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A Clinical Study on the Therapeutic Effects of the Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser on Dentinal Hypersensitivity (상아질지각과민증에 대한 펄스형 Nd: YAG 레이저의 치료효과에 관한 임상적 연구)

  • 최순정;신금백;김문현
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 1998
  • 저자는 치과용 레이저를 이용한 상아질지각과민증 치료효과를 임상적으로 평가하고자 상아질지각과민증환자 24명을 대상으로 각 환자마다 상아질 지각과민 치아 중 레이저로 치료 할 치아1개(실험군)와 치료하지 않을 치아 1개(대조군)를 선정하여, 치과용 air-syringe에 의한 냉자극과 치과용 탐침자에 의한 기계적 자극을 가한 후 Visual Analogue Scale(VAS)을 통해 지각과민증 정도를 평가하였으며, 이후 실험군 치아의 치경부 마모면에 광섬유 레이저에너지 전달방식의 펄스형 Nd:YAG 레이저의 일종인 Sunlase Master(Sunrise Technologies Inc., U.S.A., 파장 1064nm, 펄스지속시간 120(sec, 광섬유직경 320(m)를 사용하여, 0.3-1.0W, 10Hz 조건으로 환자의 반응에 따라 1회2분을 초과하지 않는 범위 내에서 비접촉식과 접촉식을 병행하여 3회에 걸쳐(초진 당일, 1일후, 3일후) 레이저를 조사한 후 처음조사 직후, 그리고 초진 1일후, 3일후, 7일후, 14일후 VAS를 채득하여 조사전과 비교, 분석, 평가하였던 바, 상아질 지각과민증이 각각 약 50%, 약36%, 약45%, 약 53% 감소하였으나 (p(0.05) 경시적으로는 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 그리고 24명중 9명에 대해서는 초진 30일 후 까지 레이저조사치료효과를 평가하였던 바, 상아질지각과민증이 처음조사 직후, 감소하였으며 (p(0.05)역시 경시적으로는 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 초진 30일 후 상아질지각과민증이 초진 14일 후에 비해 약간 증가되는 경향을 보여, 레이저조사 치료효과가 약화되는 경향인지 여부에 대해 향후 추가적인 연구가 필요할 것으로 사료된다.안되었다.기란 현실적으로 불가능하므로, 본 연구에서는 이러한 제약점을 극복할 수 있는 근사적인 지체시간을 계산하는 방법을 제시한 점에서 의미를 갖을 수 있다.수들은 직업의 선택이나 소득을 예측하기 위한 요소들로 포함될 수 없었다. 따라서 후속연구에서는 이를 보완해야 할 것이며, 최근 들어 우리 나라에서도 재택근무에 대한 관심이 대두되고 있으나 아직 개념정의나 그 중요성과 가치, 그리고 실태 파악과 같은 연구가 활발히 이루어지지 못하고 있으므로 이에 대한 심층적인 연구가 행해져야 할 것이다.d similar flower proceeding dates in all branches. but "Daepung" showed similar flower proceeding dates in all branches.est in HB. Mean period of wetting duration was in the order of DS>HB>MB, while the dew point depression was greatest in DS.ANCOVA, Pearson correlation을 이용하여 분석하였으며, 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 캠프 프로그램은 소아 당뇨병 환자의 자기 효능을 증진시키고 환자 역할 행위 이행을 높여주는데 효과적 이었다. 소아 당뇨병 환자의 자기 효능은 환자 역할 행위 이행과 순 상관 관계가 있어, 자기 효능이 증진될수록 환자 역할 행위 이행 정도가 높아졌다. 무조건 사주지 않는다(8.0%), 무조건 사준다(3.1%)로 식품광고에 나오는 식품 요구시 부모의 70.3%가 거절하는 것으로 나타났다. 거절 이유는 건강에 나쁘다는 것이 가장 큰 이유였으며 강남과 강북 어린이간에 유의적인 차이가 있었다(p<0.001).

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Ferromagnetism and Anomalous Hall Effect of $TiO_2$-based superlattice films for Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Applications

