• Title, Summary, Keyword: Proteins

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Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activities of Bread Containing Corn Silk, Job's Tears, Lentinus edodes, and Apple Peel in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes (옥수수수염, 율무, 표고버섯 그리고 사과껍질을 함유한 빵의 항산화 및 3T3-L1 지방 전구세포 분화 억제 활성)

  • Lee, Chang Won;Park, Yong Il;Kim, Soo-Hyun;Lim, Heekyung;Chung, Mi Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.651-663
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    • 2016
  • Corn silk, Job's tears, Lentinus edodes, and apple peel 70% ethanol extracts (CS, JT, LE, and AP) were studied for their antioxidant activities. CS among all extracts showed the highest antioxidant activities based on total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, 2,2-diphenyl-${\beta}$-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. Adipocyte differentiation was investigated by Oil Red O staining assay using CS, JT, LE, AP, and extract of developed bread containing corn silk, Job's tears, Lentinus edodes, and apple peel (DB) treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DB1 and DB2 showed anti-adipogenic and antioxidant effects. Triglyceride (TG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured, and among the samples tested (CS, JT, LE, and AP), CS was found to have the highest inhibitory activity against TG accumulation of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and regulated factors associated with adipogenesis. CS suppressed lipid droplet formation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We examined the effects of CS on the levels of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein ${\beta}(C/EBP{\beta})$, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ${\gamma}(PPAR{\gamma})$, and adipocyte-specific lipid binding protein (aP2) mRNA as well as protein levels in 3T3-L1 cells treated with CS at various concentrations (0, 10, 50, and $100{\mu}g/mL$) during adipocyte differentiation and treatment with CS in 3T3-L1 adipocytes down-regulated expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ and aP2 mRNA. CS also significantly inhibited up-regulation of $C/EBP{\beta}$, $PPAR{\gamma}$, and aP2 proteins during adipocyte differentiation. These data indicate that DBs have anti-adipogenic activity induced by CS in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and CS exerts anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting expression of $C/EBP{\beta}$, $PPAR{\gamma}$, and aP2 signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. JT, LE, and AP had no inhibitory effects on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but displayed strong antioxidant effects. These results suggest that the developed bread may be a health beneficial food that can prevent or treat obesity and diseases induced by oxidative stress.

Identification and Functional Analysis of Pig β-1,4-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase A (MGAT4A) (돼지 유래의 β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase A (MGAT4A) 유전자의 동정 및 기능 분석)

  • Kim, Ji-Youn;Hwang, Hwan-Jin;Chung, Hak-Jae;Park, Mi-Ryung;Byun, Sung June;Kim, Kyung-Woon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2016
  • Glycan modification is important in pharmaceutical industry. Especially, sialic acid affects the bioactivity and stability of medicine. Milk of pig has been used as bioreactor to produce various pharmaceutical proteins. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the glycan chain in pig mammary grand. β-1,4-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase A (pMGAT4A) is one of the essential enzymes for increase of sialic acid content, but pig MGAT4A is unclear. In this study, the pMGAT4A was identified and characterized. The pMGAT4A has 1638 nucleotides encoding 535 amino acids and type II membrane topology, which is one of the common features in many glycosyltransferases. The gene was strongly expressed in liver and mammary gland, whereas was weakly expressed in small intestine, stomach and bladder. For functional test, HA-tagged MGAT4A was over-expressed in porcine kidney (PK-15) cell line. Forced expression of pMGAT4A gene was identified by qPCR, and we identified that pMGAT4A is located in Golgi complex by co- staining with HA antibody and BODIPY TR ceramide. In addition, we identified the increase of mannose-β-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine structure by ELISA and immunofluorescence using Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA), which recognizes mannose-β-1,4-Nacetylglucosamine. Through the specific activity analysis, we showed that pMGAT4A modified bi-antennary to tri-antennary. This event affects sialic acid content. Therefore, we thought that over-expression of pMGAT4A will be necessary in pig mammary grand for improved medicine.

