• Title, Summary, Keyword: Production Traits

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Selection on milk production and conformation traits during the last two decades in Japan

  • Togashi, Kenji;Osawa, Takefumi;Adachi, Kazunori;Kurogi, Kazuhito;Tokunaka, Kota;Yasumori, Takanori;Takahashi, Tsutomu;Moribe, Kimihiro
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare intended and actual yearly genetic gains for milk production and conformation traits and to investigate the simple selection criterion practiced among milk production and conformation traits during the last two decades in Japan. Learning how to utilize the information on intended and actual genetic gains during the last two decades into the genomic era is vital. Methods: Genetic superiority for each trait for four paths of selection (sires to breed bulls [SB], sires to breed cows [SC], dams to breed bulls [DB], and dams to breed cows [DC]) was estimated. Actual practiced simple selection criteria were investigated among milk production and conformation traits and relative emphasis on milk production and conformation traits was compared. Results: Selection differentials in milk production traits were greater than those of conformation traits in all four paths of selection. Realized yearly genetic gain was less than that intended for milk production traits. Actual annual genetic gain for conformation traits was equivalent to or greater than intended. Retrospective selection weights of milk production and conformation traits were 0.73:0.27 and 0.56:0.44 for intended and realized genetic gains, respectively. Conclusion: Selection was aimed more toward increasing genetic gain in milk production than toward conformation traits over the past two decades in Japan. In contrast, actual annual genetic gain for conformation traits was equivalent to or greater than intended. Balanced selection between milk production and conformation traits tended to be favored during actual selection. Each of four paths of selection (SB, SC, DB, and DC) has played an individual and important role. With shortening generation interval in the genomic era, a young sire arises before the completion of sire's daughters' milk production records. How to integrate these four paths of selection in the genomic era is vital.

Genetic Parameters for Linear Type Traits and Milk, Fat, and Protein Production in Holstein Cows in Brazil

  • Campos, Rafael Viegas;Cobuci, Jaime Araujo;Kern, Elisandra Lurdes;Costa, Claudio Napolis;McManus, Concepta Margaret
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.476-484
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (-0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd.

Estimation of Genetic Associations between Production and Meat Quality Traits in Duroc Pigs

  • Cabling, M.M.;Kang, H.S.;Lopez, B.M.;Jang, M.;Kim, H.S.;Nam, K.C.;Choi, J.G.;Seo, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.1061-1065
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    • 2015
  • Data collected from 690 purebred Duroc pigs from 2009 to 2012 were used to estimate the heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and meat quality traits. Variance components were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood procedure using Wombat and SAS version 9.0. Animals were raised under the same management in five different breeding farms. The average daily gain, loin muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), and lean percent (LP) were measured as production traits. Meat quality traits included pH, cooking loss, lightness ($L^*$), redness ($a^*$), yellowness ($b^*$), marbling score (MS), moisture content (MC), water holding capacity (WHC), and shear force. The results showed that the heritability estimates for meat quality traits varied largely from 0.19 to 0.79. Production traits were moderate to highly heritable from 0.41 to 0.73. Genotypically, the BF was positively correlated (p<0.05) with MC (0.786), WHC (0.904), and pH (0.328) but negatively correlated with shear force (-0.533). The results of genetic correlations indicated that selection for less BF could decrease pH, moisture content, and WHC and increase the shear force of meat. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was recorded between average daily gain and WHC, which indicates pork from faster-growing animals has higher WHC. Furthermore, selection for larger LMA and LP could increase MS and lightness color of meat. The meat quality and production traits could be improved simultaneously if desired. Hence, to avoid further deterioration of pork characteristics, appropriate selection of traits should be considered.

Efficiency of Different Selection Indices for Desired Gain in Reproduction and Production Traits in Hariana Cattle

  • Kaushik, Ravinder;Khanna, A.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.789-793
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    • 2003
  • An investigation was conducted on 729 Hariana cows maintained at Government Livestock Farm, Hisar, from 1973 to 1999, with an objective to compare the efficiency of various selection indices for attaining desired genetic gains in the index traits. The various traits included were age at first calving (AFC), service period (SP), calving interval (CI), days to first service (DFS), number of services per conception (NSPC), lactation milk yield (LY), peak yield (PY), dry period (DP). Except for LY, PY and AFC the heritabilities of all other traits were low. Desirable associations among reproductive traits are supportive of the fact that any one of these traits incorporated in simultaneous selection is expected to cause correlated response in other traits. Production traits (LY and PY) were positively correlated, while DP had low negative genetic correlation with LY, and high genetic correlation with PY. Thus, DP can be taken as additional criteria in selection index for better over all improvement. Almost all production traits except DP had low negative correlation with AFC, SP, DFS and CI meaning that reduction in reproduction traits up to certain level may increase production performance. While, the correlation of NSPC with LY and PY was moderate positive. Among four trait indices I23: incorporating PY, AFC, SP and NSPC and among three trait indices I1: incorporating LY, AFC and SP were the best as these required least number of generations (4.87 and 1.35, respectively) to attain desired goals. Next in order of preference were PY or LY along with DP and SP as the best indices (I20 and I16) of which, index with PY may be preferred instead of LY as it produced considerably high correlated response in LY and reduction in NSPC as well.

