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Interpretation of C.C.L.Hirschfeld's Theory of Garden Art in Contemporary Meaning and Its Significance (히르시펠트(C.C.L.Hirschfeld) 정원예술론의 의미와 가치의 현대적 해석)

  • Zoh, Kyung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.58-68
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    • 2014
  • Christian Cay Lorenz Hirschfeld is often regarded as 'a father of landscape garden art.' He was an aesthetics professor and garden theoretician in the $18^{th}$ century. He put forth the most comprehensive garden theory book in five volumes between 1779 and 1785. His book, Theorie der Gartenkunst, was translated and widely circulated in his contemporary. The book, which dealt with diverse aspects of garden art such as history, design, material, and type, urged to promote the prevalence of landscape garden in European continents as well as in Germany. However, there have scarcely been discourses in the Hirschfeld's garden theory. This essay aims to review Hirschfeld's garden thoughts in his book critically and to reinterpret some issues in the contemporary landscape theory and practice. Hirschfeldian theory was the product of $18^{th}$ century German Enlightenment and romanticism. At that time, Nature was regarded as divine realm. There was a German affinity with natural world. The spread of reading culture and the fashion of travel literature were another background of the success of his garden literature. Several issues in Hirschfeld garden theory will discussed here. First, privileging garden art was the most significant contribution in his theory. He emphasized that garden art was the most advanced art form among all art genres. Second, garden art was grounded on the mimesis of nature. The ambiguous relationship between nature and art still existed in garden making. However, garden art can be flourished when utilizing the potency of nature in itself. Third, there was the association between the image and the idea in experiencing the garden. Some garden scenes stimulated the related emotional responses such as cheerful and merry, softly melancholic, romantic, solemn etc. Fourth, the movement was the essential aspect of garden art. Motion and emotion are come together in garden experience. To represent the landscape garden style in suitable way, the sketch or image seems to be preferable than the plans and views. Finally, garden art was composing of not only the physical space but also the spirit of place. He maintained the garden art as hortus moralis should be a social metaphor. Hirschfeldian garden theory has often been criticized as the lack of practical power and the old fashioned idea. However, his theory influenced on formulating the idea of public park in $19^{th}$ century. Moreover, there are still some visionary aspects of his theory such as the reevaluation of garden art, the emphasis of locality and the introduction of Mittelweg idea. Recently, gardening culture are prevalent in various realms of art and life. Hirschfeld's garden theory as humanistic landscape theory can provide us some insights in the contemporary practices.

International Legal Regulation on Commercial Space Activity (상업적 우주활동의 국제법적 규제)

  • Lee, Young-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.183-221
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    • 2013
  • While in the early stages of space activities only a few states engaged in the use of outer space, as is well known, commercial space activities have grown dramatically in recent years. Both states, state institutions, and international governmental organizations as well as many private enterprises are engaged in such commercial use of outer space by now. This development is not reflected in the present state of space law. The existing international instruments of space law were developed and finalized before this development and thus only provide very few and sometimes unfitting provisions for the commercial use of outer space and particularly the use by private enterprises. Law formulated in an era when the word "privatization" had not even been coined cannot contain potential problems caused by the increasing commercialization of outer space. For the promotion and further development of such commercial use of outer space it is necessary to clarify and establish the legal framework for such use, because participants will need this information for their future investments in this field. The purpose of this paper is to research and make an analysis of the contents and international regulation of international space commerce, which is rapidly proliferating and to review the process of improvement on national legislations relating to the commercialization of outer space in a few main space advanced countries to make the sustainable progress of commercial space activities project in international society. The legal implications of matters such as international commercial launch services, the liability aspects of such services, intellectual property rights, insurance, product liability insurance and materials processing could one day will be subject to regulated by international space law as well as domestic law. In fact, the question of commercialization is linked to the question of sharing benefits of space activities, and this currently is an agenda item in the Legal Subcommittee of UN COPUOS. Most of developed countries have enacted the national legislation for commercial space activities relating to the development of our space as follows : The National Aeronautic and Space Act of 1958 and the Commercial Space Act of 1998 in the United States, Outer Space Act of 1986 in England, Establishment Act of National Space Center of 1961 in France, Canadian Space Agency Act of 1990 in Canada, Space Basic Act of 2008 in Japan, and Law on Space Activity of 1993 in Russia. Becides there are currently three national legislations relating to space development and commercial space activities in Korea as follows : Aerospace Industry Development Promotion Act of 1987, Outer Space Development Promotion Act of 2005, Outer Space Damage Compensation Act of 2008. Commercial space great promise for the utilization and expansion of human outer space activities but aspring commercial actors must recognize that foreign policy, as well as obligations to the international community as a whole, ensure that commercial space activities will not operate in a legal and regulatory vacuum. As commercial space matures the law and accompanying regulation will most certainly evolve and choose to become participants in the inevitable evolution of law and regulation.