  • Jiang, Juan;Seong, Nak-Jin;Jo, Young-Hun;Jung, Myung-Hwa;Yang, Jun-Mo;Yoon, Soon-Gil
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.41-41
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    • 2007
  • For use in spintronic materials, dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are under consideration as spin injectors for spintronic devices[l]. $TiO_2$-based DMS doped by a cobalt, iron, and manganese et al. was recently reported to show ferromagnetic properties, even at temperatures above 300K and the magnetic ordering was explained in terms of carrier-induced ferromagnetism, as observed for a III-V based DMS. An anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and co-occurance of superparamagnetism in reduced Co-doped rutile $TiO_{2-\delta}$ films have also been reported[2]. Metal segregation in the reduced metal-doped rutile $TiO_2-\delta$ films still remains as problems to solve the intrinsic DMS properties. Superlattice films have been proposed to get dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) with intrinsicroom-temperature ferromagnetism. For a $TiO_2$-based DMS superlattice structure, each layer was alternately doped by two different transition metals (Fe and Mn) and deposited to a thickness of approximately $2.7\;{\AA}$ on r-$Al_2O_3$(1102) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The r-$Al_2O_3$(1102) substrates with atomic steps and terrace surface were obtained by thermal annealing. Samples of $Ti_{0.94}Fe_{0.06}O_2$(TiFeO), $Ti_{0.94}Mn_{0.06}O_2$(TiMnO), and $Ti_{0.94}(Fe_{0.03}Mn_{0.03})O_2$ show a low remanent magnetization and coercive field, as well as superparamagnetic features at room temperature. On the other hand, superlattice films (TiFeO/TiMnO) show a high remanent magnetization and coercive field. An anomalous Hall effect in superlattice films exhibits hysisteresis loops with coercivities corresponding to those in the ferromagnetic Hysteresis loops. The superlattice films composed of alternating layers of $Ti_{0.94}Fe_{0.06}O_2$ and $Ti_{0.94}Mn_{0.06}O_2$ exhibit intrinsic ferromagnetic properties for dilute magnetic semiconductor applications.

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기판후면 온도 모니터링을 이용한 CIGS박막 하향 증착시스템 개발 및 그 소자로서의 특성 연구

  • Kim, Eun-Do;Cha, Su-Yeong;Mun, Il-Gwon;Hwang, Do-Won;Jo, Seong-Jin;Kim, Chung-Gi;Kim, Jong-Pil;Yun, Jae-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.443-443
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    • 2014
  • CIS 박막을 제조하기 위한 방법으로 셀렌화(selenization)방식, MOCVD방식, 동시진공증발(co-evaporation)방식, 전착(electrodeposition)방식 등이 있으나, 이러한 방식을 이용하여 CuInSe2 박막을 제조하는 경우 어떤 방법으로든 다원화합물의 조성 및 결정성을 조절하기가 매우 어려운 단점이 있었다. 기판의 온도를 일정 온도로 유지하도록 하고, 증발원을 가열하여 이에 내포된 물질(이원화합물 또는 단일원소)을 증발시켜 기판에 증착이 이루어지도록 하거나, 기판의 온도를 승온시키고 구리 이원화합물을 내포한 증발원을 가열해 물질을 증발시켜 기판에 증착이 이루어지도록 하는 방법으로 기판에 박막이 형성되도록 한다. 기판의 대면적화로 인해 균일한 박막의 형성이 어려워지고 있으며, 이중 15% 이상의 고효율을 보인 방법은 3-stage process를 이용한 동시진공증발방식으로, Cu, In, Ga, Se 등의 각 원소를 동시에 진공 증발시키면서 조성을 조절하여 태양전지에 적절한 전기적, 광학적 특성을 가지는 Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)박막을 증착시키는 방법이다. 일반적으로, 실험실에서 연구되고 있는 장비의 구조는 증발원이 아래에 장착되어서 상향 증착되는 방식이다. 본 연구에서 사용된 장비는 하향 증발원이 측면에 장착되어서 하향 증착되는 방식으로 구성하였다. 증착되는 면방향으로, 적외선온도계(pyrometer)가 설치된 시창(viewport)의 오염 등으로 인하여, 지속적인 공정이 이루어지기 힘든 점을 개선하여 증착기판의 후면에 적외선 온도계를 설치하여 기판의 온도변화를 감지하여 공정에 반영할 수 있도록 하였다. 본 연구에서는 하향식 진공 증발원, 기판후면 온도모니터링모듈 등을 개발 장착하여, CIGS 박막을 제조하였으며, 버퍼층은 moving 스퍼터링법으로 ZnS를 증착하였고, 투명전극층은 PLD(Pulsed Laser Deposition)를 이용하여 제조하였다. 가장 높은 광변환효율을 보인 Al/ZnO/CdS/Mo/SLG박막시료는 유효면적 $0.45cm^2$에 광변환효율 15.65 %, Jsc : $33.59mA/cm^2$, Voc : 0.64 V, FF : 73.09 %를 얻을 수 있었으며, CdS를 ZnS로 대체한 Al/ZnO/ZnS/Mo/SLG박막시료는 유효면적 $0.45cm^2$에 광변환효율 12.45 %, Jsc : $33.62mA/cm^2$, Voc : 0.59 V, FF : 62.35 %를 얻을 수 있었다.

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Performance and Jitter Effects Analysis of Single Bit Electro-Optical Sigma-Delta Modulators (단일 비트 전자-광학 시그마-델타 변조기의 성능 및 지터 효과 분석)

  • Nam, Chang-Ho;Ra, Sung-Woong
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.706-715
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    • 2012
  • Electro-optical sigma-delta modulators are the core module of digital receiver to digitize wideband radio-frequency signals directly at an antenna. Electro-optical sigma-delta modulators use a pulsed laser to oversample an input radio-frequency signals at two Mach-Zehnder Interferometer(MZI) and shape the quantization noise using a fiber-lattice accumulator. Decimation filtering is applied to the quantizer output to construct the input signal with high resolution. The jitter affects greatly on reconstructing the original input signal of modulator. This paper analyzes the performance of first order single bit electro-optical sigma-delta modulator in the time domain and the frequency domain. The performance of modulator is analyzed by using asynchronous spectral averaging of the reconstructed signal's spectrum in the frequency domain. The reference value of time jitter is presented by analyzing the performance of jitter effects. This kind of jitter value can be used as a reference value on the design of modulators.

