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A Study on the Legal Issues Arising from Airline Lease Agreements and the Current Status on Private Jet Lease Agreements (항공기(航空機) Lease계약(契約)의 법적(法的) 문제와 Private Jet(자가(自家) 항공기(航空機)) Lease계약(契約)의 현황에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Nam, You-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.52-61
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    • 2009
  • In Korea, there is great lack in jet lease agreements compared to many other countries. Due to such scarcity in numbers of jet lease agreements, problems have never truly surfaced and legal foundation dealing with such issues have not yet been formulated. However, as the globalization is making the world smaller and smaller, the demand for jets will grow. As the Korean aviation industry is expanding tremendously, although very preliminary at this time, the interest and actual execution on private jet lease agreements will grow. The prediction of increase in the private jet ownership is causing the lease industry to be nervous and may require particular preparatory foundation works. Particularly, legal analysis and detailed review maybe necessary to set a precedent with will serve as the grounded rule in the future. It is notable that Vietnam, a country which is believed have a less developed aviation industry than Korea, had already established a specialized jet leasing company, VALC in 2007. Also, when leasing an airplane from a foreign financial institution, it is possible to obtain a government issued guarantee. Therefore, it is urgent for Korea to prepare the legal foundation for the future demands in aviation leasing, as well as private jet leases which in turn would promote national wealth and further develop the financial industry.

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Analytical Study for the Safety Enhancement of the Bird Strike to Small Aircraft using a Crushable Foam (Crushable Foam을 이용한 소형항공기 조류충돌 안전성 향상에 관한 해석적 연구)

  • Park, Ill-Kyung;Choi, Ik-Hyun;Ahn, Seok-Min;Lee, Sang-Jong;Yeom, Chan-Hong
    • Aerospace Engineering and Technology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2008
  • The Bird strike to small aircraft has not been an issue because of it's low speed and usage as a private aircraft. So, the compliance of the bird strike regulation is limited to large fixed-wing aircraft such as the commuter category in FAR Part 23 and the civil aircraft in FAR Part 25, generally. However, the forecast of dramatic increasing of VLJ(Very Light Jet) and (light time of general aviation due to Air-taxi for the point to point transportation, would rise up the need of bird strike regulations and a safety enhancement in normal and utility categorized aircraft. In this study, the safety enhancement concept using a crushable foam for the bird strike to small aircraft wing leading edge, and the evaluation about the safety of the bird strike to small aircraft are proposed using the explicit finite element analysis.

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Analytical Study for the Safety of the Bird Strike to the Small Aircraft Having a Composite Wing (복합재 주익을 갖는 소형항공기 조류충돌 시 안전성에 관한 해석적 연구)

  • Park, Ill-Kyung;Kim, Seung-Jun;Choe, Ik-Hyun;An, Seok-Min;Yeo, Chan-Hong
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 2010
  • The bird strike to small aircraft has not been an issue because of its low speed and usage as a private aircraft. So, the compliance of the bird strike regulation is limited to large fixed-wing aircraft such as the commuter category in FAR Part 23 and the civil aircraft in FAR Part 25, generally. However, the forecast of dramatic increasing of VLJ(Very Light Jet), the usage of a composite material for an aircraft structure and flight time of general aviation due to Air-taxi for the point to point transportation, would rise up the need of bird strike regulations and a safety enhancement in normal and utility categorized aircraft. In this study, the safety of bird strike to small aircraft wing leading edge made of a metal and a composite material were compared using the explicit finite element analysis.

