• Title, Summary, Keyword: Protein Sources

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Comparative Efficacy of Plant and Animal Protein Sources on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Morphology and Caecal Microbiology of Early-weaned Pigs

  • Yun, J.H.;Kwon, I.K.;Lohakare, J.D.;Choi, J.Y.;Yong, J.S.;Zheng, J.;Cho, W.T.;Chae, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.1285-1293
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    • 2005
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of various animal and plant protein sources on piglet' performance, digestibility of amino acids and gut morphology in weaned pigs until 28 days after weaning. The plant protein sources used were soybean meal (SBM), fermented soy protein (FSP), rice protein concentrate (RPC); and animal protein sources tested were, whey protein concentrate (WPC) and fishmeal (FM). Iso-proteinous (21%) diets were formulated and lysine (1.55%) content was similar in all the diets. The level of each protein source added was 6% by replacing SBM to the same extent from the control diet containing 15% SBM. The ADG was higher (p<0.05) in the groups fed animal proteins as compared with plant proteins at all the levels of measurement, except during 15-28 days. The highest ADG was noted in WPC and FM fed diets and lowest in SBM fed diet. The feed intake was higher in animal protein fed groups than plant proteins at all phases, but the feed:gain ratio was not affected by protein sources except during overall (0 to 14 day) measurement which was improved (p<0.05) in animal protein fed diets compared to plant protein sources. The digestibilities of gross energy, dry matter and crude protein were higher in animal protein fed groups than for plant protein fed sources. The apparent ileal digestibilities of essential amino acids like Leu, Thr, and Met were significantly (p<0.05) higher in animal proteins fed animals as compared with plant protein fed animals. But the apparent fecal digestibilities of essential amino acids like Arg and Ile were significantly higher (p<0.05) in plant protein diets than animal protein sources. The villous structure studied by scanning electron microscope were prominent, straight finger-like, although shortened and densely located in FM fed group as compared with others. The lactic acid bacteria and C. perfringens counts were higher in caecal contents of pigs fed plant proteins than the animal proteins. Overall, it could be concluded that animal protein sources in the present study showed better effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and gut morphology than plant protein sources.

The Effect of Dietary Protein on Bone Metabolism in the Rats of Different Ages (식이 단백질의 종류와 수준이 연령이 다른 흰쥐에서 뇨 Ca 배설 및 뼈에 미치는 영향)

  • 김혜영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 1986
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of age and of the dietary protein sources & levels on urinary calcium excretion and bone metabolism in the rats. Two experiments were conducted . In experiment U, 6& 20 weeks old rats were fed 8 & 36%, casein & ffish protein diet for 5 weeks . In experiment II, 16& 52 weeks old rats were fed 40 % protein diets, protein sources were casein, fish and gluten. High-protein diet group excreted more caldium in urine than low-protein group. Urinary calcium excretion was affected by the sources of protein ; gluten group excreted more Ca, followed by fish & casein group. Total bone Ca & Ca proportion in ash were higher in 20 weeks old rats than 6 weeks old rats, but 16 & 52 weeks old rats showed no differences. bone composition showed that water proportion was high and ash proportion was low in 6 weeks old rats than in 20 weeks old rats. However, these tendencies were not observed between 16 weeks and 52 weeks old rats. And bone composition was affected by protein sources ; higher ash proportions were noted in one order of casein, fish, and gluten water proportion were lower in one same order.

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Effect of Thermal Processing of Cereal Grain on the Performance of Crossbred Calves Fed Starters Containing Protein Sources of Varying Ruminal Degradability

  • Pattanaik, A.K.;Sastry, V.R.B.;Katiyar, R.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1239-1244
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    • 2000
  • In order to investigate the effect of incorporation of thermally processed cereal (maize) grain and differently degradable protein sources in the calf starter, twenty four newly born crossbred $(Bos\;taurus{\times}Bos\;indicus)$ calves were assigned at random to six diets in a $3{\times}2$ factorial design involving three protein sources viz. groundnut meal (GN), cottonseed meal (CS) and meat and bone meal (MB), each along with two differently processed grain, namely ground raw (R) and pressure cooked (P) maize. The corresponding calf starters with green oats (Avena sativa) were given free-choice from 14 d onwards till the end of the 90 d experimental feeding. A restricted milk diet was fed till the age of weaning at 60 d. Total DM intake was not affected by cereal or protein sources. However, daily intake of DM (59.23 vs 66.45 g) and CP (12.38 vs 14.10 g) per kg $W^{0.75}$ was reduced (p<0.05) due to cereal processing. Better (p<0.05) feed and protein efficiencies after weaning and during entire period in calves fed processed maize resulted in a trend of higher $(p{\leq}092)$ growth rate especially when GN was the source of protein. In comparison among protein sources, calves fed MB diets tended to grow faster $(p{\leq}098)$ concurrent with a higher CP intake before weaning. It is thus evident that thermal processing of maize in the calf starter seems to improve calf performance. Moreover, results indicated that feeding of protein and starch sources of matching ruminal degradability may prove beneficial for early growth of crossbred calves.

