• Title, Summary, Keyword: Product Involvement

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An Empirical Study on Emotional Intensity and the Influence of Product Involvement in the Context of the Integrative Framework

  • Pradip Hira, Sadarangani;Sanjaya S., Gaur
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.12
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    • pp.99-119
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    • 2003
  • A model is proposed for the role of emotional intensity of a web site, and the moderating influence of product involvement, in the Integrative Framework of persuasion (Meyers-Levy and Malvaiya 1999). The model also appropriately operationalizes the constructs emotional intensity of a web site and product involvement The three routes to persuasion, Central, Peripheral, and Experiential correspond to high, moderate, and low involvement (Meyers-Levy and Malaviya 1999). The involvement construct is measured from message recipients using the Personal Product Inventory (Pill, which was developed to capture the concept of product involvement (Zaichkowsky 1985). The conceptualization of the Personal Product Inventory is a contextrree measure that also has robust psychometric properties when applied to advertisements (Zaichkowsky 1994). The propositions highlight the expected importance of emotional intensity of a web site. The moderating influence of product involvement is also proposed. Specifically, what this work proposes is that the emotional intensity of a product site has a larger impact on attitude change under low product involvement, as opposed to moderate product involvement. Support for this reasoning can be found in the persuasion literature (Petty et al 1986). The Petty et al (1986) frame work is a dual process descriptive and predictive frame work in the area of altitude formation and change. Recently, Myers Levy and Malaviya (1999) have proposed a tri-process framework. This is in tum based on the dual process model of Petty et al. (1986). The study outlined in this paper aims to deepen the Meyers Levy and Malaviya (1999) and frame work. The propositions outlined in the model are empirically tested using a repeated measures experimental design. The emotional intensity is measured using a scale that is based on experts judgments. Using a paired comparison t-test two sites are determined to be of high and low emotional intensity. The model is tested using a repeated measures experimental design. The first independent variable Emotional Intensity of the site is manipulated. The Second independent variable, Personal Product Inventory is measured. While, the dependent variable, product altitude change will also be measured. Utilizing Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) the data is analyzed using SPSS. The results suggest that besides the rational content of messages their emotional content can also influence attitude change. Specifically, it is proposed that the manipulation of emotional intensity of a product Web site has a greater impact on product altitudes under high and low product involvement conditions, rather than moderate product involvement. However, the results for product involvement as a continuous variable has a p value of 0.09. Further, the results for three levels of product involvement were far from significant. For two levels of product involvement also, the results were insignificant, the p value approached 0.20. This evidence indicates that it is premature to conclude that there are three routes to persuasion. A caveat, however, must be added, in that the manipulations may not have been strong enough to test the proposed hypotheses. Further, undoubtedly, there is unequivocal evidence the emotional intensity of a product Web site, as measured here, has a direct impact on product attitudes.

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A Study on Supplier Involvement and Buyer Strategic Decisions (공급자 참여와 전략적 선택에 대한 실증적 연구)

  • Hwang, Sunil;Suh, Eung-Kyo
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2018
  • Purpose - In the development of new products, suppliers involvement and developing products jointly can be said to be strategic activities that utilize the lack of knowledge from external organizations. In this new product development, supplier involvement has been proven to have a positive impact on new product development performance for a long time by previous research. However, sufficient academic research has not been conducted on the influence of supplier involvement in various product strategies or sales strategies that buyers make in order to secure a competitive advantage in the market. This study argues that product strategy and sales strategy used by buyers in the development of new products will control the effect of supplier involvement on new product development performance in order to compensate the lack of these academic aspects. Research design, data, and methodology - Specifically, we selected the modularization strategy of the product as the product strategy, which is considered as an important strategy in the new product development through the preceding research, and the mass customer satisfaction strategy was chosen as the sales strategy. In order to achieve these research objectives, regression analysis was conducted using data from manufacturing productivity panel collected jointly by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Industry and the Korea Productivity Center. Results - As a result, supplier involvement and new product development performances (development cost efficiency, customer satisfaction) were positively related. The product modularity strategy proved to have an interactive effect on the relationship between supplier involvement and new product development performances (development cost efficiency, customer satisfaction). However, it has not been confirmed that there is a statistically significant interaction effect between supplier involvement and new product development performances. Conclusions - Supplier involvement has positive relationships with NPD performance. In addition, product modularity strategies have interaction effects with supplier involvement and affect new product development performance (development cost efficiency and customer satisfaction). The results of this study are of academic significance in the case of lack of empirical studies on the effect of supplier participation on the effect of buyer 's strategy when a supplier participates and develops new products jointly.

