• Title, Summary, Keyword: Private Police Activities

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History of Guard System during the Period of Military Rule in the Goryeo Dynasty (고려 무신집권기 호위제도의 경호학적 고찰)

  • Lee, Sung-Jin;Cho, Sung-Jin
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.34
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    • pp.233-258
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    • 2013
  • In the early days of the Goryeo Dynasty, the royal guard was comprised of the central regular army in the 2-gun-6-wi system, and Nasungeomgun was in charge of the security inside the palace. However, the military system became disorganized during the period of military rule and the royal guard had to rely on military subjects. The military officials suppressed the civil ministers centering on Jungbang, the guarding organization close to the King to incapacitate the royal authority and control the state affairs. When the rule of the three leaders of the military rule became short-lived and Dae-seung Gyeong is raised to the ruler, he organized a do-or-die squad comprised of a hundred and more people for his personal safety, and this became the first dobang. Dobang was disassembled after Dae-seung Gyeong died of disease, but under the rule of Chung-heon Choe, Dae-seung Gyeong's dobang was revived and reinforced into 'Yukbeon Dobang' to provide the ruler with personal protection and intensify the ruling system, and it was quite a large organization with more refined system. Yukbeon Dobang was expanded and reinforced into Naeoedobang under the rule of Woo Choe, the son of Chung-heon Choe, and it was enhanced even more into Dobang Samsipyukbeon System under the rule of the grandson, Hang Choe. Dobang can be considered as the guard organization in modern sense, and it collected information and surveyed the area where guarding is required and house troops that belonged to Naedobang eliminated the risks that may follow afterwards to make assurance doubly sure for guarding. The Choe's regime established Mabyeolcho as a private guard organization in addition to dobang, and this formed the cavalry and infantry units with dobang. Yabyeolcho organized by Woo Choe in the reign of King Gojong was divided into Joabyeolcho and Ubyeolcho, and later Sineuigun was integrated with them to form Sambyeolcho. Originally, Yabyeolcho was established under the rule of Woo Choe to prevent crime in the evening, but after Sineuigun was organized with the ones who were captured by Mongolian army but escaped, in other words when Sambyeolcho was organized, the organization displayed much broader influence by covering military and police affairs as well as punishment and imprisonment. The guarding organization during the Period of Military Rule in the Goryeo Dynasty did not have strict distinction between official guard and personal guard. The private guard in modern days which is the equivalent of personal guard is characterized by its commerciality, however, house troops and the members of dobang did not seem to pursued profit. The guard organization during the period of military rule started from dobang which was organized for personal safety but gradually developed publicness through the participation of civil ministers and expansion, and later it played the pivotal role for social security serving official purpose up to the level where the distinction between official and private activities was blurred during the period of Sambyeolcho.

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Research on legal improvement measurements on drone use

  • Park, Jong-Ryeol;Noe, Sang-Ouk
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2017
  • The main subject of year 2016 Davos forum was "The 4th Industrial Revolution." Recently, interests and investment in drone market, so called industrial revolution in the sky is growing in many countries around the world. Before, drone was used for military purpose such as reconnaissance or attacking but today, it is used in various private sectors such as unmanned delivery service, agriculture, leisure activities, etc. Presently, many major countries in the world are already involved in the 'war without gunfire' to be dominant in this drone industry. Korean government also has announced an extreme relaxation of regulations for growing drone industry by opening a conference with Ministers related to economics. During the conference, business scope of drone which was limited to agriculture, photographing, and observation was expanded to all the fields except for cases hindering national safety and security. In terms of shooting purpose drone its process of receiving approval for flight and shooting is simplified to online registration. What is more, drone delivery service will be allowed in island areas such as Goheung, Yeongwol, etc from first term of year 2017. Finding the way to apply drone in criminal investigation is also speeding up. Recently, Public Safety Policy Research Center in Korean National Police University has inquired for research service and its result will be out around November. Likewise, although more and stronger foundation for supporting drone industry is made but there are still, some opinions saying that we should take a careful approach in consideration to the side effect such as abuse in crime. One may also try terror by placing a dangerous substance. If drone falls, it may hurt any civilians. Moreover, if shopping purpose drone is hacked, it may result in violation of privacy. Compared to America, Europe, and China, we are at the very beginning stage of drone industry and it is necessary to reorganize legal issues to grow this industry. This can be thought from two perspectives; first, the growth of drone industry is blocked by difficult regulations on Aviation Law and Radio Regulation Law. The second issue is the safety and privacy that are required for operating drone. For the advanced technologies to make human life more profitable, more active and proactive actions are required by criminal law side. In preparation to the second mechanical era where man and machines should go together, I hope that responsible preparation is required in all fields including the criminal law.