Microtubule-damaging Chemotherapeutic Agent-mediated Mitotic Arrest and Apoptosis Induction in Tumor Cells (미세소관-손상 항암제 처리에 의한 세포주기의 정지 및 에폽토시스 유도)

  • Jun, Do Youn;Kim, Young Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.376-386
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    • 2016
  • Apoptosis induction has been proposed as an efficient mechanism by which malignant tumor cells can be removed following chemotherapy. The intrinsic mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway is frequently implicated in chemotherapy-induced tumor cell apoptosis. Since DNA-damaging agent (DDA)-induced apoptosis is mainly regulated by the tumor suppressor protein p53, and since more than half of clinical cancers possess inactive p53 mutants, microtubule-damaging agents (MDAs), of which apoptotic effect is mainly exerted via p53-independent routes, can be promising choice for cancer chemotherapy. Recently, we found that the apoptotic signaling pathway induced by MDAs (nocodazole, 17α-estradiol, or 2-methoxyestradiol) commonly proceeded through mitotic spindle defect-mediated prometaphase arrest, prolonged Cdk1 activation, and subsequent phosphorylation of Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and Bim in human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells. These microtubule damage-mediated alterations could render the cellular context susceptible to the onset of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis by triggering Bak activation, Δψm loss, and resultant caspase cascade activation. In contrast, when the MDA-induced Bak activation was inhibited by overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL), the cells in prometaphase arrest failed to induce apoptosis, and instead underwent mitotic slippage and endoreduplication cycle, leading to formation of populations with 8N and 16N DNA content. These data indicate that cellular apoptogenic mechanism is critical for preventing polyploid formation following MDA treatment. Since the formation of polyploid cells, which are genetically unstable, may cause acquisition of therapy resistance and disease relapse, there is a growing interest in developing new combination chemotherapies to prevent polyploidization in tumors after MDA treatment.

Toxic Effects of Binary Mixtures of Heavy Metals on the Growth and P Removal Efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp. (Alcaligenes sp.의 생장과 인 제거에 미치는 이종 중금속 혼합의 독성 효과)

  • Kim, Deok Hyun;Yoo, Jin;Chung, Keun Yook
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: This study was initiated to quantitatively evaluate the effects of five heavy metals on the growth and P removal efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp., known as the Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms (PAOs). It was cultivated in the batch system with five heavy metals, such as Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni, added in single and binary mixtures, respectively.METHODS AND RESULTS: IC50 (half of inhibition concentration of bacterial growth) and EC50 (half of effective concentration of phosphorus removal Efficiencies) were used to quantitatively evaluate the effects of heavy metals on the growth and phosphorus removal Efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp. In addition, Additive Index Value (A.I.V.) method was used to evaluate the interactive effects between Alcaligenes sp. and heavy metals. As a result, as the five heavy metals were singly added to Alcaligenes sp., the greatest inhibitory effects on the growth and P removal efficiencies of each bacteria was observed in the cadmium (Cd). In the binary mixture treatments of heavy metals, the treatments of lowest IC50 and EC50 were the Cd + Cu treatment. Based on the IC50 and EC50 of the binary mixtures of heavy metals treatments, most interactive effects between the heavy metals were found to be antagonistic.CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained from this study, it appears that they could provide the basic information about the toxic effects of the respective treatments of single and binary mixtures of heavy metals on the growth and P removal efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp. through further study about the characterization of functional proteins involved in toxic effects of heavy metals.

Suppressive effects of ethanol extract of Aralia elata on UVB-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes (자외선 B를 조사한 인간유래각질세포에서 두릅순 에탄올추출물의 산화적 스트레스 억제효과)

  • Kwak, Chung Shil;Yang, Jiwon
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.135-143
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxidative stress contributes to several adverse biological effects on skin. Many phenolic phytochemicals have been shown to have antioxidant properties and protect skin cells from UV-induced oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated whether or not Aralia elata (AE) has a protective effect against UVB-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultimately leading to photoaging. Methods: Phenolic content of dried AE and antioxidant properties of AE extract in 70% ethanol weredetermined by measuring DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The effect of AE extract on cellular ROS generation and expression levels of oxidative stress-response proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, catalase, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf)-2, and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in UVB-irradiated ($75mJ/cm^2$) human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were further determined by 2'-7'-dichlorofluoresceine diacetate assay and Western blotting, respectively. Results: The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of dried AE were 20.15 mg tannic acid/g and 18.75 mg rutin/g, respectively. The $IC_{50}$ of AE extract against DPPH radical was $98.5{\mu}g/mL$, and ABTS radical scavenging activity and FRAP upon treatment with $1,000{\mu}g/mL$ of AE extract were $41.8{\mu}g\;ascorbic\;acid\;(AA)\;eq./mL$ and $29.7{\mu}g\;AA\;eq./mL$,m respectively. Pretreatment with AE extract significantly reduced (p < 0.05) ROS generation compared to that in UVB-irradiated control HaCaT cells. Pretreatment with AE extract reversed reduction of Nrf-2 and SOD-1 protein expression and induction of HO-1 protein expression caused by UVB exposure in HaCaT cells, whereas it did not affect catalase expression. Conclusion: AE extract in 70% ethanol demonstrated a protective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and decreased expression of Nrf-2 and SOD-1 in human keratinocytes. These findings suggest that AE ethanol extract might have potential as a natural resource for a skin anti-photoaging product in the food and cosmetic industry.