플라즈마 표면 처리를 이용한 ZnO 습식성장 패터닝 기술 연구

  • Lee, Jeong-Hwan;Park, Jae-Seong;Park, Seong-Eun;Lee, Dong-Ik;Hwang, Do-Yeon;Kim, Seong-Jin;Sin, Han-Jae;Seo, Chang-Taek
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.330-332
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    • 2013
  • 소 분위기에서 플라즈마 표면 처리의 경우 기판 표면에 존재하는 수소와 탄소 유기물들이 산소와 반응하여 $H_2O$$CO_2$ 등으로 제거되며 표면에 오존 결합을 유도하여 표면 에너지를 증가시키는 것으로 알려져 있다. ZnO 나노구조물을 성장시키는 방법으로는 MOCVD (Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposited), PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition), VLS (Vapor-Liquid-Solid), Sputtering, 습식화학합성법(Wet Chemical Method) 방법 등이 있다. 그중에서도 습식화학합성법은 쉽게 구성요소를 제어할 수 있고, 저비용 공정과 낮은 온도에서 성장 가능하며 플렉서블 소자에도 적용이 가능하다. 그러므로 본 연구에서는 플라즈마 표면처리에 따라 표면에너지를 변화하여 습식화학합성법으로 성장시킨 ZnO nanorods의 밀도를 제어하고 photolithography 공정 없이 패터닝 가능성을 유 무를 판단하는 연구를 진행하였다. 기판은 Si wafer (100)를 사용하였으며 세척 후 표면에너지 증가를 위한 플라즈마 표면처리를 실시하였다. 분위기 가스는 Ar/$O_2$를 사용하였으며 입력전압 400 W에서 0, 5, 10, 15, 60초 동안 각각 실시하였다. ZnO nanorods의 seed layer를 도포하기 위하여 Zinc acetate dehydrate [Zn $(CH_3COO)_2{\cdot}2H_2O$, 0.03 M]를 ethanol 50 ml에 용해시킨 후 스핀코팅기를 이용하여 850 RPM, 15초로 5회 실시하였으며 $80^{\circ}C$에서 5분간 건조하였다. ZnO rods의 성장은 Zinc nitrate hexahydrate [$Zn(NO_3)_2{\cdot}6H_2O$, 0.025M], HMT [$C6H_{12}N_4$, 0.025M]를 deionized water 250 ml에 용해시켜 hotplate에 올리고 $300^{\circ}C$에서 녹인 후 $200^{\circ}C$에서 3시간 성장시켰다. ZnO nanorods의 성장 공정은(Fig. 1)과 같다. 먼저 플라즈마 처리한 시편의 표면에너지 측정을 위해 접촉각 측정 장치[KRUSS, DSA100]를 이용하였다. 그 결과 0, 5, 10, 15, 60 초로 플라즈마 표면 처리했던 시편이 각각 Fig. l, 2와 같이 $79^{\circ}$, $43^{\circ}$, $11^{\circ}$, $6^{\circ}$, $7.8^{\circ}$로 측정되었으며 이것을 각각 습식화학합성법으로 ZnO nanorods를 성장 시켰을 때 Fig. 3과 같이 밀도 차이를 확인할 수 있었다. 이러한 결과를 바탕으로 기판의 표면에너지를 제어하여 Fig. 4와 같이 나타나며 photolithography 공정없이 ZnO nanorods를 패터닝을 할 수 있었다. 본 연구에서는 플라즈마 표면 처리를 통하여 표면에너지의 변화를 제어함으로써 ZnO nanorods 성장의 밀도 차이를 나타냈었다. 이러한 저비용, 저온 공정으로 $O_2$, CO, $H_2$, $H_2O$와 같은 다양한 화학종에 반응하는 ZnO를 이용한 플렉시블 화학센서에 응용 및 사용될 수 있고, 플렉시블 디스플레이 및 3D 디스플레이 소자에 활용 가능하다.

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Study on Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Using Y-Doped BaZrO3 (Y-doped BaZrO3을 이용한 저온형 박막 연료전지 연구)

  • Chang, Ik-Whang;Ji, Sang-Hoon;Paek, Jun-Yeol;Lee, Yoon-Ho;Park, Tae-Hyun;Cha, Suk-Won
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.931-935
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we fabricate and investigate low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with a ceramic substrate/porous metal/ceramic/porous metal structure. To realize low-temperature operation in solid oxide fuel cells, the membrane should be fabricated to have a thickness of the order of a few hundreds nanometers to minimize IR loss. Yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BYZ), a proton conductor, was used as the electrolyte. We deposited a 350-nm-thick Pt (anode) layer on a porous substrate by sputter deposition. We also deposited a 1-${\mu}m$-thick BYZ layer on the Pt anode using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Finally, we deposited a 200-nm-thick Pt (cathode) layer on the BYZ electrolyte by sputter deposition. The open circuit voltage (OCV) is 0.806 V, and the maximum power density is 11.9 mW/$cm^2$ at $350^{\circ}C$. Even though a fully dense electrolyte is deposited via PLD, a cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image reveals many voids and defects.