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Vaccine Evaluation Studies Performed in Korea from 2000 to 2014 (2000-2014년 한국에서 수행된 백신 유용성 평가 연구)

  • Cha, Jihei;Kim, Han Wool;Lee, Soyoung;Cho, Hye Kyung;Ahn, Jong Gyun;Kim, Kyung-Hyo
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.117-127
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Vaccine evaluation studies were initiated from 2000 by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety to produce proper data about the safety and immunogenicity of vaccines. The purpose of this study was to review studies and reports on evaluation of vaccine such as immunogenicity, efficacy, effectiveness, safety and other related topics in order to find and analyze the data on the usefulness of each vaccine. Methods: From 2000 to 2014, the project "The vaccine evaluation" had been performed by several researchers, and studies and reports of vaccine evaluation. We reviewed the results and outcomes of studies regarding the evaluation of vaccine's usefulness and analyzed the possibilities of applying these data for establishing vaccine policies. For each vaccine, data analysis and organization were done according to evaluation fields. Results: A total of 83 studies were performed on vaccines from 2000 to 2014. For each vaccine, 8 studies were performed on BCG, 14 on DTaP/Td, 1 on poliovirus, 5 on Hib, 3 on pneumococcus, 11 on influenza, 3 on hepatitis A, 11 on MMR, 11 on varicella, and 16 on Japanese encephalitis. All studies were analyzed by the following evaluation area, such as safety, immunogenicity, seroprevalence, persistence of immunity, efficacy, effectiveness, vaccine evaluation methods, quality control product for vaccine, and others. Conclusions: Vaccine evaluation studies performed in Korea may be useful as references for establishing vaccination strategy and policy and could be used as baseline data for future studies on vaccine evaluation, vaccine policy establishment, and public/expert vaccine education in Korea.

A Placeness and Identification on the Place Names of Geomorphological Landscape in Jukdo, Yangyang (양양 죽도의 장소성과 지형경관의 지명 고찰 및 비정)

  • Rho, Jae-hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.37-48
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    • 2019
  • This study, which starting from Yangyang Jukdo's topography formation and questioning revealed in landscape guide and landscape commentary board, is to sort out the characteristics of Jukdo natural landscape through literature research, field observation research and stakeholder interview as part of the proper recognition of Jokdo landscape and search for landscape resources, and pursued a review of nominations and criticism. The results of this study are summarized as follows. Yangyang Jukdo is an island named because it was full of blue bamboo. From before the first half of the 14th Century. to the middle of the 18th Century., there was a Gwanlan-pavilion to see the sea and the bamboo in the west. The time when the original island, the Jukdo, have been a land-tied island connected with the land by the tombolo formed by the erosion of the sand. It is located at the end of the 14th Century. and before the middle of the 18th Century. In Jukdo, colorful weathered terrains, coastal terrain, and structural terrain formed by long-time weathering are found. Among them, the type of weathering, the tafoni style and the gnamma style are the scenic landscapes with the key stories of legend and poetry that are brought to Jukdo. In addition, there are seven kinds of letters caved in the rocks in Jukdo. The rocks found on the coast, basketball cannons, shrines, and sutras are seen as shrouds based on a Taoist hermit motifs and style. In addition, it can be interred from the photography of "jeongssisejeog" that the souvenir of Jukdo was the family of Chogyejeong of mid 18th Century. In terms of observational geography and poetry, Jukdo has been handed down a great deal of missionary color with key motifs such as 'Jukdo-seongoo', 'Jukdo-Dolgooyoo', or 'Stone mortar of Taoist hermit' It is proved that the pearl which is called 'The stone of the Taoist hermit' is a porthole formed in a separate space rather than the topography of the geomorphology in terms of shape, size and function. Currently named Shun-tang is a product of the ridiculous 'naming' of interest. The present landscape guide and commentary is not only incompatible with the place of Jukdo, but also does not match the traditional cultural landscape. Future scenery information such as guide signs and commentary boards should be improved in the direction of positively highlighting the stories and motifs related to the present that are present in order to enhance the landscape identity of Yangyang Jukdo.