Effects of Dietary Protein Sources on Growth and Body Composition in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

  • Kim Kang-Woong;Wang Xiaojie;Bai Sungchul C.
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.103-107
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    • 2002
  • A 6-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of six different dietary animal protein sources on growth and body composition of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus in recirculating system. White fish meal (WFM), flounder muscle (FLM), carp muscle (CM), blood meal (BM), squid liver powder (SLP) and casein (CA) were used as the main animal protein sources in the six experimental diets. Fish averaging $2.9\pm0.03g$ $(mean\pm SD)$ were distributed to each aquarium as a group of 15 fish and were fed one of the six experimental diets to each treatment of triplicate groups. After 6-week of the feeding trial, fish fed white fish meal (WFM) and flounder muscle (FLM) diets showed a significant higher weight gain $(WG\%)$ (P<0.05) than those of fish fed the CM, BM, SLP and CA diets. Fish fed BM diet showed the lowest WG among all the dietary treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) showed the similar trend as WG. Hematocrit and hemoglobin were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed the FLM and CM diets showed significant higher survival rate than those of fish fed BM diets, and there was no significant difference in survival of fish fed WFM, FLM, CM, SLP and CA diets. These results indicated that WFM and FLM are the best dietary protein sources tested in olive flounder.

Dietary Intake and Major Dietary Sources of Vitamin $B_6$

  • Cho, Youn-Ok;Kim, Young-Nam
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.20-25
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    • 2001
  • The dietary vitamin $B_6$ intake of 218 Korean young women (aged 20-26y), who had no health problems, and their sources were estimated using a modified Korean vitamin $B_6$ database. The average daily vitamin $B_6$ intake was 0.987 mg for the subjects. About 87.2% of the subjects consumed less than the Korean Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of vitamin $B_6$. The average ratio of vitamin $B_6$ intake to daily protein intake was 0.014 mg/g protein, and approximately 91% of subjects consumed 〈 0.02 mg/g protein. Vitamin $B_6$ intake was significantly (p〈.01 -p〈.001) positively correlated to the intakes of all other nutrients. Between animal and vegetable protein, animal protein had a stronger positive correlation with vitamin $B_6$. Major dietary sources of vitamin $B_6$, the top 10 foods provided nearly 64% of total vitamin $B_6$, and dietary contributors of vitamin $B_6$ for Koreans are less varied than those for Americans.

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Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate levels on growth and body composition of juvenile flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Lee, Sang-Min
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Fisheries Technology Conference
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    • pp.175-176
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    • 2003
  • Dietary protein is the most expensive component in flounder feed because of the high protein requirement of this species. The non-protein energy sources may also influence the protein utilization of fish. The inclusion of adequate levels of non-protein energy sources in diets can minimize use of protein as an energy source. Protein sparing effect by fat and carbohydrate has been studied in other fish. (omitted)

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Effects of Dietary Animal Protein Sources on Growth and Body Composition in Korean Rockfish, Sebastes schlogeli (사료내 동물성 단백질원들이 조피볼락의 성장과 체조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 배승철;김강웅
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 1997
  • A 6-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the nutritional value of various dietary animal protein sources in juvenile Koran rockfish. White fish meal (WFM), flounder muscle meal (FMM), blood meal (BM), casein & gelain (CG), egg white albumin (EWA) and squid liver powder (SLP) were used as the animal protein sources, Crude protein content and available energy of the experimental diets were 50% and 15.9 kJ/g, respectively. There were significant differences among all dietary groups in weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE), and protein effiency ratio (PER). WFM and FFM were the best animal protein sources among the dietary groups. FMM diet had significantly higher (P<0.05) WG, FE, and PER values than those of fish fed the WFM diet. WG, FE, PER, and specific growth rate (SGR) values of fish fed BM diet were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of fish fed EWA diet. Significant differences were found in whole body composition, hemoglobin (Hb), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and hematocrit (Ht). These results showed that low-temperature processing of lyophilized flounder muscle meal resulted in superior performance of rockfish relative to the other evaluated animal protein sources.