Apoptotic Effects and Cell Cycle Arrest Effects of Extracts from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson through Regulating Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β Signaling Pathways in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells (HCT116 대장암세포에서 AKT/mTOR/GSK-3β 신호경로 조절을 통한 벌 사상자 추출물(CME)의 apoptosis 및 cell cycle arrest 효과)

  • Lim, Eun Gyeong;Kim, Guen Tae;Kim, Bo Min;Kim, Eun Ji;Ha, Sung Ho;Kim, Sang-Yong;Kim, Young Min
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.663-672
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    • 2016
  • The Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson is an annual plant distributed in China and Korea. The fruit of C. monnieri is used as a medicinal herb that is effective for the treatment of carbuncle and pain in female genitalia. However, the anti-cancer effects of CME have not yet been reported. In this study, we assessed the apoptotic effects and cell cycle arrest effects of ethanol extracts from C. monnieri on HCT116 colon cancer cells. The results of an MTT assay and LDH assay demonstrated a decrease in cell viability and the cytotoxic effects of CME. In addition, the number of apoptotic body and the apoptotic rate were increased in a dose-dependent manner through Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-PI double staining. In addition, cell cycle arrest occurred at the G1 phase by CME. Protein kinase B (Akt) plays an important role in cancer cell survival, growth, and division. Akt down-regulates apoptosis-mediated proteins, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p53, and Glycogen Synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). CME could regulate the expression levels of p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-GSK-3β, Bcl-2 family members, caspase-3, and PARP. Furthermore, treatment with CME, LY294002 (PI3K/Akt inhibitor), BIO (GSK-3β inhibitor), and Rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) showed that apoptotic effects occurred through the regulation of the AKT/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway. Our results demonstrated CME could induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HCT116 colon cancer cells.

Characterizations of Kefir Grains in Fermented Whey and Their Effects on Inflammatory Cytokine Modulation in Human Mast Cell-1 (HMC-1) (Kefir grain에 의한 유청발효액의 특성과 human mast cell-1 (HMC-1)에서 염증 cytokine 조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Ji Yoon;Park, Young W.;Renchinkhand, Gereltuya;Han, Jung Pil;Bum, Jin Woo;Paik, Seung-Hee;Lee, Jo Yoon;Nam, Myoung Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.689-697
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    • 2016
  • Kefir is an acidic-alcoholic fermented milk product originating from the Caucasian mountains. Kefir has long been known for its probiotic health benefits, including its immunomodulatory effects. The objectives of this study were to investigate the properties of a fermented whey product and to examine the effects of kefir grains on the in vitro immune-modulation of human mast cell-1 (HMC-1). The results showed that the whey fermented by kefir grains contained the maximum lactic acid bacteria and yeast for 16 hr by 1.83×108 and 6.5×105 CFU/ml, respectively, and lactose and whey proteins were partially hydrolyzed. The experimental whey fermented by kefir grains exhibited an in vitro anti-inflammatory effect on the HMC-1 line for 8, 16, and 24 hr, and this effect induced the expression of interleukin (IL)-4 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, but not for 48 hr by RT-PCR in HMC-1 cells. In addition, the same phenomenon was observed for the expression of IL-8 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine by the kefir-fermented whey during the same periods of 8-48 hr under the same conditions. These cytokines resulted in the production of IL-4 at 20-25 ng in HMC-1 cells for 8, 16, and 24 hr, whereas 5 ng was produced for 48 hr by the fermented whey. In contrast, IL-8 was produced at 15-20 ng in HMC-1 cells during 4, 8, 16, and 24 hr, while 7 ng was produced at 48 hr. It was concluded that the whey fermented by kefir grains possesses a potential anti-inflammatory function, which could be used for an industrial application as an ingredient of functional foods and pharmaceutical products.