A Study on Marketing Strategy of MIM Emoticon Using Customized Bundling (맞춤 번들링을 활용한 MIM 이모티콘 마케팅 전략에 관한 연구)

  • Heo, Su-Chang;Jeon, Gyeahyung;Heo, Jae-Kang
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 2019
  • This study confirms the responses of consumers when the composition of emoticon bundles can be selected by individuals in MIM service. This aims to verify that customized bundling is a valid marketing strategy in the MIM emoticon market. Currently, the emoticon bundling used in Korean MIM services is in the form of pure bundling. As a result, Consumers must purchase an entire bundle even though he/she doesn't need to use all the emoticons contained in it. Some researches(e.g. Hitt & Chen, 2005; Wu & Anandalingam, 2002) show that when consumers value only part of the products or services included in pure bundling, customized bundling is much more profitable. In their works, customized bundling is appropriate when marginal costs are near zero. Information goods, such as emoticons, meet the condition. On the other hand, customized bundling increase the choosable options, so it can pose a problem of complexity (Blecker et al., 2004). And consumers may experience information overload(Huffman & Kahn, 1998). Thus, judgement on the necessity to introduce customized bundling needs to be made through empirical analyses in the light of characteristics of the product and the reaction of consumers. Results show that when customized bundling was introduced, consumers' purchase intention and willingness to pay significantly increased. Purchase intention for customized bundles has increased by 0.44 based on the five point Likert scale than the purchase intention for existing pure bundles. The increase in purchase intention for customized bundles was statistically independent of the existing purchasing experience. In addition, the willingness to pay was increased by about 2.8% compared to the price of the existing emoticon bundles in the whole group. The group with experience in purchasing pure bundles were willing to pay 5.9% more than pure bundles. The other group without experience in purchasing pure bundles were willing to buy if they were about 5% cheaper than the existing price. Overall, introducing customized bundling into emoticon bundles can lead to positive consumers responses and be a viable marketing strategy.

A Study on Difficulty Factors of Youth Startups for Activating Local Startups (지역창업 활성화를 위한 청년창업 애로 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Tae-Uk;Kang, Tae-Won
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.67-80
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    • 2020
  • This study has been conducted at a time when Korean government continues to extend support for youth startups as part of its policy to create jobs and the focus moves from career and employment to youth startups with a growing interest in the field of youth startups. Against this background, this study aims to identify difficulty factors of youth startups in areas besides the Seoul Metropolitan Area, seek ways to overcome difficulty factors, and propose policy implications. To this end, this study set five criteria and 25 sub-criteria to evaluate the difficulties of youth startups by reviewing previous studies and conducting literature review, and performing brainstorming method. The empirical analysis of the evaluation criteria was performed, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, on youths aged 19 to 39 in Gunsan area. The analysis results showed that the largest difficulty factors facing local youths include business model establishment, business administration and management, and startup funding in the criteria. As for sub-criteria, the largest difficulty factors are market information acquisition, technology commercialization, project feasibility, technology development, and new market pioneering in descending order. Local youths have much difficulty about the process of turning a business item into a product and commercializing it. According to a comparative analysis by gender, men were a relatively high difficulty in commercializing business models than women. men were a relatively high difficulty in commercializing business models than women. On the other hand, women were higher than men in all factors (management management, entrepreneurship, improvement of entrepreneurship system, and improvement of entrepreneurship awareness) except for factors affecting business model. In addition, the factors of entrepreneurship were found to be relatively different among young people (college students, prospective entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs). In conclusion, it was suggested that in order to revitalize youth entrepreneurship in the region, it is necessary to actively resolve the difficulties of business model commercialization rather than entrepreneurship funds. In addition, it is necessary to strategically support customized entrepreneurship support and situational administrative services because gender and hierarchical difficulties are different than general solutions. This study presented practical priorities and derivation methods for the entrepreneurship difficulties faced by local youth, and suggested measures and improvements for vitalizing local youth entrepreneurship in the future.