Differences in Structural Characteristics and Eu(III) Complexation for Molecular Size Fractionated Humic Acid (분자량별 분류에 따른 휴믹산의 구조적 특성 및 Eu(III)과의 착물 반응 특성 비교에 대한 연구)

  • Shin, Hyun-Sang;Rhee, Dong-Seok;Kang, Kihoon
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2001
  • A humic acid(HA, Aldrich Co) sample was subjected to ultrafiltration for molecular size fractionation and three fractions of different nominal size($F_1$: 1,000-10,000 daltons; $F_2$: 10,000-50,000 daltons; $F_3$: 100,000-300,000 daltons) were obtained. The structural characteristics of the size-fractionated HA were analyzed using their IR and solid state C-13 NMR spectral data, and the carboxylate group contents of the humic acids were determined using their pH titration data. The $^7F_0-{^5}D_0$ excitation spectra of Eu(III) complexes of the size-fractionated mgHA in aqueous solution were acquired($[Eu(III)]=1.0{\times}10^{-4}mol\;L^{-1}$, $(HA)=470-970mg\;L^{-1}$) at pH 5.0 using a pulsed tunable laser system, in which metal binding properties of the size-fractionated HA were elucidated and compared on another. Characterization of the IR and C-13 NMR spectral data indicated that the fraction($F_3$) with molecules of larger size were primarily aliphatic, while the fractions($F_1$, $F_2$) with smaller molecules of less than 50,000 daltons were predominantly aromatic. Titration data were consistent with an increase in the number of carboxylate groups per unit mass as molecular size became smaller. The $^7F_0-{^5}D_0$ excitation spectral data of Eu(III)-humate complexes showed that the peak maxima on these spectra were shifted toward lower energies with increasing molecular size of HA, indicating the higher degree of bindings of the Eu in the molecules of larger size. We also discussed the relationship of the lower energy shifts of the maximum peaks with increasing the molecular size of HA with the structural differences of the size-fractionated HA.

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Trend in Research and Application of Hard Carbon-based Thin Films (탄소계 경질 박막의 연구 및 산업 적용 동향)

  • Lee, Gyeong-Hwang;Park, Jong-Won;Yang, Ji-Hun;Jeong, Jae-In
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.111-112
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    • 2009
  • Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a convenient term to indicate the compositions of the various forms of amorphous carbon (a-C), tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (a-C:H and ta-C:H). The a-C film with disordered graphitic ordering, such as soot, chars, glassy carbon, and evaporated a-C, is shown in the lower left hand corner. If the fraction of sp3 bonding reaches a high degree, such an a-C is denoted as tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), in order to distinguish it from sp2 a-C [2]. Two hydrocarbon polymers, that is, polyethylene (CH2)n and polyacetylene (CH)n, define the limits of the triangle in the right hand corner beyond which interconnecting C-C networks do not form, and only strait-chain molecules are formed. The DLC films, i.e. a-C, ta-C, a-C:H and ta-C:H, have some extreme properties similar to diamond, such as hardness, elastic modulus and chemical inertness. These films are great advantages for many applications. One of the most important applications of the carbon-based films is the coating for magnetic hard disk recording. The second successful application is wear protective and antireflective films for IR windows. The third application is wear protection of bearings and sliding friction parts. The fourth is precision gages for the automotive industry. Recently, exciting ongoing study [1] tries to deposit a carbon-based protective film on engine parts (e.g. engine cylinders and pistons) taking into account not only low friction and wear, but also self lubricating properties. Reduction of the oil consumption is expected. Currently, for an additional application field, the carbon-based films are extensively studied as excellent candidates for biocompatible films on biomedical implants. The carbon-based films consist of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, which are biologically harmless as well as the main elements of human body. Some in vitro and limited in vivo studies on the biological effects of carbon-based films have been studied [$2{\sim}5$].The carbon-based films have great potentials in many fields. However, a few technological issues for carbon-based film are still needed to be studied to improve the applicability. Aisenberg and Chabot [3] firstly prepared an amorphous carbon film on substrates remained at room temperature using a beam of carbon ions produced using argon plasma. Spencer et al. [4] had subsequently developed this field. Many deposition techniques for DLC films have been developed to increase the fraction of sp3 bonding in the films. The a-C films have been prepared by a variety of deposition methods such as ion plating, DC or RF sputtering, RF or DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD), ion implantation, ablation, pulsed laser deposition and cathodic arc deposition, from a variety of carbon target or gaseous sources materials [5]. Sputtering is the most common deposition method for a-C film. Deposited films by these plasma methods, such as plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) [6], are ranged into the interior of the triangle. Application fields of DLC films investigated from papers. Many papers purposed to apply for tribology due to the carbon-based films of low friction and wear resistance. Figure 1 shows the percentage of DLC research interest for application field. The biggest portion is tribology field. It is occupied 57%. Second, biomedical field hold 14%. Nowadays, biomedical field is took notice in many countries and significantly increased the research papers. DLC films actually applied to many industries in 2005 as shown figure 2. The most applied fields are mold and machinery industries. It took over 50%. The automobile industry is more and more increase application parts. In the near future, automobile industry is expected a big market for DLC coating. Figure 1 Research interests of carbon-based filmsFigure 2 Demand ratio of DLC coating for industry in 2005. In this presentation, I will introduce a trend of carbon-based coating research and applications.