Maternal and Direct Genetic Parameters for Production Traits and Maternal Correlations among Production and Feed Efficiency Traits in Duroc Pigs

  • Hoque, M.A.;Kadowaki, H.;Shibata, T.;Suzuki, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.961-966
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    • 2008
  • Direct and maternal genetic parameters for production traits in 1,642 pigs and maternal genetic correlations among production (1,642 pigs) and feed efficiency (380 boars) traits were estimated in 7 generations of a Duroc population. Traits studied were daily gain (DG), intramuscular fat (IMF), loineye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), daily feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). The RFI was calculated as the difference between actual and predicted feed intake. The predicted feed intake was estimated by adjusting the initial test weight, DG and BF. Data for production traits were analyzed using four alternative animal models (including direct, direct+maternal permanent environmental, or direct+maternal genetic+maternal permanent environmental effects). Direct heritability estimates from the model including direct and all maternal effects were $0.41{\pm}0.04$ for DG, $0.27{\pm}0.04$ for IMF, $0.52{\pm}0.06$ for LEA and $0.64{\pm}0.04$ for BF. Estimated maternal heritabilities ranged from $0.04{\pm}0.04$ to $0.15{\pm}0.05$ for production traits. Antagonistic relationships were observed between direct and maternal genetic effects ($r_{am}$) for LEA (-0.21). Maternal genetic correlations of feed efficiency traits with FI ($r_g$ of FI with FCR and RFI were $0.73{\pm}0.06$ and $0.90{\pm}0.05$, respectively) and LEA (rg of LEA with FCR and RFI were $-0.48{\pm}0.05$ to $-0.61{\pm}0.05$, respectively) were favorable. The estimated moderate genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects for IMF and LEA indicated that maternal effects has an important role in these traits, and should be accounted for in the genetic evaluation system.

Estimates of Genetic Correlations between Production and Semen Traits in Boar

  • Oh, S.H.;See, M.T.;Long, T.E.;Galvin, J.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.160-164
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    • 2006
  • Currently, boars selected for commercial use as AI sires are evaluated on grow-finish performance and carcass characteristics. If AI sires were also evaluated and selected on semen production, it may be possible to reduce the number of boars required to service sows, thereby improving the productivity and profitability of the boar stud. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between production and semen traits in the boar: average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BF) and muscle depth (MD) as production traits, and total sperm cells (TSC), total concentration (TC), volume collected (SV), number of extended doses (ND), and acceptance rate of ejaculates (AR) as semen traits. Semen collection records and performance data for 843 boars and two generations of pedigree data were provided by Smithfield Premium Genetics. Backfat thickness and MD were measured by real-time ultrasound. Genetic parameters were estimated from five four-trait and one five-trait animal models using MTDFREML. Average heritability estimates were 0.39 for ADG, 0.32 for BF, 0.15 for MD, and repeatability estimates were 0.38 for SV, 0.37 for TSC, 0.09 for TC, 0.39 for ND, and 0.16 for AR. Semen traits showed a strong negative genetic correlation with MD and positive genetic correlation with BF. Genetic correlations between semen traits and ADG were low. Therefore, current AI boar selection practices may be having a detrimental effect on semen production.

Replacement and Lifetime Production Traits: Effect of Non-genetic Factors and Sire Evaluation

  • Singh, S.;Khanna, A.S.;Singh, R.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 2002
  • The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of non-genetic factors and association among replacement and lifetime production traits. The data on 542 Holstein Friesian cows maintained during 1975-98 at State Cattle Breeding Project, Sector III, Hisar, were utilized. The average sex-ratio, abnormal births, mortality, culling and replacement rates on total calf born and total female calf born basis were 51.62, 8.50, 17.52, 31.05, 22.78 and 51.41 per cent, respectively. The study revealed that a minimum of 4 to 5 progenies are required per cow over its lifetime to replace itself. It indicated that each cow should produce a minimum of 2 female calves during its life so as to replace herself before being lost. The least-squares means for productive herd life, longevity and lifetime production were $1439.32{\pm}87.64$ and $2419.18{\pm}8.25$ days and $11317.95{\pm}913.15kg$, respectively. The heritability estimates for all replacement traits were very low indicating that sire selection may bring no desirable change in these traits. Heritability estimates were $0.178{\pm}0.157$, $0.288{\pm}0.184$ and $0.096{\pm}0.195$ for corresponding lifetime production traits. Breeding values and ranking of sires were generated for replacement and lifetime production traits to estimate the rank correlations between these traits. Moderate desirable rank correlations were obtained between replacement rate and lifetime production traits indicating that sires proven on the basis of milk production are also expected to have better replacement rate.