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KNU Korean Sentiment Lexicon: Bi-LSTM-based Method for Building a Korean Sentiment Lexicon (Bi-LSTM 기반의 한국어 감성사전 구축 방안)

  • Park, Sang-Min;Na, Chul-Won;Choi, Min-Seong;Lee, Da-Hee;On, Byung-Won
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.219-240
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    • 2018
  • Sentiment analysis, which is one of the text mining techniques, is a method for extracting subjective content embedded in text documents. Recently, the sentiment analysis methods have been widely used in many fields. As good examples, data-driven surveys are based on analyzing the subjectivity of text data posted by users and market researches are conducted by analyzing users' review posts to quantify users' reputation on a target product. The basic method of sentiment analysis is to use sentiment dictionary (or lexicon), a list of sentiment vocabularies with positive, neutral, or negative semantics. In general, the meaning of many sentiment words is likely to be different across domains. For example, a sentiment word, 'sad' indicates negative meaning in many fields but a movie. In order to perform accurate sentiment analysis, we need to build the sentiment dictionary for a given domain. However, such a method of building the sentiment lexicon is time-consuming and various sentiment vocabularies are not included without the use of general-purpose sentiment lexicon. In order to address this problem, several studies have been carried out to construct the sentiment lexicon suitable for a specific domain based on 'OPEN HANGUL' and 'SentiWordNet', which are general-purpose sentiment lexicons. However, OPEN HANGUL is no longer being serviced and SentiWordNet does not work well because of language difference in the process of converting Korean word into English word. There are restrictions on the use of such general-purpose sentiment lexicons as seed data for building the sentiment lexicon for a specific domain. In this article, we construct 'KNU Korean Sentiment Lexicon (KNU-KSL)', a new general-purpose Korean sentiment dictionary that is more advanced than existing general-purpose lexicons. The proposed dictionary, which is a list of domain-independent sentiment words such as 'thank you', 'worthy', and 'impressed', is built to quickly construct the sentiment dictionary for a target domain. Especially, it constructs sentiment vocabularies by analyzing the glosses contained in Standard Korean Language Dictionary (SKLD) by the following procedures: First, we propose a sentiment classification model based on Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM). Second, the proposed deep learning model automatically classifies each of glosses to either positive or negative meaning. Third, positive words and phrases are extracted from the glosses classified as positive meaning, while negative words and phrases are extracted from the glosses classified as negative meaning. Our experimental results show that the average accuracy of the proposed sentiment classification model is up to 89.45%. In addition, the sentiment dictionary is more extended using various external sources including SentiWordNet, SenticNet, Emotional Verbs, and Sentiment Lexicon 0603. Furthermore, we add sentiment information about frequently used coined words and emoticons that are used mainly on the Web. The KNU-KSL contains a total of 14,843 sentiment vocabularies, each of which is one of 1-grams, 2-grams, phrases, and sentence patterns. Unlike existing sentiment dictionaries, it is composed of words that are not affected by particular domains. The recent trend on sentiment analysis is to use deep learning technique without sentiment dictionaries. The importance of developing sentiment dictionaries is declined gradually. However, one of recent studies shows that the words in the sentiment dictionary can be used as features of deep learning models, resulting in the sentiment analysis performed with higher accuracy (Teng, Z., 2016). This result indicates that the sentiment dictionary is used not only for sentiment analysis but also as features of deep learning models for improving accuracy. The proposed dictionary can be used as a basic data for constructing the sentiment lexicon of a particular domain and as features of deep learning models. It is also useful to automatically and quickly build large training sets for deep learning models.

An Empirical Study on the Determinants of Supply Chain Management Systems Success from Vendor's Perspective (참여자관점에서 공급사슬관리 시스템의 성공에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 실증연구)

