• Title, Summary, Keyword: Proteins

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Characterization of Ubiquitinated Lysosomal Membrane Proteins in Acanthamieba castellanii

  • Oh, Sekyung;Ahn, Tae-In
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2000
  • Ubiquitinated proteins in lysosomes were characterized by using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs): LYS8-1, a mAb to lysosomal proteins, and NYA124, a mAb to ubiquitin. LYS8-1 stained lysosome-like vesicles in immunofluorescence microscopy of Amoeba proteus and Acanthamoeba castellanii. In immunoblotting, LYS8-1's antigens (LYS proteins) were detected as 68-kDa and 77-kDa proteins in A. proteus, and as 30-kDa and 39-kDa proteins in A. castellanii. In immunoprecipitation of A. castellanii, at least four distinct LYS proteins, LVS35p, LyS39p, LyS42p, and LYS46p, were detected and accumulated upon inhibition of lysosome functions but not upon that of 26S proteasome functions. They were all found to be ubiquitinated, and were recovered in the lysosome fractions in subcellular fractionation experiments. In chemical fractionation analyses, LYS35p and LYS39p were demonstrated to be peripherally associated with lysosome membrane, while LYS42p and LYS46p tightly bound to the membrane. These results suggest that the LYS proteins become associated to lysosomal membrane upon ubiquitination.

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Small GTP-binding Proteins

  • 허규정
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.211-215
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    • 1990
  • There is a family of homologous proteins known to small GTP-inding proteins which have a GTP binding domains and GTPase activity with molecular weight of about 20000 in mammalian tissues. Recently at least 20 different small GTP-binding proteins including three rasproto-oncogene, smg25, rho, and ral gene products were identified. These proteins play a central role in cellular prolifration, neoplasia, signal transduction, terminal differentiation, and secretory process of the cells. In this review, I have briefly compiled current information on the different areas of research in the small GTP-binding proteins in an attempt to convey an overall view of the fundamental role that this family of protein in normal cellular processes. Moreover, furture goals of research in the small GTP-binding proteins as well as the possible existence of this family of proteins in plant cells were discussed.

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In Silico Signature Prediction Modeling in Cytolethal Distending Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains

  • Javadi, Maryam;Oloomi, Mana;Bouzari, Saeid
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 2017
  • In this study, cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) producer isolates genome were compared with genome of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli strains. Conserved genomic signatures among different types of CDT producer E. coli strains were assessed. It was shown that they could be used as biomarkers for research purposes and clinical diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction, or in vaccine development. cdt genes and several other genetic biomarkers were identified as signature sequences in CDT producer strains. The identified signatures include several individual phage proteins (holins, nucleases, and terminases, and transferases) and multiple members of different protein families (the lambda family, phage-integrase family, phage-tail tape protein family, putative membrane proteins, regulatory proteins, restriction-modification system proteins, tail fiber-assembly proteins, base plate-assembly proteins, and other prophage tail-related proteins). In this study, a sporadic phylogenic pattern was demonstrated in the CDT-producing strains. In conclusion, conserved signature proteins in a wide range of pathogenic bacterial strains can potentially be used in modern vaccine-design strategies.

Characteristics of 14-3-3 Proteins and Their Role in Plant Immunity

  • Oh, Chang-Sik
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • Phosphorylation is a major post-translational modification of proteins that regulate diverse signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells. 14-3-3 proteins are regulatory proteins that bind to target proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and have been shown to play an important role in plant growth and development, primary metabolism, and signal transduction. Because phosphorylation plays a critical role in signal transduction pathways to trigger plant immunity, involvement of 14-3-3 proteins in plant immunity has been suggested for a long time. Recent studies have provided new evidence to support a role for 14-3-3 proteins in plant immunity. This review will briefly discuss general characteristics of 14-3-3 proteins and their involvement in plant immunity.

Proteomic analysis of heat-stable proteins in Escherichia coli

  • Kwon, Soon-Bok;Jung, Yun-A;Lim, Dong-Bin
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.108-111
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    • 2008
  • Some proteins of E. coli are stable at temperatures significantly higher than $49^{\circ}C$, the maximum temperature at which the organism can grow. The heat stability of such proteins would be a property which is inherent to their structures, or it might be acquired by evolution for their specialized functions. In this study, we describe the identification of 17 heat-stable proteins from E. coli. Approximately one-third of these proteins were recognized as having functions in the protection of other proteins against denaturation. These included chaperonin (GroEL and GroES), molecular chaperones (DnaK and FkpA) and peptidyl prolyl isomerases (trigger factor and FkpA). Another common feature was that five of these proteins (GroEL, GroES, Ahpc, RibH and ferritin) have been shown to form a macromolecular structure. These results indicated that the heat stability of certain proteins may have evolved for their specialized functions, allowing them to cope with harsh environments, including high temperatures.

