• Title, Summary, Keyword: Protein kinase C

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Immunocytochemical Localization of c-raf Protein Kinase in EC-4 Cell (EC-4 세포에 있어서 c-raf Protein Kinase의 면역세포화학적 위치)

  • 최원철
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.266-275
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    • 1990
  • c-raf protein kinase, a kind of oncogene, is a cytopiasmic serine / threonine-specific protein and is activated by mitogenic or oncogenic signals. The strncture and functions of c-raf protein kinase are considered very similar to those of protein kinase C. Using immunocytochemical approach, the time course of singal transduction of c-raf protein kinase in EC-4 cell was examined with 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as tumor promotor and plateletderived growth factor (PDGF) as mitogenic factor. Immunoreactive c-raf was initially bound to the perinuclear membrane and then moved into the nucleus. The effect of the long-term treatment with TPA or PDGF was taken place down regulation at different time point. These results indicate that TPA and PDGF give rise to the translocation of c-raf protein kinase through the two different pathways.

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Immunocytochemical Localization Qf raf Protein Kinase in Cerebrum of Geoclemys reevesii (Gray) (남생이(Geoclemys reevesii) 대뇌에 있어서 raf Protein Kinase의 면역세포화학적 분포)

  • 최원철;문현근
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 1990
  • Raf protein kinases and protein kinase C belong to serine/threonine-specific proteins in the cytoplasin, and are similar to each other in functional structure and the aspect of the distribution of celI. The distribution of raf protein kinase in the cerebrum of Geoclemys reevesfi as studied by using the antibodies against a-raf and c-raf protein kinase which induce the expression of raf fainily oncogenes. In general, raf protein kinases were distributed in such restricted regions as the general pallium, hippocampal formation, pdmordiuin hippocampi,nucleus of lateral olfactory tract, basal amygdaloid nucleus, and bed of stria terminalis. Immunological labeling of c-raf protein kinase was more widespread than that of a-raf. However, the intensity of the labeling of c-raf was lower than that of a-raf. The spherical cells of basal amygdaloid nucleus is a ring-like form, because only the cytoplasm was imunolabeled. Especially, c-raf protein kinase occurred in the cells which contained protein kinase C abundandy such as pyramidal cells and Purkinje cells. This suggests that a- and e-raf protein kinases may synegistically induce carclnoma with myc gene which is activated by protein kinase C.

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Protein Kinase C (PKC) in Cellular Signalling System: Translocation of Six Protein Kinase C Isozymes in Human Prostate Adenocarcinoma PC-3 Cell Line (세포신호계에 있어서 Protein Kinase C: 사람의 전입선 adenocarcinoma PC-3 세포내의 여섯개의 Protein kinase C 동립효소의 translocation)