  • Kang, Sung-Bae;Moon, Tae-Soo;Chung, Yoon
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.139-166
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    • 2010
  • The supply chain management (SCM) systems have emerged as strong managerial tools for manufacturing firms in enhancing competitive strength. Despite of large investments in the SCM systems, many companies are not fully realizing the promised benefits from the systems. A review of literature on adoption, implementation and success factor of IOS (inter-organization systems), EDI (electronic data interchange) systems, shows that this issue has been examined from multiple theoretic perspectives. And many researchers have attempted to identify the factors which influence the success of system implementation. However, the existing studies have two drawbacks in revealing the determinants of systems implementation success. First, previous researches raise questions as to the appropriateness of research subjects selected. Most SCM systems are operating in the form of private industrial networks, where the participants of the systems consist of two distinct groups: focus companies and vendors. The focus companies are the primary actors in developing and operating the systems, while vendors are passive participants which are connected to the system in order to supply raw materials and parts to the focus companies. Under the circumstance, there are three ways in selecting the research subjects; focus companies only, vendors only, or two parties grouped together. It is hard to find researches that use the focus companies exclusively as the subjects probably due to the insufficient sample size for statistic analysis. Most researches have been conducted using the data collected from both groups. We argue that the SCM success factors cannot be correctly indentified in this case. The focus companies and the vendors are in different positions in many areas regarding the system implementation: firm size, managerial resources, bargaining power, organizational maturity, and etc. There are no obvious reasons to believe that the success factors of the two groups are identical. Grouping the two groups also raises questions on measuring the system success. The benefits from utilizing the systems may not be commonly distributed to the two groups. One group's benefits might be realized at the expenses of the other group considering the situation where vendors participating in SCM systems are under continuous pressures from the focus companies with respect to prices, quality, and delivery time. Therefore, by combining the system outcomes of both groups we cannot measure the system benefits obtained by each group correctly. Second, the measures of system success adopted in the previous researches have shortcoming in measuring the SCM success. User satisfaction, system utilization, and user attitudes toward the systems are most commonly used success measures in the existing studies. These measures have been developed as proxy variables in the studies of decision support systems (DSS) where the contribution of the systems to the organization performance is very difficult to measure. Unlike the DSS, the SCM systems have more specific goals, such as cost saving, inventory reduction, quality improvement, rapid time, and higher customer service. We maintain that more specific measures can be developed instead of proxy variables in order to measure the system benefits correctly. The purpose of this study is to find the determinants of SCM systems success in the perspective of vendor companies. In developing the research model, we have focused on selecting the success factors appropriate for the vendors through reviewing past researches and on developing more accurate success measures. The variables can be classified into following: technological, organizational, and environmental factors on the basis of TOE (Technology-Organization-Environment) framework. The model consists of three independent variables (competition intensity, top management support, and information system maturity), one mediating variable (collaboration), one moderating variable (government support), and a dependent variable (system success). The systems success measures have been developed to reflect the operational benefits of the SCM systems; improvement in planning and analysis capabilities, faster throughput, cost reduction, task integration, and improved product and customer service. The model has been validated using the survey data collected from 122 vendors participating in the SCM systems in Korea. To test for mediation, one should estimate the hierarchical regression analysis on the collaboration. And moderating effect analysis should estimate the moderated multiple regression, examines the effect of the government support. The result shows that information system maturity and top management support are the most important determinants of SCM system success. Supply chain technologies that standardize data formats and enhance information sharing may be adopted by supply chain leader organization because of the influence of focal company in the private industrial networks in order to streamline transactions and improve inter-organization communication. Specially, the need to develop and sustain an information system maturity will provide the focus and purpose to successfully overcome information system obstacles and resistance to innovation diffusion within the supply chain network organization. The support of top management will help focus efforts toward the realization of inter-organizational benefits and lend credibility to functional managers responsible for its implementation. The active involvement, vision, and direction of high level executives provide the impetus needed to sustain the implementation of SCM. The quality of collaboration relationships also is positively related to outcome variable. Collaboration variable is found to have a mediation effect between on influencing factors and implementation success. Higher levels of inter-organizational collaboration behaviors such as shared planning and flexibility in coordinating activities were found to be strongly linked to the vendors trust in the supply chain network. Government support moderates the effect of the IS maturity, competitive intensity, top management support on collaboration and implementation success of SCM. In general, the vendor companies face substantially greater risks in SCM implementation than the larger companies do because of severe constraints on financial and human resources and limited education on SCM systems. Besides resources, Vendors generally lack computer experience and do not have sufficient internal SCM expertise. For these reasons, government supports may establish requirements for firms doing business with the government or provide incentives to adopt, implementation SCM or practices. Government support provides significant improvements in implementation success of SCM when IS maturity, competitive intensity, top management support and collaboration are low. The environmental characteristic of competition intensity has no direct effect on vendor perspective of SCM system success. But, vendors facing above average competition intensity will have a greater need for changing technology. This suggests that companies trying to implement SCM systems should set up compatible supply chain networks and a high-quality collaboration relationship for implementation and performance.

