• Title, Summary, Keyword: Proteins

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Proteome characterization reveals the role of pollen and pistil of W22 (ga1; Ga1) in maize

  • Roy, Swapan Kumar;Yu, Jin;Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa;Kwon, Soo Jeong;Cho, Kun;Cho, Seong-Woo;So, Yoon-Sup;Woo, Sun Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.129-129
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    • 2017
  • The first key point to the successful pollination and fertilization in plants is the pollen pistil interaction, referring to the cellular and molecular levels, which mainly play active roles in limiting gene flow among maize populations and between maize and teosinte. This study was carried out to identify proteins and investigate the mechanism of gametophytic factors using protein analysis. W22 (ga1); which didn't carry a gametophytic factor and W22 (Ga1), a near iso-genic line were used for the proteome investigation. SDS-PAGE was executed to investigate proteins in the pollen and pistil of W22 (ga1) and W22 (Ga1). A total of 44 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the pollen and pistil on SDS-PAGE using LTQ-FTICR MS. Among the 44 proteins, a total of 24 proteins were identified in the pollen of W22 (ga1) and W22 (Ga1) whereas 20 differentially expressed proteins were identified from the pistil of W22 (Ga) and W22 (Ga1). However, in pollen, 2 proteins were identified only in the W22 (ga1) and 12 proteins only in the W22 (Ga1) whereas 10 proteins were confirmed from the both of W22 (ga1) and W22 (Ga1). In contrary, 10 proteins were appeared only in the pistil of W22 (ga1) and 7 proteins from W22 (Ga1) while 3 proteins confirmed in the both of W22 (ga1) and W22 (Ga1). Moreover, the identified proteins were generally involved in hydrolase activity, nucleic acid binding and nucleotide binding. These results help to reveal the mechanism of gametophytic factors and provide a valuable clue for the pollen and pistil research in maize. In addition, it might provide a comprehensive insight on the proteins that were involved in the regulation of pollen-pistil interaction.

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Comparative Proteomic Analyses of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 Strain Against Menadione-Induced Oxidative Stress

  • Kim, Il-Sup;Yun, Hae-Sun;Jin, In-Gnyol
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.207-217
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    • 2007
  • The Saccharomyces0 cerevisiae KNU5377 strain, which was isolated from spoilage in nature, has the ability to convert biomass to alcohol at high temperatures and it can resist against various stresses [18, 19]. In order to understand the defense mechanisms of the KNU5377 strain under menadione (MD) as oxidative stress, we used several techniques for study: peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) followed by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), and surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) technology. Among the 35 proteins identified by MALDI-TOF MS, 19 proteins including Sod1p, Sod2p, Tsa1p, and Ahp1p were induced under stress condition, while 16 proteins were augmented under normal condition. In particular, five proteins, Sod1p, Sod2p, Ahp1p, Rib3p, Yaf9p, and Mnt1p, were induced in only stressed cells. By LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, 37 proteins were identified in normal cells and 49 proteins were confirmed in the stressed cells. Among the identified proteins, 32 proteins were found in both cells. Five proteins including Yel047cp and Met6p were only upregulated in the normal cells, whereas 17 proteins including Abp1P and Sam1p were elevated in the stressed cells. It was interesting that highly hypothetical proteins such as Ynl281wp, Ygr279cp, Ypl273wp, Ykl133cp, and Ykr074wp were only expressed in the stressed cells. SELDI-TOF analysis using the SAX2 and WCX2 chips showed that highly multiple-specific protein patterns were reproducibly detected in ranges from 2.9 to 27.0 kDa both under normal and stress conditions. Therefore, induction of antioxidant proteins, hypothetical proteins, and low molecular weight proteins were revealed by different proteomic techniques. These results suggest that comparative analyses using proteomics might contribute to elucidate the defense mechanisms of KNU5377 under MD stress.

Development of Protein Biomarkers for the Authentication of Organic Rice

  • Lee, Ju-Young;Lim, Jinkyu
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.355-361
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    • 2015
  • The rice protein profiles of Oryza sativa L (Koshihikari) grown under organic and conventional cultivation regimes were compared on 2-D gels to develop diagnostic marker proteins for organic rice. The selected proteins, differentially expressed between organic and conventional rice, were compared with the differentially expressed proteins of another organic and conventional rice pairing, produced at a different location. In the first comparison among conventional, no-chemical, and organic rice grown in the same region, Korea, 13 proteins exhibiting differential expression in organic and conventionally grown plants were selected. Eight of the 13 proteins were down-regulated, and the 5 remaining proteins were up-regulated from conventional to organic rice. The second comparison pairing from Kyungju, revealed 12 differentially expressed proteins, with 8 down-regulated and 4 up-regulated proteins. Ten of the differentially expressed proteins that overlapped between the two comparison sets could not be clustered into any functional group using a functional annotation clustering tool. Further comparisons using another set of conventional and organic rice, belonging to a different variety of Oryza sativa L and produced in Sanchung, revealed 8 differentially expressed proteins, 5 of which were down-regulated and 3 of which were upregulated in the organic rice. Overall, 3 differentially expressed proteins were commonly found in all three organic rice crops. These 3 proteins, along with other overlapping differentially expressed proteins, can provide a good starting point for the development of signature proteins that can be used for the authentication of organic rice with a follow-up studies with more comparison sets.