The Effect of Price Dispersion and Product Information on Consumer Product Attitude in Informediary

  • Chung, Sung-Hun;Han, In-Goo
    • 한국경영정보학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.539-544
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    • 2007
  • Infomediary, playing an important role in e-commerce, provides refined a product information and the price dispersion of product. This paper use the elaboration likelihood model to explain how level of involvement with a product moderates the impact of price dispersion and product information quality on product attitude. The study produces three major findings : (1) the quality of product information produced by infomediary has a positive effect on consumers' product attitude, (2) For low-involvement consumer, price dispersion of product positively affect consumers' product attitude. For high-involvement consumer, negatively affect, (3) low-involvement consumer are affected by the price dispersion rather than the quality of product information, but high-involvement consumer are affect by price dispersion mainly when the quality of product is low. These finding have implications for on-line infomediaries in terms of how to manage their users.

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The Effect of Product Involvement on Consumer Purchase Process (제품관여(製品關輿)가 소비자(消費者) 과정(過程)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Young, Jung-Moon
    • Korean Business Review
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    • v.11
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    • pp.101-122
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    • 1998
  • This study is to analyze the effect of product involvement on consumer purchase process. From review on previous involvement literatures, enduring product involvement can be defined as "a person's arousal and motivational state activated by product on the basis of his basic value, objective and ego-relevance." To evaluate the effect of involvement on product purchase process, 11 hyphotheses concerning behavioral aspects which is expected to comprise consumer purchase process and to be influenced by degree of involvement were constructed: prepurchase information search, alternative brand comparision, utilization of product attribute, brand differentiation, brand commitment, product knowledge, influence of reference group, dependence on price, price awareness, cognitive dissonance and purchase optimization. Hyphotheses are tested with data from 388 housewives through 20 item involvement scale developed with multi-dimensional perspective on involvement. The scale successfully provides rank order of 8 selected products expected to cover the spectrum of product involvement: formal clothes, coffee, washing machine, shampoo, perfume, detergent, soft drink, pain-reliever as the order of product involvement. Major findings of this study are as follow. First of all, incresed differences were found in hihg involvement product like formal clothes with respect to the degree of prepurchase information search, alternative brand comparision, utilization of product attribute, influence of reference group in any method of analysis. Secondly, invlovement should be interpreted as a consumer characteristic rather than a product one. This means that consumers involve themselves with products, instead products themselves do not have any involvement.

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Effect that Gagman Advertisement Model Use by Product Involvement gets in Brand Preference, Purchase Intention (제품 관여도에 따른 개그맨 광고 모델 사용이 브랜드 선호도, 구매 의도에 미치는 영향: 인쇄 광고를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Kwang-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Printing Society
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.65-75
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    • 2012
  • Appearing gagman on various ads are presently experienced in domestic market both high involvement and low involvement products ads. Therefore, this research attempts to analyze the effectiveness of using gagman ad model in terms of building brand preference and purchasing intention among target audience. Results of this study proposed the basement of practical use when gagman is selected as a ad model in the field. For testing hypotheses attractiveness, reliability, like/dislike as dependent variables and as independent variable purchasing intention were selected. The result of analysis shows that for high involvement product reliability influenced on brand like/dislike and attractiveness of gagman model is effective to enhance purchasing intention. For low involvement product only like/dislike was significant. This can be interpreted gagman ad model is useful for building brand like/dislike and purchasing intention of high involvement product when gagman has reliability and attractiveness respectively, while for low involvement product, like and dislike is the only variable to be considered in choosing gagman ad model.