  • Park, Won-Chul;Ahn, Chang-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.439-451
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    • 1993
  • Protein kinase C isozymes in a human prostate adenocarcinoma PC-3 cell line were characterized. Immunoreactive bands and immunocytochemical stains were obsenred in PC-3 cells with antibodies raised against protein kinase C ${\alpha}$, ${\beta}$, ${\gamma}$, $\delta$, $\varepsilon$, and ζ types, respectively. Protein kinase C ${\alpha}$ corresponded to a immunoreactive band at a molecular weight of 80,000-dalton, whereas molecular weights of other immunoreactive isozvmes of protein kinase C were detected at 68,000-dalton. Protein kinHse C $\delta$ and ζ antibodies detected additional bands at 55,000-dalton and 80,000-dalton, respectively Immunocvtochemical study confirmed the results of the immunoblotting experiments qualitatively: all six protein kinase C isozymes were detected in the cytoplasm of PC-3 cells. Translocation of protein kinase C in PC-3 cells were also examined with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), bryostatin 2, diolein, and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl glycerol (OAG). Differential reactions of protein kinase C isozvmes to these activators were obsenred. When PC-3 cells were treated with 10mM bryostatin 2, protein kinase C isozyme u was translocated into the nucleus, whereas s type was translocated into the plasma membrane and the nucleus. Protein kinase C ${\alpha}$ and ζ types were translocated into the nucleus following the treatment with 101M diolein, whereas protein kinase C ${\alpha}$, ${\beta}$, ${\gamma}$, and $\varepsilon$ types were translocated into the nucleus by the treatment with 10mM OAG. Protein kinase C ${\alpha}$ and $\varepsilon$ types were translocated into the nucleus in the presence of 100nM PMA. Protein kinase C $\delta$ type was translocated to the nuclear membrane by these activators, however, only PMA-induced translocation was inhibited by protein kinase C inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyll-2-methvlpiperazine dihvdrochloride (H7) . H7 inhibited translocation of protein kinase C ${\alpha}$ type induced by PMA, ${\beta}$ type by OAG and s type by PMA and OAG, whereas it did not affect translocations induced by bryostatin and diolein, respectively. These results suggest that there exist six isoformes of protein kinase C (${\alpha}$, ${\beta}$, ${\gamma}$, $\delta$, $\varepsilon$ and ζ types) in PC-3 cells and that each of these isozvmes distinctivelv reacts to bryostatin, diolein, OAG and PMA, in part due to an altered molecular size and conceivably discrete binding site(s).

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Action of Protein Kinase A and C Activators on Germinal Vesicle Breakdown and One-Cell Embryos in the Mouse (생쥐 GV난자와 1-세포기 배아의 핵막붕괴에 미치는 Protein Kinase A와 C의 작용)

  • 이대기;김경진;조완규
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.153-162
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    • 1989
  • Expedments were perfonned to examine the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) and diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinase (PK-C) during the meiodc resumption and the first mitotic cell cycle of mouse embryogenesis. Mejoric GV oocytes and one-cell embryos derived from in vitro fertilization were cultured in vitro, and morphological changes in response to activators of PK-A and PK-C were examined. Treatments with a membrane-permeable cAMP analog, dbcAMP (0.1 mg/mi), phosphodiesterase inhibitor, IBMX (0.1 mM), biologically active phorbol ester, WA (10 nglmi), or a synthetic diacylglycerol, sn-diC8 inhibited resumption of melosis. Combination of PK-A and PK-C activator brought about furiher inhibition. On the contrary, dbcAMP (0.1 mg/mi), IBMX (0.2 mM), WA (10 nglml), and sn-diC8 (0.5 mM) did not inhibit pronucleus membrane breakdown (PNBD) when added S or G2 phase of cell cycle. However, activators of PK-C inhibited cleavage of one-cefl embryos. This result indicates that the action mechanism of PK-A and PK-C on dissolution of nuclear membrane in primary meiotic arrest oocytes may be different from that of mitotic one-cell embryos.

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The Effects of Chronic Carbamazepine Administration on Protein Kinase A and Protein Kinase C Activities in Rat Brain (카바마제핀 장기 투여가 백서(白鼠) 뇌의 Protein Kinase A와 Protein Kinase C 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Rheem, Doo-Won;Kim, Leen;Suh, Kwang-Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 1998
  • Objective : Many evidences suggest that patients with bipolar disorder have functional abnormalities in their postreceptor signal transduction pathways, and mood stabilizing effect of lithium is exerted by modulating this dysfunctioning system. Carbamazepine, an antiepileptic agent, is also known to be effective in the treatment and prevention of bipolar disorder. But the precise mechanism of action of the drug is still poorly understood. This study was performed to elucidate the possible therapeutic mechanism of carbamazepine. Method : The effects of chronic carbamazepine administration on protein kinase A and protein kinase C activities in frontal cortex of rat brain after 2 weeks of drug administration were measured and compared with those of control subjects. Results : Mean(${\pm}SE$) value of activity(phosphate transfer ${\mu}mol/mg$ of $protein{\cdot}min$) of protein kinase A in control and test group was $0.249563{\pm}0.036$ and $0.539853{\pm}0.078$, and that of protein kinase C was $0.654817{\pm}0.053$ and $1.146205{\pm}0.052$ respectively, being increased in test group. And differences between the two groups were statistically significant for both enzymes(protein kinase A ; p<0.01, protein kinase C ; p<0.001). Conclusion : These results show that chronic carbamazepine administration increases protein kinase A and C activities, and concerning the possible mode of therapeutic action in bipolar disorder it is suggested that enhanced enzymes phosphorylate receptor-G-protein-effector complexes to dampen hyperfunctioning neuronal activity and thus stabilize the system.