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Sensory Information Processing

  • Yoshimoto, Chiyoshi
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1985
  • The wall shear stress in the vicinity of end-to end anastomoses under steady flow conditions was measured using a flush-mounted hot-film anemometer(FMHFA) probe. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with numerical results except in flow with low Reynolds numbers. The wall shear stress increased proximal to the anastomosis in flow from the Penrose tubing (simulating an artery) to the PTFE: graft. In flow from the PTFE graft to the Penrose tubing, low wall shear stress was observed distal to the anastomosis. Abnormal distributions of wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anastomosis, resulting from the compliance mismatch between the graft and the host artery, might be an important factor of ANFH formation and the graft failure. The present study suggests a correlation between regions of the low wall shear stress and the development of anastomotic neointimal fibrous hyperplasia(ANPH) in end-to-end anastomoses. 30523 T00401030523 ^x Air pressure decay(APD) rate and ultrafiltration rate(UFR) tests were performed on new and saline rinsed dialyzers as well as those roused in patients several times. C-DAK 4000 (Cordis Dow) and CF IS-11 (Baxter Travenol) reused dialyzers obtained from the dialysis clinic were used in the present study. The new dialyzers exhibited a relatively flat APD, whereas saline rinsed and reused dialyzers showed considerable amount of decay. C-DAH dialyzers had a larger APD(11.70$\pm$1.32mmHg/min)compared to CF dialyzers(4.32$\pm$0.55mmHg/min)(p<0.05). However, there was no observable difference in the UFR between the two dialyzers. Neither APD nor UFR showed any significant increase with an increasing number of reuses for up to more than 20reuses. A substantial number of failures observed in APD(larger than 20mmHe/min)on the reused dialyzers(2 out of 40 CP and S out 26 C-DAK) were attributed to the Possible damage on the fibers. The CF 15-11 HFDs which failed APD test did not show changes in the UFR compared to normal dialyzers indicating that APD is a more sensitive test than UFR test to evaluate the integrity of the fibers. 30527 T00401030527 ^x For quantitative measurement of reflected light from a clinical diagnostic strip, a prototype old reflectance photometer was designed. The strip loader and cassette were made to obtain more accurate reflectance parameters. The strip was illuminated at 45˚c through optical fiber and the intensity of reflected light was determined at rectanguLat angle using a photodiode. The kubelka-munk coefficient and reflection optical density were determined ar four different wavelengths(500, 550, 570 and 610nm) for blood glucose strip. For higher concentration than 300mg/41 about glucose, a saturation state of abforbance was observed at 500, 550 and 570nm. The correlation between glucose concentration and parameters was the best at 610nm. 30535 T00401030535 ^x Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors were grown on the flanks of C3H mice. The mice were divided into two groups. One group was injected with Photofrin II, intravenously (2.5mg/kg body weight). The other group received no Photofrin II. Mice from both groups were irradialed for approximately 15 minutes at 100, 300, or 500 mW/cm2 with the argon (488nm/514.5 nm), dye(628nm) and gold vapor (pulsed 628 nm) laser light. A photosensitizer behaved as an added absorber. Under our experimental conditions, the presence of Photolfrin II increased surface temperature by at least 40% and the temperature rise due to 300 mW/cm2 irradiation exceeded values for hyperthermia. Light and temperature distributions with depth were estimated by a computer model. The model demonstrated the influence of wavelength on the thermal process and proved to be a valuable tool to investigate internal temperature rise. 30536 T00401030536 ^x We investigated the structural geometry of thirty-eight Korean femurs. The purpose of this study is to identify major geometrical differences between Korean femurs 3nd others that we believe belong to Caucasians so that we would be able to get insights into the femoral component design that fits Asians including Koreans. We utilized computerized tomography (CT) images of femurs extracted from cadavers. The CT images were transformed into bitmap data by using a film scanner, and then analyzed by using a commercially available software called Image v.1.0 and a Macintosh IIci computer.The resulting data were compared with already published data. The major results show that the geometry of the Korean femurs is significantly different from that of Caucasians: (1) the anteversion angle and the canal flare index are greater by the amount of approximately 8˚ and 0.5, respectively, (2) the shape of the isthmus cross section is more round, and (3) the distance between the teaser trochanter and the proximal border of the isthmus is shelter by about 15 mm. The results suggested that the femoral component suitable for Asians should be different from the currently-used components designed and manufactured mostly by European or American companies. 30537 T00401030537 ^x It is well known that nonlinear propagation characteristics of the wave in the tissue may give very useful information for the medical diagnoisis. In this paper, a new method to detect nonlinear propagation characteristics of the internal vibration in the tissue for the low frequency mechanical vibration by using bispectral analysis is proposed. In the method, low frequency vibration of f0( = 100Hz) is applied on the surface of the object, and the waveform of the internal vibration x (t) is measured from Doppler frequency modulation of silmultaneously transmitted probing ultrasonic waves. Then, the bispectra of the signal x (t) at the frequencies (f0, f0) and (f0, 2f0) are calculated to estimate the nonlinear propagation characteristics as their magnitude ratio, w here since bispectrum is free from the gaussian additive noise we can get the value with high S/N. Basic experimental system is constructed by using 3.0 MHz probing ultrasonic waves and the several experiments are carried out for some phantoms. Results show the superiority of the proposed method to the conventional method using power spectrum and also its usefulness for the tissue characterization. 