Analysis of Stromal Cells Developed from Cord Blood CD34+ Cells (제대혈 CD34+ 세포에서 유래된 지지세포의 분석)

  • Ryu, Kyung-Ha;Park, Se-Jin;Kim, Kyung Hyo;Seoh, Ju-Young;Khan, Mohammad;Shin, Hee-Young;Ahn, Hyo-Seop
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2001
  • Background: Cytokine-mediated ex vivo expansion has been proposed as a means of increasing the number of cord blood (CB) hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. As well as stem cell number, stromal cells are necessary for functional maturation of hematopoiesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development of stromal cells during ex vivo expansion of CB $CD34^+$ cells. Methods : $CD34^+$ cells were purified from CB by magnetic bead selection. The levels of of interleukin-3, interleukin-$1{\beta}$, interleukin-6, granulocyte macrophagecolony stimulating factor and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ were measured in culture supernatants on 0, 1, 2, and 3 weeks, using ELISA techniques. CB $CD34^+$ cells were expanded in Iscoves modified Dulbeccos medium in the presence of several cytokines. The expression of E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, von Willebrand factor, vimentin, and CD14 in newly developed stromal cells was examined by immunocytochemical method. Relevant extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and proper cytokines were also assayed for the most suitable condition for expansion of stromal cells. Results: Several cytokines were found to have been produced by CB $CD34^+$ cells as well as bone marrow-derived $CD34^+$ cells. During ex vivo expansion of CB $CD34^+$ cells, stromal cells appeared in the culture by day 4 and expanded over the following 7-10 days before being confluent by day 2 1. These cells expressed surface markers characteristic of cells of endothelial lineage. Furthermore, these stroaml cells also expanded effectively when treated with thrombopoietin+flt-3 ligand+stem cell factor+leukemia inhibitory factor or 0.1% poly-L-lysine-coated wells. Conclusion: Stromal cells were developed during ex vivo expansion of CB $CD34^+$ cells and that this development could be enhanced further by treating the stromal cells with cytokines or ECM.

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Physiological and Proteome Responses of Korean F1 maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids to Water-deficit Stress during Tassel Initiation (옥수수 영양생장기 한발 스트레스에 의한 광합성의 생리적 반응 및 프로테옴 변화 분석)

  • Bae, Hwan Hee;Kwon, Young-Sang;Son, Beom-Young;Kim, Jung-Tae;Go, Young Sam;Kim, Sun-Lim;Baek, Seong-Bum;Shin, Seonghyu;Kim, Sang Gon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.64 no.4
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    • pp.422-431
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    • 2019
  • Severe droughts in spring have occurred frequently in Korea in recent years, exerting a critical impact on corn yield. Therefore, it is necessary to find physiological and/or molecular indicators of the response to drought stress in maize plants. In this study, we investigated the effects of water-deficit stress on two Korean elite F1 maize hybrids, Ilmichal and Gwangpyeongok, by withholding water for 10 days at tassel initiation. The water deficit drastically reduced the relative leaf water content, leaf number, leaf area, and stem length, leading to dry matter reduction. Moreover, it reduced the SPAD values and stomatal conductance of leaves in drought-stressed plants of both hybrids. Importantly, the number of leaves and SPAD value were non-destructive and easy to investigate in response to water-deficit stress, suggesting that they may be useful indicators for screening drought-tolerant genetic resources. We detected more than 100 spots that were differentially accumulated under drought stress. Of these spots, a total of 21 protein spots (≥1.5-fold) from drought-exposed maize leaves were successfully analyzed by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Functional annotation using Gene Ontology analysis revealed that most of the identified proteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, stress response fatty acid catabolism, photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and transport. The protein expression levels were increased in both Ilmichal and Gwangpyeongok, except for triosephosphate isomerase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, and an uncharacterized protein. The lactoylglutathione lyase delta (3,5)-delta (2,4)-dienoyl-CoA isomerase was overexpressed in Gwangpyeongok only. The results obtained from this study suggest that the drought-specific genes may be useful as molecular markers for screening drought-tolerant maize genotypes.

Development of New Functional Dairy Products Containing Probiotics for Improving Human Health: A Review (Probiotics를 이용한 새로운 건강 증진 기능성 유제품 개발에 관한 연구: 총설)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Chon, Jung-Whan;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Kim, Hong-Seok;Song, Kwang-Young;Kim, Soo-Ki;Jeong, Dong-Gwan;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 2015
  • Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of a value-added food category containing probiotics so as to improve human health and prevent diseases. Among various foods, the health benefits of milk and dairy products are known to humanity, and could be attributed to the bioactive components present in milk. In fermented milk products, the health benefits could be due to suitable modulation activities produced by the action of probiotic bacteria. Besides the modification of various milk components, probiotics might also act directly as preventive and therapeutic agents against some severe diseases. Probiotics promote health via their positive effects on the immune response, stimulation of natural immunity, and modulation of the production of antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and so on. Whey proteins, a byproduct of cheese production could also have anticarcinogenic, immunostimulatory, antimicrobial, and health-promoting activities such as improving insulin sensitivity and reducing fat deposition. Therefore, milk and dairy products containing probiotics could provide various opportunities in the field of functional foods. Additionally, these functional foods may be important in the human diet and may help improve human health and prevent diseases.

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