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Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of schizosaccharomyces pombe Homologue of the receptor for activated protein kinase C gene

  • Park, Seung-Keil;Yoo, Hyang-Sook
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.128-131
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    • 1995
  • Using differential hybridization, we selected the prk gene fortuitously from Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologous to RACK1 of rat which encodes the receptor for activated protein kinase C. The cDNA sequence of prk was determined and its deduced amino acid sequence was 76% homologous to RACK1 and had the feature of trimeric G protein bata subunit. The specific amino acid sequences required for the protein kinase C binding were also present in Prk as in the case of RACK1 protein. From these similarities, we suggest that the Prk is protein kinase C binding protein of S. prombe. The involvement of Prk in signal transduction mediated by protein kinase C remained to be studied.

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Effects of Protein Kinase Inhibitors on Melanin Production in B16 Melanoma Cells Stimulated via Cyclic AMP-dependent Pathway (B16 Melanoma 세포에서 Protein Kinase 억제제들이 Cyclic AMP 경로를 통한 멜라닌 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 차상복;조남영;윤미연;임혜원;김경원;박영미;이지윤;이진희;김창종
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2003
  • To investigate the effect of protein kinase on melanin production via cAMP-dependent pathway, we measured the melanin amount and tyrosinase activity in B16 melanoma cells stimulated by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP. MSH, forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP significantly increased both melanin production and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Melanin production and tyrosinase activity by MSH are significantly inhibited by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (KT5720) and protein kinase C down-regulation treated with PMA. Bisindolmaleimide (1$\mu$M), protein kinase C inhibitor, significantly inhibited melanin production and tyrosinase activity stimulated by MSH, forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP with the following order of potency: MSH>forskolin>8-Br-cAMP. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein and DHC, significantly inhibited both, but the inhibitory effect was more potent in 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated B16 cells than MSH-stimulated cells. NFkB inhibitor (parthenolide) significantly inhibited melanin production and tyrosinase activity. Neither melanin production nor tyrosinase activity induced by MSH, forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP were affected by KN-62 (calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor), PD098059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, MAPKK) and worthmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor). These results suggest that both protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase are involved in melanin production by cyclic AMP-dependent pathway and NFkB pathway may play an important role in cyclic AMP-dependent melanin production in B16 melanoma cells.

Alteration of the Activated Responses in Platelet-Activating Factor-Stimulated Neutrophils by Protein Kinase Inhibitors (Protein Kinase 억제제 첨가 후 Platelet-Activating Factor에 의하여 자극된 호중구반응의 변경)

  • Lee, Kang-Kun;Ko, Ji-Young;Ham, Dong-Suk;Shin, Yong-Kyoo;Lee, Chung-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.103-112
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    • 1996
  • Roles of protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase in the activation of neutrophil respiratory burst, degranulation and elevation of cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ in platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated neutrophils were investigated. Superoxide and $H_2O_2$ production and myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase release in PAF-stimulated neutrophils were inhibited by protein kinase C inhibitors, staurosporine and H-7 and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and tyrphostin. The PAF-induced elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ in neutrophils was inhibited by staurosporine, genistein and methyl-2,5-dihydroxycinnamate. Staurosporine inhibited both intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release and $Mn^{2+}$ influx in PAF-stimulated neutrophils. Genistein and methyl-2,5-dihydroxycinnamate inhibited $Mn^{2+}$ influx induced by PAF, whereas their effects on intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release were not detected. In neutrophils preactivated by PMA, the stimulatory effect of PAF on the elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was reduced. Protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase may be involved in respiratory burst, lysosomal enzyme release and $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization in PAF-stimulated neutrophils. The elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ appears to be accomplished by intracullular $Ca^{2+}$ release and $Ca^{2+}$ influx which are differently regulated by protein kinases. Preactivation of protein kinase C appears to attenuate the stimulatory action of PAF on intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization.