Comparison of Proteins Secreted into Extracellular Space of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii

  • Moon, Eun-Kyung;Choi, Hyun-Seo;Park, So-Min;Kong, Hyun-Hee;Quan, Fu-Shi
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.56 no.6
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    • pp.553-558
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    • 2018
  • Pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but serious ocular infection that can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness. However, pathogenic factors of AK remain unclear and treatment for AK is arduous. Expression levels of proteins secreted into extracellular space were compared between A. castellanii pathogenic (ACP) and non-pathogenic strains. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed 123 differentially expressed proteins, including 34 increased proteins, 7 qualitative increased proteins, 65 decreased proteins, and 17 qualitative decreased proteins in ACP strain. Twenty protein spots with greater than 5-fold increase in ACP strain were analyzed by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. These proteins showed similarity each to inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase, carboxylesterase, oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase, periplasmic-binding protein proteinases and hypothetical proteins. These proteins expressed higher in ACP may provide some information to understand pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba.

N-terminal formylmethionine as a novel initiator and N-degron of eukaryotic proteins

  • Kim, Jeong-Mok
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.163-164
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    • 2019
  • The ribosomal synthesis of proteins in the eukaryotic cytosol has always been thought to start from the unformylated N-terminal (Nt) methionine (Met). In contrast, in virtually all nascent proteins in bacteria and eukaryotic organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, Nt-formyl-methionine (fMet) is the first building block of ribosomal synthesis. Through extensive approaches, including mass spectrometric analyses of the N-termini of proteins and molecular genetic techniques with an affinity-purified antibody for Nt-formylation, we investigated whether Nt-formylated proteins could also be produced and have their own metabolic fate in the cytosol of a eukaryote, such as yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discovered that Nt-formylated proteins could be generated in the cytosol by yeast mitochondrial formyltransferase (Fmt1). These Nt-formylated proteins were massively upregulated in the stationary phase or upon starvation for specific amino acids and were crucial for the adaptation to specific stresses. The stress-activated kinase Gcn2 was strictly required for the upregulation of Nt-formylated proteins by regulating the activity of Fmt1 and its retention in the cytosol. We also found that the Nt-fMet residues of Nt-formylated proteins could be distinct N-terminal degradation signals, termed fMet/N-degrons, and that Psh1 E3 ubiquitin ligase mediated the selective destruction of Nt-formylated proteins as the recognition component of a novel eukaryotic fMet/N-end rule pathway, termed fMet/N-recognin.

Identification of the Proteins Expressed at Optimum Marbling in Hanwoo Loin (한우육의 육질에 중요 영향을 미치는 근내지방축적 최적기에 발현되는 단백질 동정)

  • 임진규
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.579-585
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    • 1999
  • Proteins from the loin tissues age ranged from 0 to 24 months of ten Korean cattle were extracted, separated and compared on two dimensional(2 D) gels to identify the proteins whose expression is highly correlated to marbling. We also compared the difference of loin proteins between castrated and non castrated bull cows on two dimensional gels. As the marbling in the loin of the cattle is optimized at 18 to 24 months, eight proteins expressed significantly higher level in 24 month than in 0 or 6 month were selected in terms of isoelectric points(pIs) and molecular weights. Using these values, we searched the Swiss Prot database via the ExPASy molecular biology server with TagIdent program. The proteins with the nearest molecular weights and isoelectric points were selected from the lists. These possible candidates were confirmed by N terminal microsequencing of the eight selected proteins. Three proteins, myoglobin, hemoglobin and ATPase, whose N termini were not blocked could be microsequenced and found to be exactly matched to the selected candidates. It is suggested that the proteins increasingly expressed in marbling periods can be involved in meat color, lipid transport and flavor improvement.

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Transcription, Translation, and Immunolocalization of ODVP-6E/ODV-E56 and p74 Proteins: Two Highly Conserved ODV-associated Envelope Proteins of Choristoneura fumiferana Granulovirus

  • Rashidan, Kianoush Khajeh;Nassoury, Nasha;Giannopoulos, Paresa N.;Guertin, Claude
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2005
  • Choristoneura fumiferana granulovirus (ChfuGV) infection results two types of enveloped virions: Occlusion-derived virus (ODV) and budded virus (BV). Structural proteins ODVP-6E/ODV-E56 and p74 are two major conserved ODV-associated proteins that may be involved in the initiation of viral infection cycle in susceptible host insect larvae. This study presents the characterization of ChfuGV odvp-6e/odv-e56 and p74 transcription and translation as well as immunolocalization of these proteins in the occluded ChfuGV virion. Our results revealed that the transcription of odvp-6e/odv-e56 and p74 genes, both, start at 24 hours post infection (h p.i.). Using monospecific polyclonal antibodies made against ODVP-6E/ODV-E56 and p74 we demonstrated that these proteins are both expressed late in infection (24 h p.i.). Immunogold labeling using antisera against ODVP-6E/ODV-E56 and p74 proteins demonstrated that ODVP-6E/ODV-E56 and p74 proteins are both associated with the ODV envelop of ChfuGV.

