dramatic between 2000's and 2020 year.

Small-Scale Pond Effects on Reducing Pollutants Load from a Paddy Field (논의 양분유출 저감을 위한 저류지 효과)

  • Kim, Min-Kyeong;Kwon, Soon-Ik;Jung, Goo-Bok;Hong, Seong-Chang;Chae, Mi-Jin;Yun, Sun-Gang;So, Kyu-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.355-358
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    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: Water-born pollution loads by agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution are expected to become intensified due to ongoing precipitation change. Therefore, it is essential to develop a best management practice (BMP) that is suitable to agricultural environments in Korea. This study aimed to develop an environmental-friendly BMP to reduce NPS pollution load by agricultural activities. An eco-friendly way, small drainage pond, was suggested in this study to avoid direct drainage of agricultural runoffs and eventually reduce the amount of pollutants discharged into the surrounding aqua-environment. METHODS AND RESULTS: A small pond ($12m^2$) was constructed at the corner of a rice paddy field ($1,715m^2$) located in Suwon, Korea. Water was allowed to drain only via a small drainage pond. Sampling was repeatedly made at two locations, one from an entrance and the other from an exit of a pond, during the rice cultivation period (May to October, 2012). Generally, sampling was made only when runoff water drained through a pond, such as during and/or after rain (irrigation). The water quality analysis showed that all quality parameters (SS, $COD_{Mn}$, T-N, and T-P) were improved as water passed through the pond. The amount of runoff water was reduced by 96~100%. Suspended solids and COD concentrations was reduced by 79.3% and 45.6%, respectively. In case of T-N and T-P concentrations, the reduction rates were 52.2% and 60.5%, respectively and the amount of T-N and T-P were reduced by 16.3~73.0% and 15.4~70.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): Our data implies that agricultural NPS pollution from rice paddy fields can be effectively managed when an appropriate drainage water management practice is imposed. In this paper, it was suggested that an installation of a small drainage pond can be effective to prevent not only the nutrient loss from rice fields but also pollutant discharge to surrounding water environments.

Comparison of Nutrient Composition of Yacon Germplasm (야콘 유전자원의 영양성분 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Su Jeong;Jin, Yong Ik;Nam, Jeong Hwan;Hong, Su Young;Sohn, Whang Bae;Kwon, Oh Kuen;Chang, Dong Chil;Cho, Hyun Mook;Jeong, Jin Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study is to provide the basic data for yacon [Samallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson] in dietary food. The nutritional compositons, such as protein, ash, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, vitamin and fructooligosaccharide, were analyzed for 4 yacon germplasm lines. Yacon has low calories with only 46~56 kcal/100 g. The contents of water, fat, ash, protein, carbohydrate and dietary fiber were ranged 85.9~86.8%, 0.1~0.2%, 0.2~0.3%, 0.5~0.7%, 12.2~13.1% and 1.05~1.14%, respectively. The iodine-starch test did not show any color or precipitation reaction, which indicates that yacon has no starch content. However, in the absence of starch, yacon is rich in fluctooligosaccharide, which is between 9.6~11.1%. Maltose is present in the larger amount, followed by sucrose, glucose, and fructose in terms of free sugars. The analysis of minerals revealed that yacon contains potassium in the larger amount of 141~176 mg/100 g F.W., followed by magnesium at 8.2~10.6 mg, calcium, and sodium representing the least present mineral. Yacon proved to have a total of 17 types of amino acids, which are between 404.0~581.8 mg per 100 g of yacon. Glutamic acid, the main sweetening component, is present in the large amount of 94.0~182.2 mg/100 g F.W., followed by aspartic acid, arginine, and alanine. The proportion of the essential amino acid was 24.8~33.6%. Results of analysis also showed that yacon contains 0.001~0.024 mg, 0.03~0.11 mg, 0.02~0.3 mg, 0.3~0.4 mg and 14.1~20.6 mg of ${\beta}$-carotene, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and ascorbic acid, respectively. It is also likely to be highly used as functional food material in the future because it is abundant in both fluctooligosaccharide and antioxidants which are important functional components.