Comparison of Protein Profiles of Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum) Seeds of Various Korean Cultivars

  • Roy, Swapan Kumar;Kwon, Soo-Jeong;Yu, Je-Hyeok;Sarker, Kabita;Cho, Seong-Woo;Moon, Young-Ja;Jung, Tae-Wook;Park, Cheol-Ho;Woo, Sun-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.40-50
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    • 2017
  • Seed storage proteins are used as carbon and nitrogen sources for the nutritional improvement of seeds. Since the composition of proteins from the Korean cultivars of proso millet is unknown, this study was conducted to obtain a reference map of millet seed proteins and identify the functional characteristics of the identified proteins. Proteins extracted from proso millet seeds of various cultivars were investigated using proteomic techniques such as 2-D electrophoresis coupled with mass fingerprinting; 1152 (differentially expressed) protein spots were detected on the 2-D gels. Among them, 26 reproducible protein spots were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Out of the 26 proteins, 2 proteins were upregulated in all the millet cultivars, while 13 proteins were upregulated and 11 proteins were downregulated in 2 cultivars. Abundance of most of the identified protein species associated with polysaccharide and starch metabolism, transcription, and pathogenesis was significantly enhanced, while that of other protein species involved in glycolysis, stress response, and transduction was severely reduced. Taken together, the results suggest that the differential expression of the proteins from the four millet cultivars may be cultivar-specific. By conducting a proteomic investigation of millet seeds from different cultivars, we sought to better understand the functional categorization of individual proteins on the basis of their molecular functions. We believe that the identified proteins may help in investigating genetic variations in millet cultivars.

Protein Expression Analysis of Halobacillus dabanensis $D-8^T$ Subjected to Salt Shock

  • Feng De Qin;Zhang Bo;Lu Wei Dong;Yang Su Sheng
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.369-374
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    • 2006
  • To investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance of gram-positive moderately halophilic bacteria, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) was employed to achieve high resolution maps of proteins of Halobacillus dabanensis $D-8^T$. Approximately 700 spots of proteins were identified from these 2-D PAGE maps. The majority of these proteins had molecular weights between 17.5 and 66 kDa, and most of them were distributed between the isoelectric points (pI) 4.0 and 5.9. Some protein spots were distributed in the more acidic region of the 2-D gel (pI <4.0). This pattern indicated that a number of proteins in the strain $D-8^T$ are acidic. To understand the adaptation mechanisms of moderately halophilic bacteria in response to sudden environmental changes, differential protein profiles of this strain were investigated by 2-D PAGE and $Imagemaster^{TM}$ 2D Platinum software after the cells were subjected to salt shock of 1 to 25% salinity for 5 and 50 min. Analysis showed 59 proteins with an altered level of expression as the result of the exposure to salt shock. Eighteen proteins had increased expression, S proteins were induced, and the expression of 33 proteins was down-regulated. Eight of the up-regulated proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/MS and MASCOT, and were similar to proteins involved in signal transduction, proteins participating in energy metabolism pathways and proteins involved in stress.

A Comprehensive Identification of Synaptic Vesicle Proteins in Rat Brains by cRPLC/MS-MS and 2DE/MALDI-TOF-MS

  • Lee, Won-Kyu;Kim, Hye-Jung;Min, Hye-Ki;Kang, Un-Beom;Lee, Cheol-Ju;Lee, Sang-Won;Kim, Ick-Young;Lee, Seung-Taek;Kwon, Oh-Seung;Yu, Yeon-Gyu
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.1499-1509
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    • 2007
  • Proteomic analyses of synaptic vesicle fraction from rat brain have been performed for the better understanding of vesicle regulation and signal transmission. Two different approaches were applied to identify proteins in synaptic vesicle fraction. First, the isolated synaptic vesicle proteins were treated with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were analyzed using a high-pressure capillary reversed phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (cRPLC/MS/MS). Alternatively, proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Total 18 and 52 proteins were identified from cRPLC/MS-MS and 2DE-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, respectively. Among them only 2 proteins were identified by both methods. Of the proteins identified, 70% were soluble proteins and 30% were membrane proteins. They were categorized by their functions in vesicle trafficking and biogenesis, energy metabolism, signal transduction, transport and unknown functions. Among them, 27 proteins were not previously reported as synaptic proteins. The cellular functions of unknown proteins were estimated from the analysis of domain structure, expression profile and predicted interaction partners.

Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

  • Lee, Jae Eun;Lee, Jae Young;Kim, Hong Rye;Shin, Hyun Young;Lin, Tao;Jin, Dong Il
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.788-795
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    • 2015
  • Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum.

Sequence Analysis of Hypothetical Proteins from Helicobacter pylori 26695 to Identify Potential Virulence Factors

  • Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab;Anjum, Farah;Khan, Faez Iqbal;Islam, Asimul;Ahmad, Faizan;Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.125-135
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    • 2016
  • Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria that is responsible for gastritis in human. Its spiral flagellated body helps in locomotion and colonization in the host environment. It is capable of living in the highly acidic environment of the stomach with the help of acid adaptive genes. The genome of H. pylori 26695 strain contains 1,555 coding genes that encode 1,445 proteins. Out of these, 340 proteins are characterized as hypothetical proteins (HP). This study involves extensive analysis of the HPs using an established pipeline which comprises various bioinformatics tools and databases to find out probable functions of the HPs and identification of virulence factors. After extensive analysis of all the 340 HPs, we found that 104 HPs are showing characteristic similarities with the proteins with known functions. Thus, on the basis of such similarities, we assigned probable functions to 104 HPs with high confidence and precision. All the predicted HPs contain representative members of diverse functional classes of proteins such as enzymes, transporters, binding proteins, regulatory proteins, proteins involved in cellular processes and other proteins with miscellaneous functions. Therefore, we classified 104 HPs into aforementioned functional groups. During the virulence factors analysis of the HPs, we found 11 HPs are showing significant virulence. The identification of virulence proteins with the help their predicted functions may pave the way for drug target estimation and development of effective drug to counter the activity of that protein.