Localization (and profiles) of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in female reproductive organs of adult rats

  • Bunsueb, Sudtida;Tangsrisakda, Nareelak;Wu, Alexander T.H.;Iamsaard, Sitthichai
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.180-185
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Tyrosine phosphorylation is an essential process in many biological systems, including the male reproductive system. The presence of tyrosine-phosphorylated (TyrPho) proteins has been well documented in male reproductive organs, but research in fertile females is still limited. Methods: The ovary, oviduct, and uterus of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats in the estrus phase were used to localize TyrPho proteins using an immunohistochemical technique. These proteins were separated and their expression patterns were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis, respectively. Results: TyrPho proteins were localized in the cytoplasm of the oocyte except the antral fluid; in the granulosa cells, theca cells, and stromal cells of the ovary; at the apical surface of oviductal epithelial cells; and in the basal epithelium and submucosa of the uterine wall. Moreover, we found that 72-, 43-, and 28-kDa TyrPho proteins were localized in the ovary, while 170-, 55-, and 43-kDa proteins were localized in the oviduct. In the uterus, we detected four major bands, corresponding to 61-, 55-, 54-, and 43-kDa TyrPho proteins. Conclusion: Given that these TyrPho proteins were found in major reproductive organs in the estrus phase, these proteins may play important roles in female fertility.

Rice Proteomics: A Functional Analysis of the Rice Genome and Applications (프로테옴 해석에 의한 벼 게놈 기능해석과 응용)

  • Woo, Sun-Hee;Kim, Hong-Sig;Song, Berm-Heun;Lee, Chul-Won;Park, Young-Mok;Jong, Seung-Keun;Cho, Yong-Gu
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.281-291
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    • 2003
  • In this review, we described the catalogues of the rice proteome which were constructed in our program, and functional characterization of some of these proteins was discussed. Mass-spectrometry is the most prevalent technique to rapidly identify a large number of proteome analysis. However, the conventional Western blotting/sequencing technique has been used in many laboratories. As a first step to efficiently construct protein cata-file in proteome analysis of major cereals, we have analyzed the N-terminal sequences of 100 rice embryo proteins and 70 wheat spike proteins separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Edman degradation revealed the N-terminal peptide sequences of only 31 rice proteins and 47 wheat proteins, suggesting that the rest of separated protein sports are N-terminally blocked. To efficiently determine the internal sequence of blocked proteins, we have developed a modified Cleveland peptide mapping method. Using this above method, the internal sequences of all blocked rice proteins(i, e., 69 proteins) were determined. Among these 100 rice proteins, thirty were proteins for which homologous sequence in the rice genome database could be identified. However, the rest of the proteins lacked homologous proteins. This appears to be consistent with the fact that about 45% of total rice cDNA have been deposited in the EMBL database. Also, the major proteins involved in the growth and development of rice can be identified using the proteome approach. Some of these proteins, including a calcium-binding protein that tuned out to be calreticulin, gibberellin-binding protein, which is ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygense active in rice, and leginsulin-binding protein in soybean have functions in the signal transduction pathway. Proteomics is well suited not only to determine interaction between pairs of proteins, but also to identify multisubunit complexes. Currently, a protein-protein interaction database for plant proteins(http://genome.c.kanazawa-u.ac.jp/Y2H)could be a very useful tool for the plant research community. Also, the information thus obtained from the plant proteome would be helpful in predicting the function of the unknown proteins and would be useful be in the plant molecular breeding.

Characterization of Cell Wall Proteins from the soo1-1/ret1-1 Mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Lee, Dong-Won;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Chun, Se-Chul;Park, Hee-Moon
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.219-223
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    • 2002
  • In order to investigate the function of Soo1p/${\alpha}$-COP during post-translational modification and intra-cellular transport of cell wall proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell wall proteins from the soo1-1/ret1-1 mutant cells were analyzed. SDS-PAGE analysis of biotin labeled cell wall proteins suggested that the soo1-1 mutation impairs post-translational modification of cell wall proteins, such as N- and/ or Ο-glycosylation. Analysis of cell wall proteins with antibodies against ${\beta}$-1,3-glucan and ${\beta}$-1,6-glucan revealed alteration of the linkage between cell wall proteins and ${\beta}$-glucans in the soo1-1 mutant cells. Compositional sugar analysis of the cell wall proteins also suggested that the soo1-1 mutation impairs glycosylation of cell wall protein in the ER, which is crucial for the maintenance of cell wall integrity.