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Effect of High Fat Diet and Calorie-restricted Diet on Protein Kinase C Activity in Mouse Epidermal Cell (고지방식이와 열량제한식이가 백서상피세포의 Protein Kinase C 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.149-156
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    • 1991
  • To determine the effect of dietary fat and calorie level on protein kinase C(PKC) activity in mouse epidermal cells, female BALB/C mice (4weeks of age) were placed on high (24.6% ), moderate(5%) fat or calorie-restricted diets for at least 4 weeks. Diets were formulated on a nutrient/kcal basis such that the mice consumed the same amounts of protein. vitamins, minerals and fiber per kcal. PKC was assayed by the procedure of Wise et at. An apparent increase of PKC activity was observed from the aminal fed high fat diet when compared with the aminal fed moderate fat diet. PKC activity was decreased 40% by calorie restriction. In summary levels of dietary fat may contribute to mechanism of tumor promotion by increasing PKC activity in the mouse skin model.

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The Role of Protein Kinase C and Protein Tyrosine Kinase in the Signal Transduction Pathway of Stimulus Induced by Endotoxin in Peripheral Blood Monocyte (말초혈액 단핵구에 대한 내독소 자극의 신호 전달에서 Protein Kinase C와 Protein Tyrosine Kinase의 역할)

  • Kim, Jae-Yeol;Park, Jae-Suk;Lee, Gwi-Lae;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.338-348
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    • 1997
  • Background : Endotoxin, the component of outermembrane of gram negative organism, plays an important role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory reaction by its effects on inflammatory cells. Until recently, there have been continuing efforts to delinate the mechanisms of the signal trasduction pathway of endotoxin stimuli on inflammatory cells. By uncovering the mechanisms of signal transduction pathway of endotoxin stimuli, we can expect to have tools to control the excessive inflammatory responses which sometimes may be fatal to the involved host. It was generally accepted that endotoxin exerts its inflammatory effects through inflammatory cytokines that are produced by endotoxin-stimulated inflammatory cells and there were some reports on the importance of protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase activation in the production of inflammatory cytokines by endotoxin So we evaluated the effect of pretreatment of protein kinase C inhibitors (H7, Staurosporin) and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors(Herbimycin, Genistein) on the endotoxin-stimulated cytokines(IL-8 & TNF-$\alpha$) mRNA expression. Method : Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers by Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient method and purified by adhesion to 60mm Petri dishes. Endotoxin(LPS 100ng/ml) was added to each dishes except one control dish, and each endotoxin-stimulated dishes was preincubated with H7, Staurosporin(protein kinase C inhibitor), Herbimycin or Genistein(protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor) respectively except one dish. Four hours later the endotoxin stimulation, total RNA was extracted and Northern blot analysis for IL-8 mRNA and TNF-$\alpha$ mRNA was done. Result : Endotoxin stimulation increased the expression of IL-8 mRNA and TNF-$\alpha$ mRNA expression in human peripheral blood monocyte as expected and the stimulatory effect of endotoxin on TNF-$\alpha$ mRNA expression was inhibited by protein kinase C inhibitors(H7, Staurosporin) and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (Herbimycin, Genistein). The inhibitory effect of each drugs was increased with increasing concentration. The stimulatory effect of endotoxin on IL-8 mRNA was also inhibited by H7 and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (Herbimycin, Genistein) dose-dependently but not by Staurosporin. Conclusion : Protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase are involved in the endotoxin induced signal transduction pathway in human peripheral blood monocyte.

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