The Mediating Role of Perceived Risk in the Relationships Between Enduring Product Involvement and Trust Expectation (지속적 제품관여도와 소비자 요구신뢰수준 간의 영향관계: 인지된 위험의 매개 역할에 대한 실증분석을 중심으로)

  • Hong, Ilyoo B.;Kim, Taeha;Cha, Hoon S.
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.103-128
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    • 2013
  • When a consumer needs a product or service and multiple sellers are available online, the process of selecting a seller to buy online from is complex since the process involves many behavioral dimensions that have to be taken into account. As a part of this selection process, consumers may set minimum trust expectation that can be used to screen out less trustworthy sellers. In the previous research, the level of consumers' trust expectation has been anchored on two important factors: product involvement and perceived risk. Product involvement refers to the extent to which a consumer perceives a specific product important. Thus, the higher product involvement may result in the higher trust expectation in sellers. On the other hand, other related studies found that when consumers perceived a higher level of risk (e.g., credit card fraud risk), they set higher trust expectation as well. While abundant research exists addressing the relationship between product involvement and perceived risk, little attention has been paid to the integrative view of the link between the two constructs and their impacts on the trust expectation. The present paper is a step toward filling this research gap. The purpose of this paper is to understand the process by which a consumer chooses an online merchant by examining the relationships among product involvement, perceived risk, trust expectation, and intention to buy from an e-tailer. We specifically focus on the mediating role of perceived risk in the relationships between enduring product involvement and the trust expectation. That is, we question whether product involvement affects the trust expectation directly without mediation or indirectly mediated by perceived risk. The research model with four hypotheses was initially tested using data gathered from 635 respondents through an online survey method. The structural equation modeling technique with partial least square was used to validate the instrument and the proposed model. The results showed that three out of the four hypotheses formulated were supported. First, we found that the intention to buy from a digital storefront is positively and significantly influenced by the trust expectation, providing support for H4 (trust expectation ${\rightarrow}$ purchase intention). Second, perceived risk was found to be a strong predictor of trust expectation, supporting H2 as well (perceived risk ${\rightarrow}$ trust expectation). Third, we did not find any evidence of direct influence of product involvement, which caused H3 to be rejected (product involvement ${\rightarrow}$ trust expectation). Finally, we found significant positive relationship between product involvement and perceived risk (H1: product involvement ${\rightarrow}$ perceived risk), which suggests that the possibility of complete mediation of perceived risk in the relationship between enduring product involvement and the trust expectation. As a result, we conducted an additional test for the mediation effect by comparing the original model with the revised model without the mediator variable of perceived risk. Indeed, we found that there exists a strong influence of product involvement on the trust expectation (by intentionally eliminating the variable of perceived risk) that was suppressed (i.e., mediated) by the perceived risk in the original model. The Sobel test statistically confirmed the complete mediation effect. Results of this study offer the following key findings. First, enduring product involvement is positively related to perceived risk, implying that the higher a consumer is enduringly involved with a given product, the greater risk he or she is likely to perceive with regards to the online purchase of the product. Second, perceived risk is positively related to trust expectation. A consumer with great risk perceptions concerning the online purchase is likely to buy from a highly trustworthy online merchant, thereby mitigating potential risks. Finally, product involvement was found to have no direct influence on trust expectation, but the relationship between the two constructs was indirect and mediated by the perceived risk. This is perhaps an important theoretical integration of two separate streams of literature on product involvement and perceived risk. The present research also provides useful implications for practitioners as well as academicians. First, one implication for practicing managers in online retail stores is that they should invest in reducing the perceived risk of consumers in order to lower down the trust expectation and thus increasing the consumer's intention to purchase products or services. Second, an academic implication is that perceived risk mediates the relationship between enduring product involvement and trust expectation. Further research is needed to elaborate the theoretical relationships among the constructs under consideration.

A Study on the Effect of Internet Advertising by Product Involvement Levels, Website Types and Banner Advertisement Types (제품관여도, 웹사이트 유형 및 배너광고 유형에 따른 인터넷 광고효과에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Woo;Lee, Seung-Youp
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.7
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    • pp.105-125
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    • 2001
  • A rapid in increase in population of Internet users made the Internet appeared to be an important advertising medium. Under this situation, one of important research issues will be one related to measurement of Internet advertising effect. This study was carried out with three following projects which set up on the basis of the Modified Elaboration Likelihood Model of Cho(1999). (1) Analysis of differences in banner click, advertising attitude and buying intention according to the product involvement levels. (2) Analysis of differences in banner click, advertising attitude and buying intention according to the product involvement levels and website types. (3) Analysis of differences in banner click, advertising attitude and buying intention according to the product involvement levels and banner advertisement types. The experiment was conducted in a manner that virtual websites and banner advertisements produced for the purpose of this study were classified into eight groups according to the product involvement levels, website types and banner advertisement, and then questionnaire sheets were filled out. The results of empirical analysis are summarized by the research projects as follows. (1) The banner click, advertising attitude and buying intention according to the product involvement levels were not significant. (2) There was no significant difference in the banner click according to the product involvement levels and website types. In the advertising attitude, there was a significant effect of interaction, whereas in the buying intention there was no significant effect of interaction. (3) There was a significant difference in the banner click by the product involvement levels and banner advertisement types. Concretely the click rate appeared to be high in literal banner advertisement for a product with high involvement and in pictorial banner advertisement for a product with low involvement. It is expected that this study can provide Internet advertising researchers and managers with theoretical and the practical informations.