30541 T00401030541 ^x This paper describes the implementation of a computerized radial pulse diagnosis by aids of a clinical expert. On this base, we composed of the radial pulse diagnosis system in korean traditional medicine. The system composed of a radial pulse wave detection system and a radial pulse diagnosis system. With a detection system, we detected Inyoung and Cheongu radial pulse wave and processed it. Then, we have got the characteristic parameters of radial pulse wave and also quantified that according to the method of Inyoung-Cheongu Comparison Radial Pulse Diagnosis. We defined the jugement standard of radial pulse diagnosis system and then we confirmed the possibility for realization of automatic radial pulse diagnosis in korean traditional medicine. 30545 T00401030545 ^x Microspheres are expected to be applied to biomedical areas such as solid-phase immunoassays, drug delivery systems, immunomagnetic cell separation. To synthesize microspheres for biomedical application, "two stage shot growth method" was developed. The uniformity ratio of synthesized microspheres was always smaller than 1.05. And the surface charge density (or the number of ionizable functional groups) of the microspheres synthesized by "two stage shot growth method" was 6~13 times higher than that of the microspheres synthesized by conventional seeded batch copolymerization. As a previous step for biomedical application, adsorption experiments of bovine albumin on microspheres were carried out under various conditions. The maximum adsorbed amount was obtained in the neighborhood of pH 4.5. Isoelectric point of bovine albumin is pH 5.0, so experimental result shows that it shifted to acid area. The adsorption isotherm was obtained, the plateau region was always reached at 2.Og/L (bulk concentration of bovine albumin).The effect of the kind and the amount of surface functional group was also examined. 30575 T00401030575 ^x A medical image workstation was developed using multimedia technique. The system based on PC-486DX was designed to acquire medical images produced by medical imaging instruments and related audio information, that is, doctors' reporting results. Input information was processed and analyzed, then the results were presented in the form of graph and animation. All the informations of the system were hierarchically related with the image as the apex. Processing and analysis algorithms were implemented so that the diagnostic accuracy could be improved. The diagnosed information can be transferred for patient diagnosis through LAN(local area network). 30592 T00401030592 ^x In the conventional infrared imaging system, complex infrared lens systems are usually used for directing collimated narrow infrared beams into the high speed 2-dimensional optic scanner. In this paper, a simple reflective infrared optic system with a 2-dimensional optic scanner is proposed for the realization of medical infrared thermography system. It has been experimentally proven that the intfrared thermography system composed of the proposed optic system has the temperature resolution of 0.1˚c under the spatial resolution of lmrad, the image matrix size of 256 X 240, and tile imaging time of 4 seconds. 30593 T00401030593 ^x In this paper, MIIS (Medical Image Information System) has been designed and implemented using INGRES RDBMS, which is based on a client/server architecture. The implemented system allows users to register and retrieve patient information, medical images and diagnostic reports. It also provides the function to display these information on workstation windows simultaneously by using the designed menu-driven graphic user interface. The medical image compression/decompression techniques are implemented and integrated into the medical image database system for the efficient data storage and the fast access through the network. 30594 T00401030594 ^x In this paper, computerized BEAM was implemented for the space domain analysis of EEG. Trans-formation from temporal summation to two-dimensional mappings is formed by 4 nearest point inter-polaton method. Methods of representation of BEAM are two. One is dot density method which classify brain electrical potential 9 levels by dot density of gray levels and the other is colour method which classify brain electrical 12 levels by red-green colours. In this BEAM, instantaneous change and average energy distribution over any arbitrary time interval of brain electrical activity could be observed and analyzed easily. In the frequency domain, the distribution of energy spectrum of a special band can easily be distinguished normality and abnormality. 30608 T00401030608 ^x Laboratory information system (LIS) is a key tool to manage laboratory data in clinical pathology. Our department has developed an information system for routine hematology using down-sized computer system. We have used an IBM 486 compatible PC with 16MB main memory, 210 MB hard disk drive, 9 RS-232C port and 24 pin dot printer. The operating system and database management system were SCO UNIX and SCO foxbase, respectively. For program development, we used Xbase language provided by SCO foxbase. The C language was used for interface purpose. To make the system use friendly, pull-down menu was used. The system connected to our hospital information system via application program interface (API), so the information related to patient and request details is automatically transmitted to our computer. Our system interfaced with fwd complete blood count analyzers(Sysmex NE-8000 and Coulter STKS) for unidirectional data tansmission from analyzer to computer. The authors suggests that this system based on down-sized computer could provide a progressive approach to total LIS based on local area network, and the implemented system could serve as a model for other hospital's LIS for routine hematology. 