CO2 Decomposition Characteristics of Activated(Fe1-xMnx)3O4-δ and (Fe1-xCox)3O4-δ (활성화된(Fe1-xMnx)3O4-δ과 (Fe1-xCox)3O4-δ의 이산화탄소 분해 특성)

  • Park, Won-Shik;Oh, Kyoung-Hwan;Rhee, Sang-In;Suhr, Dong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.219-226
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    • 2013
  • Activated magnetite ($Fe_3O_{4-{\delta}}$) has the capability of decomposing $CO_2$ proportional to the ${\delta}$-value at comparatively low temperature of $300^{\circ}C$. To enhance the $CO_2$ decomposition capability of $Fe_3O_{4-{\delta}}$, $(Fe_{1-x}Co_x)_3O_{4-{\delta}}$ and $(Fe_{1-x}Mn_x)_3O_{4-{\delta}}$ were synthesized and then reacted with $CO_2$. $Fe_{1-x}Co_xC_2O_4{\cdot}2H_2O$ powders having Fe to Co mixing ratios of 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, and 5:5 were synthesized by co-precipitation of $FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ and $CoSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ solutions with a $(NH_4)_2C_2O_4{\cdot}H_2O$ solution. The same method was used to synthesize $Fe_{1-x}Mn_xC_2O_4{\cdot}2H_2O$ powders having Fe to Mn mixing ratios of 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5 with a $MnSO_4{\cdot}4H_2O$ solution. The thermal decomposition of synthesized $Fe_{1-x}Co_xC_2O_4{\cdot}2H_2O$ and $Fe_{1-x}Mn_xC_2O_4{\cdot}2H_2O$ was analyzed in an Ar atmosphere with TG/DTA. The synthesized powders were heat-treated for 3 hours in an Ar atmosphere at $450^{\circ}C$ to produce activated powders of $(Fe_{1-x}Co_x)_3O_{4-{\delta}}$ and $(Fe_{1-x}Mn_x)_3O_{4-{\delta}}$. The activated powders were reacted with a mixed gas (Ar : 85 %, $CO_2$ : 15 %) at $300^{\circ}C$ for 12 hours. The exhaust gas was analyzed for $CO_2$ with a $CO_2$ gas analyzer. The decomposition of $CO_2$ was estimated by measuring $CO_2$ content in the exhaust gas after the reaction with $CO_2$. For $(Fe_{1-x}Mn_x)_3O_{4-{\delta}}$, the amount of $Mn^{2+}$ oxidized to $Mn^{3+}$ increased as x increased. The ${\delta}$ value and $CO_2$ decomposition efficiency decreased as x increased. When the ${\delta}$ value was below 0.641, $CO_2$ was not decomposed. For $(Fe_{1-x}Co_x)_3O_{4-{\delta}}$, the ${\delta}$ value and $CO_2$ decomposition efficiency increased as x increased. At a ${\delta}$ value of 0.857, an active state was maintained even after 12 hours of reaction and the amount of decomposed $CO_2$ was $52.844cm^3$ per 1 g of $(Fe_{0.5}Co_{0.5})_3O_{4-{\delta}}$.

Future Changes in Global Terrestrial Carbon Cycle under RCP Scenarios (RCP 시나리오에 따른 미래 전지구 육상탄소순환 변화 전망)