Categorizing Quality Features of Franchisees: In the case of Korean Food Service Industry (프랜차이즈 매장 품질요인의 속성분류: 국내 외식업을 중심으로)

  • Byun, Sook-Eun;Cho, Eun-Seong
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.95-115
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    • 2011
  • Food service is the major part of franchise business in Korea, accounting for 69.9% of the brands in the market. As the food service industry becomes mature, many franchisees have struggled to survive in the market. In general, consumers have higher levels of expectation toward service quality of franchised outlets compared that of (non-franchised) independent ones. They also tend to believe that franchisees deliver standardized service at the uniform food price, regardless of their locations. Such beliefs seem to be important reasons that consumers prefer franchised outlets to independent ones. Nevertheless, few studies examined the impact of qualify features of franchisees on customer satisfaction so far. To this end, this study examined the characteristics of various quality features of franchisees in the food service industry, regarding their relationship with customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The quality perception of heavy-users was also compared with that of light-users in order to find insights for developing differentiated marketing strategy for the two segments. Customer satisfaction has been understood as a one-dimensional construct while there are recent studies that insist two-dimensional nature of the construct. In this regard, Kano et al. (1984) suggested to categorize quality features of a product or service into five types, based on their relation to customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction: Must-be quality, Attractive quality, One-dimensional quality, Indifferent quality, and Reverse quality. According to the Kano model, customers are more dissatisfied when Must-be quality(M) are not fulfilled, but their satisfaction does not arise above neutral no matter how fully the quality fulfilled. In comparison, customers are more satisfied with a full provision of Attactive quality(A) but manage to accept its dysfunction. One-dimensional quality(O) results in satisfaction when fulfilled and dissatisfaction when not fulfilled. For Indifferent quality(I), its presence or absence influences neither customer satisfaction nor dissatisfaction. Lastly, Reverse quality(R) refers to the features whose high degree of achievement results in customer dissatisfaction rather than satisfaction. Meanwhile, the basic guidelines of the Kano model have a limitation in that the quality type of each feature is simply determined by calculating the mode statistics. In order to overcome such limitation, the relative importance of each feature on customer satisfaction (Better value; b) and dissatisfaction (Worse value; w) were calculated following the formulas below (Timko, 1993). The Better value indicates how much customer satisfaction is increased by providing the quality feature in question. In contrast, the Worse value indicates how much customer dissatisfaction is decreased by providing the quality feature. Better = (A + O)/(A+O+M+I) Worse = (O+M)/(A+O+M+I)(-1) An on-line survey was performed in order to understand the nature of quality features of franchisees in the food service industry by applying the Kano Model. A total of twenty quality features (refer to the Table 2) were identified as the result of literature review in franchise business and a pre-test with fifty college students in Seoul. The potential respondents of our main survey was limited to the customers who have visited more than two restaurants/stores of the same franchise brand. Survey invitation e-mails were sent out to the panels of a market research company and a total of 257 responses were used for analysis. Following the guidelines of Kano model, each of the twenty quality features was classified into one of the five types based on customers' responses to a set of questions: "(1) how do you feel if the following quality feature is fulfilled in the franchise restaurant that you visit," and "(2) how do you feel if the following quality feature is not fulfilled in the franchise restaurant that you visit." The analyses revealed that customers' dissatisfaction with franchisees is commonly associated with the poor level of cleanliness of the store (w=-0.872), kindness of the staffs(w=-0.890), conveniences such as parking lot and restroom(w=-0.669), and expertise of the staffs(w=-0.492). Such quality features were categorized as Must-be quality in this study. While standardization or uniformity across franchisees has been emphasized in franchise business, this study found that consumers are interested only in uniformity of price across franchisees(w=-0.608), but not interested in standardizations of menu items, interior designs, customer service procedures, and food tastes. Customers appeared to be more satisfied when the franchise brand has promotional events such as giveaways(b=0.767), good accessibility(b=0.699), customer loyalty programs(b=0.659), award winning history(b=0.641), and outlets in the overseas market(b=0.506). The results are summarized in a matrix form in Table 1. Better(b) and Worse(w) index indicate relative importance of each quality feature on customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction, respectively. Meanwhile, there were differences in perceiving the quality features between light users and heavy users of any specific franchise brand in the food service industry. Expertise of the staffs was labeled as Must-be quality for heavy users but Indifferent quality for light users. Light users seemed indifferent to overseas expansion of the brand and offering new menu items on a regular basis, while heavy users appeared to perceive them as Attractive quality. Such difference may come from their different levels of involvement when they eat out. The results are shown in Table 2. The findings of this study help practitioners understand the quality features they need to focus on to strengthen the competitive power in the food service market. Above all, removing the factors that cause customer dissatisfaction seems to be the most critical for franchisees. To retain loyal customers of the franchise brand, it is also recommended for franchisor to invest resources in the development of new menu items as well as training programs for the staffs. Lastly, if resources allow, promotional events, loyalty programs, overseas expansion, award-winning history can be considered as tools for attracting more customers to the business.