30609 T00401030609 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. To use as the structural matrix of the composite, collagen was purified from human umbilical cord. The obtained collagen was treated by pepsin to remove telopeptides, and finally, the immune-free atelocollagen was produced: The cross linked atelocollagen was highly resistant to the collagenase induced collagenolysis. The cross linked collagen demonstrated an improved tensile strength. 30618 T00401030618 ^x This paper is a study on the design of adptive filter for QRS complex detection. We propose a simple adaptive algorithm to increase capability of noise cancelation in QRS complex detection with two stage adaptive filter. At the first stage, background noise is removed and at the next stage, only spectrum of QRS complex components is passed. Two adaptive filters can afford to keep track of the changes of both noise and QRS complex. Each adaptive filter consists of prediction error filter and FIR filter The impulse response of FIR filter uses coefficients of prediction error filter. The detection rates for 105 and 108 of MIT/BIH data base were 99.3% and 97.4% respectively. 30619 T00401030619 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed and produced a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. Human umbilical cord origin pepsin treated type I atelocollagen was used as the structural matrix, by which sintered or non-sintered carbonate apatite was encapsulated to form an inorganic-organic composite. With cross linking atelocollagen by UV ray irradiation, the resistance to both compressive and tensile strength was increased. Collagen degradation by the collagenase induced collagenolysis was also decreased. 30620 T00401030620 ^x We have developed a monoleaflet polymer valve as an inexpensive and viable alternative, especially for short-term use in the ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. The frame and leaflet of the polymer valve were made from polyurethane, To evaluate the hemodynamic performance of the polymer valve a comparative study of flow dynamics past a polymer valve and a St. Jude Medical prosthetic valve under physiological pulsatile flow conditions in vitro was made. Comparisons between the valves were made on the transvalvular pressure drop, regurgitation volume and maximum valve opening area. The polymer valve showed smaller regurgitation volume and transvalvular pressure drop compared to the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. The results showed that the functional characteristics of the polymer valve compared favorably with those of the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. 30621 T00401030621 ^x Explosive evaporative removal process of biological tissue by absorption of a CW laser has been simulated by using gelatin and a multimode Nd:YAG laser. Because the point of maximun temperature of laser-irradiated gelatin exists below the surface due to surface cooling, evaporation at the boiling temperature is made explosively from below the surface. The important parameters of this process are the conduction loss to laser power absorption (defined as the conduction-to-laser power parameter, Nk), the convection heat transfer at the surface to conduction loss (defined as Bi), dimensionless extinction coefficient (defined as Br.), and dimensionless irradiation time (defined as Fo). Dependence of Fo on Nk and Bi has been observed by experiment, and the results have been compared with the numerical results obtained by solving a 2-dimensional conduction equation. Fo and explosion depth (from the surface to the point of maximun temperature) are increased when Nk and Bi are increased.To find out the minimum laser power for explosive evaporative removal process, steady state analysis has been also made. The limit of Nk to induce evaporative removal, which is proportional to the inverse of the laser power, has been obtained. 30622 T00401030622 ^x N1 and N2 gross neural action potentials were measured from the round window of the guinea pig cochlea at the onset of the acoustic stimuli. N1-N2 audiograms were made by means of regulating stimulant intensities in order to produce constant N1-N2 potentials as criteria for different input tone pip frequencies. The lowest threshold was measured with an input tone pip I5 dB SPL in intensity and 12 KHz in frequency when the animal was in normal physiological condition. The procedure of experimental measurements is explained in detail. This experimental approach is very useful for the investigation of the Cochlear function. Both noN1inear and active functions of the Cochlea can be monitored by N1-N2 audiograms. 30623 T00401030623 ^x In electrical impedance tomography(EIT), we use boundary current and voltage measurements toprovide the information about the cross-sectional distribution of electrical impedance or resistivity. One of the major problems in EIT has been the inaccessibility of internal voltage or current data in finding the internal impedance values. We propose a new image reconstruction method using internal current density data measured by NMR. We obtained a two-dimensional current density distribution within a phantom by processing the real and imaginary MR images from a 4.77 NMR machine. We implemented a resistivity mage reconstruction algorithm using the finite element method and sensitivity matrix. We presented computer simulation results of the mage reconstruction algorithm and furture direction of the research. 30624 T00401030624 ^x A new method of digital image analysis technique for discrimination of cancer cell was presented in this paper. The object image was the Thyroid eland cells image that was diagnosed as normal and abnormal (two types of abnormal: follicular neoplastic cell, and papillary neoplastic cell), respectively. By using the proposed region segmentation algorithm, the cells were segmented into nucleus. The 16 feature parameters were used to calculate the features of each nucleus. A9 a consequence of using dominant feature parameters method proposed in this paper, discrimination rate of 91.11% was obtained for Thyroid Gland cells. 