The Profile of Milling Plants in Korea (우리나라 양곡가공공장의 현황분석)

  • 정창주;금동혁;강화석
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.47-63
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    • 1978
  • This study was conducted to obtain a basic information necessary to assess present rice milling technology in Korea The profiles for milling plants was analyzed by survey work.For the private custom-work mills, which process about 80 percent of domestic rice consumption ,their actual milling test for the identical samples as used for filed mills was conducted. Two rice varieties Japonica and Tongil-type were associated with the experiments. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Analyses for private custom-work mills showed their general aspects as; about 91 percent of the mills belonged to an individual owner ship ; more than 93 percent of the mills was established earlier than 1950 ; about 80 percent of the mills was powered with electric motor; mills having less than two employees were about 75 percent; about 45 percent of the mills provided for warehouse in storing customers cereal grains. 2. The polishers installed in 1,255mills within the surveyed area (7 counties) have been supplied by 44 different domestic manufacturers ;in but about 60 percent of which was supplied by 6major manufacturers. The polishers could be classified into two categories in terms of principles of their polishing actions ;jet-pearler and friction types. About 51 percent of the mills was equipped with the former which has been recognized as giving greater milling recovery than the friction types. 3. Reason for owners of private mills to supplement new machines was due mainly to pgrading their mills to meet the requirements that established by the Government. However, about 60 percent of the mill owners intended to replace with new pearler by their own needs to meet with new high yielding varieties. 4. Processing systems of each previate rice mills surveyed could be classified into three categories, depending upon whether the systems posessed such components as precleaner and paddy separator or not. Only 36.7 percent of mills was installed with both precleanr ad paddy seperrator, 5.0 percent of mills did have neither percleaner nor paddy seperator, and rest of them equipped only one of the two. Hence,it is needed for about 63% of rice miils to be supplemented with these basic facilities to meet with the requirements for the standaized system. 5. Actual milling capacity measured at each field rice mills was shown a wide variation, having range from about 190 to 1,210 kg/hr. The percentages of mills classified according to daily milling capacity based on this hourly capacity were 24.3% for the capacity less than 3 M/T a day; 20.0% for 3-4 M/T; 15.6% for 4-5 M/T; 6.7% for 5-6 M/T; 22.3% for 6-7 M/T; and 11.0% for more than 7 M/T a day. 6. Actual amount of rice processed was about 310 M/T a year in average. About 42% of total milled rice was processed during October to Decembear, which formed a peak demand period for rice mills. The amount of rice milled during January to May was relatively small, but it had still a large amount compared to that during June to September. 7. Utilization rate of milling facility, i. e., percentage of the actual amount of milled rice to the capacity of rice mills, was about 18% on the year round average, about 41% in the peak demand season, and about 10% during June to September. Average number of operating days for mills surveyed was about 250 days a year, and about 21 days a month. 8. Moisture contents of paddy at the time of field mill tests were ranged 14.5% to 19.5% for both Japonica and Tong-i] varieties, majority of paddy grains having moisture level much higher than 1530. To aviod potential reduction of milling recovery while milling and deterioration of milled rice while storage due to these high grain mJisture contents, it may be very important for farmers holding rice to dry by an artificial drying method. 9. Milling recovery of JapJnica varieties in rice mills was 75.0% in average and it was widely ranged from 69.0% to 78.0 % according to mills. Potential increase in milJing recovery of Japonica variety with improvement of mill facilities was estimated to about 1.9%. On the other hand, milling recovery of Tong-il varieties in the field mill tests was 69.8% in average and it ranged from 62% to 77 %, which is much wider than that of Japonica varieties. It is noticed that the average milling recovery of Tong-il variety of 69.8% was much less than that of the Japonica-type. It was estimated th3.t up to about 5.0% of milling recovery for Tong-il variety could be improved by improving the present lo'.ver graded milling technology. 10. Head rice recoveries, as a factor of representing the quality of commercial goods, of Japonica and Tong-il varieties were 65.9% and 53.8% in average, and they were widely ranged from 52% to 73% and from 44% to 65% , respectively. It was assessed that head rice recovery of Japonica varieties can be improved up 3.3% and that of Tong-il varieties by 7.0% by improving mill components and systems.