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Visualizing the Results of Opinion Mining from Social Media Contents: Case Study of a Noodle Company (소셜미디어 콘텐츠의 오피니언 마이닝결과 시각화: N라면 사례 분석 연구)

  • Kim, Yoosin;Kwon, Do Young;Jeong, Seung Ryul
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.89-105
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    • 2014
  • After emergence of Internet, social media with highly interactive Web 2.0 applications has provided very user friendly means for consumers and companies to communicate with each other. Users have routinely published contents involving their opinions and interests in social media such as blogs, forums, chatting rooms, and discussion boards, and the contents are released real-time in the Internet. For that reason, many researchers and marketers regard social media contents as the source of information for business analytics to develop business insights, and many studies have reported results on mining business intelligence from Social media content. In particular, opinion mining and sentiment analysis, as a technique to extract, classify, understand, and assess the opinions implicit in text contents, are frequently applied into social media content analysis because it emphasizes determining sentiment polarity and extracting authors' opinions. A number of frameworks, methods, techniques and tools have been presented by these researchers. However, we have found some weaknesses from their methods which are often technically complicated and are not sufficiently user-friendly for helping business decisions and planning. In this study, we attempted to formulate a more comprehensive and practical approach to conduct opinion mining with visual deliverables. First, we described the entire cycle of practical opinion mining using Social media content from the initial data gathering stage to the final presentation session. Our proposed approach to opinion mining consists of four phases: collecting, qualifying, analyzing, and visualizing. In the first phase, analysts have to choose target social media. Each target media requires different ways for analysts to gain access. There are open-API, searching tools, DB2DB interface, purchasing contents, and so son. Second phase is pre-processing to generate useful materials for meaningful analysis. If we do not remove garbage data, results of social media analysis will not provide meaningful and useful business insights. To clean social media data, natural language processing techniques should be applied. The next step is the opinion mining phase where the cleansed social media content set is to be analyzed. The qualified data set includes not only user-generated contents but also content identification information such as creation date, author name, user id, content id, hit counts, review or reply, favorite, etc. Depending on the purpose of the analysis, researchers or data analysts can select a suitable mining tool. Topic extraction and buzz analysis are usually related to market trends analysis, while sentiment analysis is utilized to conduct reputation analysis. There are also various applications, such as stock prediction, product recommendation, sales forecasting, and so on. The last phase is visualization and presentation of analysis results. The major focus and purpose of this phase are to explain results of analysis and help users to comprehend its meaning. Therefore, to the extent possible, deliverables from this phase should be made simple, clear and easy to understand, rather than complex and flashy. To illustrate our approach, we conducted a case study on a leading Korean instant noodle company. We targeted the leading company, NS Food, with 66.5% of market share; the firm has kept No. 1 position in the Korean "Ramen" business for several decades. We collected a total of 11,869 pieces of contents including blogs, forum contents and news articles. After collecting social media content data, we generated instant noodle business specific language resources for data manipulation and analysis using natural language processing. In addition, we tried to classify contents in more detail categories such as marketing features, environment, reputation, etc. In those phase, we used free ware software programs such as TM, KoNLP, ggplot2 and plyr packages in R project. As the result, we presented several useful visualization outputs like domain specific lexicons, volume and sentiment graphs, topic word cloud, heat maps, valence tree map, and other visualized images to provide vivid, full-colored examples using open library software packages of the R project. Business actors can quickly detect areas by a swift glance that are weak, strong, positive, negative, quiet or loud. Heat map is able to explain movement of sentiment or volume in categories and time matrix which shows density of color on time periods. Valence tree map, one of the most comprehensive and holistic visualization models, should be very helpful for analysts and decision makers to quickly understand the "big picture" business situation with a hierarchical structure since tree-map can present buzz volume and sentiment with a visualized result in a certain period. This case study offers real-world business insights from market sensing which would demonstrate to practical-minded business users how they can use these types of results for timely decision making in response to on-going changes in the market. We believe our approach can provide practical and reliable guide to opinion mining with visualized results that are immediately useful, not just in food industry but in other industries as well.