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GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITIES AFFECTED BY VARIOUS PLANT PROTEIN SOURCES IN GROWING-FINISHING PIGS

  • Moon, H.K.;Kim, J.W.;Heo, K.N.;Kim, Y.H.;Kim, S.W.;Kwon, C.H.;Shin, I.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.537-546
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was carried out to compare the effects of six different plant protein sources such as soybean meal, extruded full-fat soybean, canola meal, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and perilla meal as a sole protein source of diets on growth performance and amino acid bioavailabilities in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 54 pigs with average 25 kg of body weight were used as experimental subjects for a 65-d feeding trial. Digestion trial was carried out with seven ileal-cannulated pigs. The most rapid rate of weight gain was observed in pigs fed soybean meal and full-fat soybean, the moderate one in pigs fed canola meal and cottonseed meal and the least one in pigs fed rapeseed meal and perilla meal (p<0.005). Feed efficiency was better for groups fed soybean meal and full-fat soybean than other protein meals (p<0.05). The apparent ileal digestibilities of essential amino acids of soybean meal and full-fat soybean (82.5% and 81.6%) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other protein sources (61.2 to 69.4%). Regardless of protein sources, the apparent ileal digestibility of arginine was highest, whereas that of histidine was lowest among essential amino acids. Proline had the lowest digestibility among non-essential amino acids. True amino acid digestibilities tended to be higher than apparent amino acid digestibilities. The differences between true and apparent ileal digestibilities were greater in canola meal, rapeseed meal or cottonseed meal than other protein sources. The differences was greatest in praline except for cottonseed meal. The fecal digestibility appeared to be higher than the ileal digestibility. The differences between fecal and ileal digestibilities were greater in canola meal, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and perilla meal than in soybean meal and full-fat soybean. In general, praline was the most disappeared amino acid in the hind gut, while the net synthesis of lysine in the large intestine was observed in all protein sources except perilla meal. It is appropriate that swine feeds should be formulated based on true ileal amino acid digestibility of protein sources for pig's normal growth.

Submerged Monoxenic Culture Medium Development for Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and its Symbiotic Bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens: Protein Sources

  • Cho, Chun-Hwi;Whang, Kyung-Sook;Gaugler, Randy;Yoo, Sun-Kyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.869-873
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    • 2011
  • Most medium formulations for improving culture of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) based on protein sources have used enriched media like animal feed such as dried egg yolk, lactalbumin, and liver extract, among other ingredients. Most results, however, showed unstable yields and longer production time. Many of the results do not show the detailed parameters of fermentation. Soy flour, cotton seed flour, corn gluten meal, casein powder, soytone, peptone, casein hydrolysates, and lactalbumin hydrolysate as protein sources were tested to determine the source to support optimal symbiotic bacteria and nematode growth. The protein hydrolysates selected did not improve bacterial cell mass compared with the yeast extract control, but soy flour was the best, showing 75.1% recovery and producing more bacterial cell number ($1.4{\times}10^9$/ml) than all other sources. The highest yield ($1.85{\times}10^5$ IJs/ml), yield coefficient ($1.67{\times}10^6$ IJs/g medium), and productivity ($1.32{\times}10^7$ IJs/l/day) were also achieved at enriched medium with soybean protein.

Effects of Different Dietary Protein Sources on Apparent Digestibility and Growth in Juvenile River Puffer Takifugu obscurus (단백질원료의 종류에 따른 황복(Takifugu obscurus) 치어의 소화율 및 성장 평가)

  • Yoo, Gwangyeol;Bai, Sungchul C.
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.383-389
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    • 2014
  • An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the apparent dry matter and protein digestibility of seven different dietary protein sources by juvenile river puffer Takifugu obscurus. Eight diets containing white fish meal (WFM), brown fish meal (BFM), squid liver powder (SLP), krill meal (KM), leather meal (LM), soybean meal (SM), or fermented soybean meal (FSM) were prepared by mixing a basal diet (BD) with one of the seven test ingredients at a ratio of 7 to 3. Fish averaging $10.8{\pm}0.04g$ were fed the experimental diets in triplicate groups. The apparent dry matter digestibilities of BFM, WFM, FSM, SLP, LM, SM, and KM were 80, 78, 72, 67, 56, 55, and 54%, respectively, while the corresponding apparent protein digestibilities were 96, 96, 93, 92, 89, 88, and 86. The weight gain of fish fed BFM was significantly greater than that of fish fed SM or LM (P<0.05), while it was not significantly different from that of fish fed the BD, WFM, FSM, BFM, SLP, or KM. These results indicated that WFM, BFM, FSM, and SLP are potentially good protein sources for replacing fish meal in river puffer feed.