30625 T00401030625 ^x An electrical stimulator was designed to induce locomotion for paraplegic patients caused by central nervous system injury. Optimal stimulus parameters, which can minimize muscle fatigue and can achieve effective muscle contraction were determined in slow and fast muscles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulus patterns of our stimulator were designed to simulate electromyographic activity monitored during locomotion of normal subjects. Muscle types of the lower extremity were classified according to their mechanical property of contraction, which are slow muscle (msoleus m.) and fast muscle (medial gastrocneminus m., rectus femoris m., vastus lateralis m.). Optimal parameters of electrical stimulation for slow muscles were 20 Hz, 0.2 ms square pulse. For fast muscle, 40 Hz, 0.3 ms square pulse was optimal to produce repeated contraction. Higher stimulus intensity was required when synergistic muscles were stimulated simultaneously than when they were stimulated individually. Electrical stimulation for each muscle was designed to generate bipedal locomotion, so that individual muscles alternate contraction and relaxation to simulate stance and swing phases. Portable electrical stimulator with 16 channels built in microprocessor was constructed and applied to paraplegic patients due to lumbar cord injury. The electrical stimulator restored partially gait function in paraplegic patients. 30626 T00401030626 ^x Two-Dimensional modelling of the Cochlear biomechanics is presented in this paper. The Laplace partial differential equation which represents the fluid mechanics of the Cochlea has been transformed into two-dimensional electrical transmission line. The procedure of this transformation is explained in detail. The comparison between one and two dimensional models is also presented. This electrical modelling of the basilar membrane (BM) is clearly useful for the next approach to the further. Development of active elements which are essential in the producing of the sharp tuning of the BM. This paper shows that two-dimension model is qualitatively better than one-dimensional model both in amplitude and phase responses of the BM displacement. The present model is only for frequency response. However because the model is electrical, the two-dimensional transmission line model can be extended to time response without any difficult. 30627 T00401030627 ^x A method has been proposed for the fully automatic detection of left ventricular endocardial boundary in 2D short axis echocardiogram using geometric model. The procedure has the following three distinct stages. First, the initial center is estimated by the initial center estimation algorithm which is applied to decimated image. Second, the center estimation algorithm is applied to original image and then best-fit elliptic model estimation is processed. Third, best-fit boundary is detected by the cost function which is based on the best-fit elliptic model. The proposed method shows effective result without manual intervention by a human operator. 30628 T00401030628 ^x The intelligent trajectory control method that controls moving direction and average velocity for a prosthetic arm is proposed by pattern recognition and force estimations using EMG signals. Also, we propose the real time trajectory planning method which generates continuous accelleration paths using 3 stage linear filters to minimize the impact to human body induced by arm motions and to reduce the muscle fatigue. We use combination of MLP and fuzzy filter for pattern recognition to estimate the direction of a muscle and Hogan's method for the force estimation. EMG signals are acquired by using a amputation simulator and 2 dimensional joystick motion. The simulation results of proposed prosthetic arm control system using the EMf signals show that the arm is effectively followed the desired trajectory depended on estimated force and direction of muscle movements. 30638 T00401030638 ^x A new neural network architecture for the recognition of patterns from images is proposed, which is partially based on the results of physiological studies. The proposed network is composed of multi-layers and the nerve cells in each layer are connected by spatial filters which approximate receptive fields in optic nerve fields. In the proposed method, patterns recognition for complicated images is carried out using global features as well as local features such as lines and end-points. A new generating method of matched filers representing global features is proposed in this network. 30659 T00401030659 ^x An implementation scheme of the magnetic nerve stimulator using a switching mode power supply is proposed. By using a switching mode power supply rather than a conventional linear power supply for charging high voltage capacitors, the weight and size of the magnetic nerve stimulator can be considerably reduced. Maximum output voltage of the developed magnetic nerve stimulator using the switching mode power supply is 3, 000 volts and switching time is about 100 msec. Experimental results or human nerve stimulations using the developed stimulator are presented. 30768 T00401030768 ^x In this paper, we describe the design methodology and specifications of the developed module-based bedside monitors for patient monitoring. The bedside monitor consists of a main unit and module cases with various parameter modules. The main unit includes a 12.1" TFT color LCD, a main CPU board, and peripherals such as a module controller, Ethernet LAN card, video card, rotate/push button controller, etc. The main unit can connect at maximum three module cases each of which can accommodate up to 7 parameter modules. They include the modules for electrocardiograph, respiration, invasive blood pressure, noninvasive blood pressure, temperature, and SpO2 with Plethysmograph.SpO2 with Plethysmograph.

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