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The Moderating Effect of Product Involvement on the Online Consumer's Purchasing Behavior (온라인 소비자 구매행동에서 제품관여도의 조절효과에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Uk;Park, Sang-Cheol;Lee, Won-Jun
    • Korean Management Science Review
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.51-76
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of four influencing variables (brand diversity. product information, entertainment, and trust) on purchase Intention and to .examine whether this relationship varies according to the buyer's perceived level of Product involvement. Analysis of 264 responses using the hierarchical regression indicated that all four independent variables were found positively influencing purchase intention. Furthermore, the effects of brand diversity, product information, and trust on purchase intention were revealed to be moderated by perceived product involvement. However, the moderating effect of product involvement on the relationship between entertainment and purchase intention was not statistically significant. Discussions for research findings and managerial implications are discussed.

Middle-aged Consumers' Preferences for Clothing Images (중년 남녀 소비자의 선호 의복이미지에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Sung-Jee
    • Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2014
  • The purposes of the study were to explore differences in preference for clothing images according to wearing situations and clothing product involvement. A questionnaire was developed by the researcher and was collected by 101 men and 100 women aged between 40 and 59. Data were analyzed by factor analysis, repeated measure ANOVA, t-test adjusted by Bonferroni, paired sample t-test, and independent sample t-test. The results of the study showed that clothing images were classified into five factors including hard cold image, modern urban image, bold unique image, and heavy luxurious image. There were significant differences in preference among clothing images according to wearing situations and clothing product involvement. While modern urbane image was most preferred, hard cold image was least preferred in both formal and informal wearing situations, and for either high or low involvement clothing products. Also, there were significant differences in clothing image preference according to wearing situations and product involvement. In formal situations, stronger preference for modern urban image and heavy luxurious image showed than in informal situations, and bold unique image and heavy luxurious image were more preferred for high involvement clothing product than for low involvement clothing product. In addition, there were significant differences in preferences for clothing images between groups according to gender and age. In both formal and informal situations, men showed stronger preferences than women for hard cold image, but women for bold unique image. For either high or low involvement clothing products, men preferred hard cold image, modern urban image and heavy luxurious image more than women, but women preferred bold unique image more than men. Lastly, for high involvement clothing product, subjects aged fifties showed stronger preferences than forties for modern urban image and heavy luxurious image, but for low involvement clothing product, modern urban image was more preferred.

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Consumers' Perception of Clothing Price(Part ll) - The Effect of Product Involvement and Consumer Knowledge on the Perceptions of Each Dimension of Clothing Price (의복구매시 소비자가 지각하는 가격 (제2보) 제품관여와 소비자 지식이 의복가격의 각 차원 지각에 미치는 영향-)

  • 진병호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.628-638
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    • 1998
  • This study, the second in two part series, focuses on effect of product involvement and consumer knowledge on consumers' perceptions of six dimensions of clothing price: price -quality schema, prestige sensitivity: sale proneness, price mavenism, value consciousness, and price consciousness. Additionally, correlation between product involvement and consumer knowledge was examined. Multi-item measures of six dimensions of price, product involvement, and consumer knowledge were included in the questionnaires. The subjects were 264 college students living in Seoul, Korea. The data were collected by self-administered questionnaires and analyzed by factor analysis, regression analysis, and correlation analysis using SPSS PC. In addition, two focus group interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data for the result interpretation. Results of this study showed that the degree of consumers' product involvement significantly affects consumers' perceptions of each price dimension except price consciousness dimension. Consumers' knowledge about clothing has a significant effect on consumers' perceptions of all price dimensions. Dimensions of product involvement and consumer knowledge were partially correlated. Marketing implications based on these results were suggested.

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