  • Lee, Cheol;Boo, Kyung-On;Hong, Jinkyu;Seong, Hyunmin;Heo, Tae-kyung;Seol, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Johan;Cho, ChunHo
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.303-315
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    • 2014
  • Terrestrial ecosystem plays the important role as carbon sink in the global carbon cycle. Understanding of interactions of terrestrial carbon cycle with climate is important for better prediction of future climate change. In this paper, terrestrial carbon cycle is investigated by Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2, Carbon Cycle (HadGEM2-CC) that considers vegetation dynamics and an interactive carbon cycle with climate. The simulation for future projection is based on the three (8.5/4.5/2.6) representative concentration pathways (RCPs) from 2006 to 2100 and compared with historical land carbon uptake from 1979 to 2005. Projected changes in ecological features such as production, respiration, net ecosystem exchange and climate condition show similar pattern in three RCPs, while the response amplitude in each RCPs are different. For all RCP scenarios, temperature and precipitation increase with rising of the atmospheric $CO_2$. Such climate conditions are favorable for vegetation growth and extension, causing future increase of terrestrial carbon uptakes in all RCPs. At the end of 21st century, the global average of gross and net primary productions and respiration increase in all RCPs and terrestrial ecosystem remains as carbon sink. This enhancement of land $CO_2$ uptake is attributed by the vegetated area expansion, increasing LAI, and early onset of growing season. After mid-21st century, temperature rising leads to excessive increase of soil respiration than net primary production and thus the terrestrial carbon uptake begins to fall since that time. Regionally the NEE average value of East-Asia ($90^{\circ}E-140^{\circ}E$, $20^{\circ}N{\sim}60^{\circ}N$) area is bigger than that of the same latitude band. In the end-$21^{st}$ the NEE mean values in East-Asia area are $-2.09PgC\;yr^{-1}$, $-1.12PgC\;yr^{-1}$, $-0.47PgC\;yr^{-1}$ and zonal mean NEEs of the same latitude region are $-1.12PgC\;yr^{-1}$, $-0.55PgC\;yr^{-1}$, $-0.17PgC\;yr^{-1}$ for RCP 8.5, 4.5, 2.6.

Comparison of Yield and Quality Characteristics on Mid-Late Maturing Rice Cultivars in Major Cultivation Areas of Gangwon Province (강원도 주요 농업지대별 중만생종 벼 품종의 쌀 수량 및 품질특성 비교)

  • Jeong, Jeong-Su;Goh, Byeong-Dae;Ham, Jin-Kwan;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Yang, Un-Ho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.60 no.4
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    • pp.421-430
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    • 2015
  • Rural Development Administration has recently developed mid-late maturing rice cultivars with high quality. This study was conducted to select suitable mid-late maturing rice cultivar in major cultivation areas of Gangwon Province among domestic breeding cultivars for 2 years from 2013 to 2014. The average air temperature during the experiment in 2013 and 2014 was higher $0.6{\sim}1.1^{\circ}C$ in Chuncheon, $1.0{\sim}1.3^{\circ}C$ in Gangreung, and $0.1{\sim}0.7^{\circ}C$ in Cheolwon than normal year. Precipitation in ripening period was higher 52.5 mm in 2013, but lower 176.4 mm in 2014 than normal year in Chuncheon, lower 103.1 mm in 2013 and higher 42.9 mm in 2014 in Gangreung, lower 225.9~322.7 mm in Cheolwon. Duration of sunshine in ripening period was higher 142 hours in Chuncheon, 108 hours in Gangreung, and 94 hours in Cheolwon than normal year in 2013, higher 20~21 hours in Chuncheon and Gangreung, and 82 hours in Cheolwon than normal year in 2014. Milled rice yield of 'Samgwangbyeo' and 'Daebobyeo' was 594 kg per 10a, and 578 kg for 'Jinsumibyeo' in Chuncheon in plain area. For Gangreung in east coastal area, the yield of 'Daebobyeo' was 555 kg per 10a, 'Hopumbyeo' was 554 kg, and 'Chilbobyeo' was 546 kg. For Cheolwon in mid-mountainous area, the yield was 504 kg per 10a for 'Daebobyeo' and 489 kg for 'Haiamibyeo'. But there was no difference in milled rice yield among cultivars tested in the study at each area. Head rice ratio of 'Haiamibyeo', 'Jinsumibyeo', and 'Mipumbyeo' in Chuncheon was 94.2~95.6% higher than the other cultivars. In Gangreung head rice ratio of 'Hopumbyeo', 'Haiamibyeo', and 'Samgwangbyeo' were 85.2~88.3% but there was no difference among cultivars except 'Gopumbyeo' and broken rice ratio of 'Haiamibyeo', 'Samgwangbyeo', and 'Mipumbyeo' were low as 7.5~8.5% and palatability of 'Mipumbyeo' was higher than the other cultivars. Head rice ratio of 'Daebobyeo' was the highest as 89.2% and there was no difference in broken and chalky rice ratio and palatability among cultivars in Cheolwon. Considering rice yield and quality in major cultivation areas of Gangwon Province, suitable mid-late maturing rice cultivars were 'Samgwangbyeo', 'Haiamibyeo', and 'Jinsumibyeo' in Chuncheon, 'Daebobyeo' and 'Chilbobyeo' in Gangreung, and 'Daebobyeo' and 'Haiamibyeo' in Cheolwon. The results obtained in the study imply that the selected cultivars with high yield and quality and suitability to Chuncheon, Gangreung, and Cheolwon, respectively could be recommended to rice cultivating farmers in the regions with high priority.