Estimation of genetic parameters of the productive and reproductive traits in Ethiopian Holstein using multi-trait models

  • Ayalew, Wondossen;Aliy, Mohammed;Negussie, Enyew
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.1550-1556
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study estimated the genetic parameters for productive and reproductive traits. Methods: The data included production and reproduction records of animals that have calved between 1979 and 2013. The genetic parameters were estimated using multivariate mixed models (DMU) package, fitting univariate and multivariate mixed models with average information restricted maximum likelihood algorithm. Results: The estimates of heritability for milk production traits from the first three lactation records were $0.03{\pm}0.03$ for lactation length (LL), $0.17{\pm}0.04$ for lactation milk yield (LMY), and $0.15{\pm}0.04$ for 305 days milk yield (305-d MY). For reproductive traits the heritability estimates were, $0.09{\pm}0.03$ for days open (DO), $0.11{\pm}0.04$ for calving interval (CI), and $0.47{\pm}0.06$ for age at first calving (AFC). The repeatability estimates for production traits were $0.12{\pm}0.02$, for LL, $0.39{\pm}0.02$ for LMY, and $0.25{\pm}0.02$ for 305-d MY. For reproductive traits the estimates of repeatability were $0.19{\pm}0.02$ for DO, and to $0.23{\pm}0.02$ for CI. The phenotypic correlations between production and reproduction traits ranged from $0.08{\pm}0.04$ for LL and AFC to $0.42{\pm}0.02$ for LL and DO. The genetic correlation among production traits were generally high (>0.7) and between reproductive traits the estimates ranged from $0.06{\pm}0.13$ for AFC and DO to $0.99{\pm}0.01$ between CI and DO. Genetic correlations of productive traits with reproductive traits were ranged from -0.02 to 0.99. Conclusion: The high heritability estimates observed for AFC indicated that reasonable genetic improvement for this trait might be possible through selection. The $h^2$ and r estimates for reproductive traits were slightly different from single versus multi-trait analyses of reproductive traits with production traits. As single-trait method is biased due to selection on milk yield, a multi-trait evaluation of fertility with milk yield is recommended.

Economic Values for Dairy Sheep Breeds in Slovakia

  • Krupova, Zuzana;Wolfova, M.;Wolf, J.;Oravcova, M.;Margetin, M.;Peskovicova, D.;Krupa, E.;Dano, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1693-1702
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    • 2009
  • Economic values of 14 production and functional traits for two Slovak dairy sheep breeds (Improved Valachian and Tsigai) were calculated. Semi-extensive production systems with one lambing per year were simulated using a bio-economic deterministic computer model. The marginal economic value of a trait was defined as the partial derivative of the profit function with respect to that trait. The relative economic value expressed the percentage proportion of standardized economic value (marginal economic value${\times}$genetic standard deviation) of a trait in the sum of the absolute values of the standardized economic values over all traits. Milk yield was of highest relative importance (26% and 32% in Improved Valachian and Tsigai) followed by productive lifetime and conception rate of ewes (16% and 15% in Improved Valachian and Tsigai, in both traits). Conception rate of female lambs and litter size had nearly the same relative economic importance in both breeds (9% to 11%). Survival rate of lambs at lambing and till weaning reached slightly lower economic values (4% to 7%). The economic importance of all remaining traits was less than 4%.

Genetic parameters and inbreeding effects for production traits of Thai native chickens

  • Tongsiri, Siriporn;Jeyaruban, Gilbert M.;Hermesch, Susanne;van der Werf, Julius H.J.;Li, Li;Chormai, Theerachai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.930-938
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Estimate genetic parameters, the rate of inbreeding, and the effect of inbreeding on growth and egg production traits of a Thai native chicken breed Lueng Hang Kao Kabinburi housed under intensive management under a tropical climate. Methods: Genetic parameters were estimated for weight measured at four weekly intervals from body weight at day 1 (BW1D) to body weight at 24 weeks (BW24) of age, as well as weight at first egg, age at first egg (AFE), egg weight at first egg, and total number of eggs (EN) produced during the first 17 weeks of lay using restricted maximum likelihood. Inbreeding depression was estimated using a linear regression of individual phenotype on inbreeding coefficient. Results: Direct additive genetic effect was significant for all traits. Maternal genetic effect and permanent environmental hen effects were significant for all early growth traits, expect for BW24. For BW24, maternal genetic effect was also significant. Permanent environmental hen effect was significant for AFE. Direct heritabilities ranged from 0.10 to 0.47 for growth traits and ranged from 0.15 to 0.16 for egg production traits. Early growth traits had high genetic correlations between them. The EN was lowly negatively correlated with other traits. The average rate of inbreeding for the population was 0.09% per year. Overall, the inbreeding had no effect on body weight traits, except for BW1D. An increase in inbreeding coefficient by 1% reduced BWID by 0.09 g (0.29% of the mean). Conclusion: Improvement in body weight gain can be achieved by selecting for early growth traits. Selection for higher body weight traits is expected to increase the weight of first egg. Due to low but unfavorable correlations with body weight traits, selection on EN needs to be combined with other traits via multi-trait index selection to improve body weight and EN simultaneously.