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Recent research activities on hybrid rocket in Japan

  • Harunori, Nagata
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.1-2
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    • 2011
  • Hybrid rockets have lately attracted attention as a strong candidate of small, low cost, safe and reliable launch vehicles. A significant topic is that the first commercially sponsored space ship, SpaceShipOne vehicle chose a hybrid rocket. The main factors for the choice were safety of operation, system cost, quick turnaround, and thrust termination. In Japan, five universities including Hokkaido University and three private companies organized "Hybrid Rocket Research Group" from 1998 to 2002. Their main purpose was to downsize the cost and scale of rocket experiments. In 2002, UNISEC (University Space Engineering Consortium) and HASTIC (Hokkaido Aerospace Science and Technology Incubation Center) took over the educational and R&D rocket activities respectively and the research group dissolved. In 2008, JAXA/ISAS and eleven universities formed "Hybrid Rocket Research Working Group" as a subcommittee of the Steering Committee for Space Engineering in ISAS. Their goal is to demonstrate technical feasibility of lowcost and high frequency launches of nano/micro satellites into sun-synchronous orbits. Hybrid rockets use a combination of solid and liquid propellants. Usually the fuel is in a solid phase. A serious problem of hybrid rockets is the low regression rate of the solid fuel. In single port hybrids the low regression rate below 1 mm/s causes large L/D exceeding a hundred and small fuel loading ratio falling below 0.3. Multi-port hybrids are a typical solution to solve this problem. However, this solution is not the mainstream in Japan. Another approach is to use high regression rate fuels. For example, a fuel regression rate of 4 mm/s decreases L/D to around 10 and increases the loading ratio to around 0.75. Liquefying fuels such as paraffins are strong candidates for high regression fuels and subject of active research in Japan too. Nakagawa et al. in Tokai University employed EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) to modify viscosity of paraffin based fuels and investigated the effect of viscosity on regression rates. Wada et al. in Akita University employed LTP (Low melting ThermoPlastic) as another candidate of liquefying fuels and demonstrated high regression rates comparable to paraffin fuels. Hori et al. in JAXA/ISAS employed glycidylazide-poly(ethylene glycol) (GAP-PEG) copolymers as high regression rate fuels and modified the combustion characteristics by changing the PEG mixing ratio. Regression rate improvement by changing internal ballistics is another stream of research. The author proposed a new fuel configuration named "CAMUI" in 1998. CAMUI comes from an abbreviation of "cascaded multistage impinging-jet" meaning the distinctive flow field. A CAMUI type fuel grain consists of several cylindrical fuel blocks with two ports in axial direction. The port alignment shifts 90 degrees with each other to make jets out of ports impinge on the upstream end face of the downstream fuel block, resulting in intense heat transfer to the fuel. Yuasa et al. in Tokyo Metropolitan University employed swirling injection method and improved regression rates more than three times higher. However, regression rate distribution along the axis is not uniform due to the decay of the swirl strength. Aso et al. in Kyushu University employed multi-swirl injection to solve this problem. Combinations of swirling injection and paraffin based fuel have been tried and some results show very high regression rates exceeding ten times of conventional one. High fuel regression rates by new fuel, new internal ballistics, or combination of them require faster fuel-oxidizer mixing to maintain combustion efficiency. Nakagawa et al. succeeded to improve combustion efficiency of a paraffin-based fuel from 77% to 96% by a baffle plate. Another effective approach some researchers are trying is to use an aft-chamber to increase residence time. Better understanding of the new flow fields is necessary to reveal basic mechanisms of regression enhancement. Yuasa et al. visualized the combustion field in a swirling injection type motor. Nakagawa et al. observed boundary layer combustion of wax-based fuels. To understand detailed flow structures in swirling flow type hybrids, Sawada et al. (Tohoku Univ.), Teramoto et al. (Univ. of Tokyo), Shimada et al. (ISAS), and Tsuboi et al. (Kyushu Inst. Tech.) are trying to simulate the flow field numerically. Main challenges are turbulent reaction, stiffness due to low Mach number flow, fuel regression model, and other non-steady phenomena. Oshima et al. in Hokkaido University simulated CAMUI type flow fields and discussed correspondence relation between regression distribution of a burning surface and the vortex structure over the surface.

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