Developing Korean Forest Fire Occurrence Probability Model Reflecting Climate Change in the Spring of 2000s (2000년대 기후변화를 반영한 봄철 산불발생확률모형 개발)

  • Won, Myoungsoo;Yoon, Sukhee;Jang, Keunchang
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.199-207
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to develop a forest fire occurrence model using meteorological characteristics for practical forecasting of forest fire danger rate by reflecting the climate change for the time period of 2000yrs. Forest fire in South Korea is highly influenced by humidity, wind speed, temperature, and precipitation. To effectively forecast forest fire occurrence, we developed a forest fire danger rating model using weather factors associated with forest fire in 2000yrs. Forest fire occurrence patterns were investigated statistically to develop a forest fire danger rating index using times series weather data sets collected from 76 meteorological observation centers. The data sets were used for 11 years from 2000 to 2010. Development of the national forest fire occurrence probability model used a logistic regression analysis with forest fire occurrence data and meteorological variables. Nine probability models for individual nine provinces including Jeju Island have been developed. The results of the statistical analysis show that the logistic models (p<0.05) strongly depends on the effective and relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and rainfall. The results of verification showed that the probability of randomly selected fires ranges from 0.687 to 0.981, which represent a relatively high accuracy of the developed model. These findings may be beneficial to the policy makers in South Korea for the prevention of forest fires.

Preparation of Birnessite (δ-MnO2) from Acid Leaching Solution of Spent Alkaline Manganese Batteries and Removals of 1-naphthol (폐 알칼리망간전지의 산 침출액으로부터 버네사이트(δ-MnO2)의 제조 및 1-naphthol 제거)

  • Eom, Won-Suk;Lee, Han-Saem;Rhee, Dong-Seok;Shin, Hyun-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.38 no.11
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    • pp.603-610
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    • 2016
  • This work studies the synthesis of birnessite (${\delta}-MnO_2$), a catalyst of oxidative-coupling reactions, from the powder of spent alkaline manganese batteries (SABP, <8 mesh) and evaluate its reactivity for 1-naphthol (1-NP) removals. Manganese oxides using commercial reagents ($MnSO_4$, $MnCl_2$) and the acid birnessite (A-Bir) by McKenzie method were also synthesized, and their crystallinity and reactivity for 1-NP were compared with one another. 96% Mn and 98% Zn were extracted from SABP by acid leaching at the condition of solid/liquid (S/L) ratio 1:10 in $1.0M\;H_2SO_4+10.5%\;H_2O_2$ at $60^{\circ}C$. From the acid leaching solution, 69% (at pH 8) and 94.3% (pH>13) of Mn were separated by hydroxide precipitation. Optimal OH/Mn mixing ratio (mol/mol) for the manganese oxide (MO) synthesis by alkaline (NaOH) hydrothermal techniques was 6.0. Under this condition, the best 1-NP removal efficiency was observed and XRD analysis confirmed that the MOs are corresponding to birnessite. Kinetic constants (k, at pH 6) for the 1-NP removals of the birnessites obtained from Mn recovered at pH 8 (${Mn^{2+}}_{(aq)}$) and pH>13 ($Mn(OH)_{2(s)}$) are 0.112 and $0.106min^{-1}$, respectively, which are similar to that from $MnSO_4$ reagent ($0.117min^{-1}$). The results indicated that the birnessite prepared from the SABP as a raw material could be used as an oxidative-coupling catalyst for removals of trace phenolic compounds in soil and water, and propose the recycle scheme of SAB for the birnessite synthesis.