• Title/Summary/Keyword: Pure Titanium

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Electrochemical Characteristics of Nanotubular Ti-25Nb-xZr Ternary Alloys for Dental Implant Materials

  • Byeon, In-Seop;Park, Seon-Young;Choe, Han-Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Dental Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.10-21
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of nanotubular Ti-25Nb-xZr ternary alloys for dental implant materials. Materials and Methods: Ti-25Nb-xZr alloys with different Zr contents (0, 3, 7, and 15 wt.%) were manufactured using commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti), niobium (Nb), and zirconium (Zr) (99.95 wt.% purity). The alloys were prepared by arc melting in argon (Ar) atmosphere. The Ti-25Nb-xZr alloys were homogenized in Ar atmosphere at $1,000^{\circ}C$ for 12 hours followed by quenching into ice water. The microstructure of the Ti-25Nb-xZr alloys was examined by a field emission scanning electron microscope. The phases in the alloys were identified by an X-ray diffractometer. The chemical composition of the nanotube-formed surfaces was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Self-organized $TiO_2$ was prepared by electrochemical oxidation of the samples in a $1.0M\;H_3PO_4+0.8wt.%$ NaF electrolyte. The anodization potential was 30 V and time was 1 hour by DC supplier. Surface wettability was evaluated for both the metallographically polished and nanotube-formed surfaces using a contact-angle goniometer. The corrosion properties of the specimens were investigated using a 0.9 wt.% aqueous solution of NaCl at $36^{\circ}C{\pm}5^{\circ}C$ using a potentiodynamic polarization test. Result: Needle-like structure of Ti-25Nb-xZr alloys was transform to equiaxed structure as Zr content increased. Nanotube formed on Ti-25Nb-xZr alloys show two sizes of nanotube structure. The diameters of the large tubes decreased and small tubes increased as Zr content increased. The lower contact angles for nanotube formed Ti-25NbxZr alloys surfaces showed compare to non-nanotube formed surface. The corrosion resistance of alloy increased as Zr content increased, and nanotube formed surface showed longer the passive regions compared to non-treatment surface. Conclusion: It is confirmed that corrosion resistance of alloy increased as Zr content increased, and nanotube formed surface has longer passive region compared to without treatment surface.

Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Internal Connection Implant System (Gsii$^{(R)}$) According to Three Different Abutments and Prosthetic Design (국산 내부연결형 임플란트시스템(GS II$^{(R)}$)에서 지대주 연결방식에 따른 응력분석에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Mi-Ra;Kwak, Ju-Hee;Kim, Myung-Rae;Park, Eun-Jin;Park, Ji-Marn;Kim, Sun-Jong
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.179-195
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    • 2010
  • In the internal connection system, the loading transfer mechanism within the inner surface of the implant and also the stress distribution occuring to the mandible can be changed according to the abutment form. Therefore it is thought to be imperative to study the difference of the stress distribution occuring at the mandible according to the abutment form. The purpose of this study was to assess the loading distributing characteristics of three different abutments for GS II$^{(R)}$ implant fixture(Osstem, Korea) under vertical and inclined loading using finite element analysis. Three finite element models were designed according to three abutments; 2-piece Transfer$^{TM}$ abutment made of pure titanium(GST), 2-piece GoldCast$^{TM}$ abutment made of gold alloy(GSG), 3-piece Convertible$^{TM}$ abutment with external connection(GSC). This study simulated loads of 100N in a vertical direction on the central pit(load 1), on the buccal cusp tip(load 2) and $30^{\circ}$ inward inclined direction on the central pit(load 3), and on the buccal cusp tip(load 4). The following results were obtained. 1. Without regard to the loading condition, greater stress was concentrated at the cortical bone contacting the upper part of the implant fixture and lower stress was taken at the cancellous bone. 2. When off-axis loading was applied, high stress concentration observed in cervical area. 3. GSG showed even stress distribution in crown, abutment and fixture. GST showed high stress concentration in fixture and abutment screw. GSC showed high stress concentration in fixture and abutment. 4. Maximum von Mises stress in the surrounding bone had no difference among three abutment type. In GS II$^{(R)}$ conical implant system, different stress distribution pattern was showed according to the abutment type and the stress-induced pattern at the supporting bone according to the abutment type had no difference among them.

The effect of Ca-P coatings of anodized implant surface on response of osteoblast-like cells in vitro (임플란트 표면의 Ca-P 코팅 방법이 MG63 골모유사세포 반응에 미치는 영향에 대한 in vitro 연구)

  • Kim, Il-Yeon;Jung, Sung-Min;Hwang, Soon-Jung;Shin, Sang-Wan
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.376-384
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of osteoblast-like cells to Ca-P coated surface obtained via Ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) method and Sol-Gel process on anodized surface by cellular proliferation and differentiation. Material and methods: The surface of a commercially pure titanium (Grade IV) discs with dimension of 10mm diameter and 2 mm thickness was modified by anodic oxidation under a constant voltage of 300 V. The experimental groups were coated with Ca-P by the IBAD method and Sol-Gel process on anodized surface. The surface roughness (Ra) of specimens was measured by optical interferometer and each surface was examined by SEM. To evaluate cell response, MG63 cells were cultured and cell proliferation, ALP activity and the ability of cell differentiation were examined. Also, cell morphology was examined by SEM. The significant of each group was verified by Kruskal-Wallis Test ($\alpha$=.05). Results: The Ra value of Ca-P coated surface by IBAD method was significantly higher than Ca-P coated surface by Sol-gel process (P < .05). The level of cell proliferation and ALP activity was higher in Ca-P coated surface by IBAD method (P<.05). The expression of ALP showed higher level expression in Ca-P coated surface by IBAD method. Cells grown on Ca-P coated surface by IBAD method were uniformly distributed and developed a very close layer. Conclusion: These experiments showed better performances of Ca-P coated surface by IBAD method with respect to Ca-P coated surface by Sol-gel process. Ca-P coated surface by IBAD method appear to give rise more mature osteoblast characteristics and might result in increased bone growth and bone-implant contact.

The study on the shear bond strength of resin and porcelain to Titanium (티타늄에 대한 레진과 도재의 결합 강도에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Ji-Man;Kim, Yeong-Soon;Jun, Sul-Gi;Park, Eun-Jin
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2009
  • Statement of problem: Recently, titanium has become popular as superstructure material in implant dentistry because titanium superstructure can be easily milled by means of computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) technique. But retention form such as nail head or bead cannot be cut as a result of technical limitation of CAD/CAM milling and bond strength between titanium and porcelain is not as strong as that of conventional gold or metal alloy. Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of three different materials: heat curing resin, composite resin, porcelain which were bonded to grade II commercially pure Titanium (CP-Ti). Material and methods: Thirty seven CP-Ti discs with 9 mm diameter, 10 mm height were divided into three groups and were bonded with heat curing resin (Lucitone 199), indirect composite resin (Sinfony), and porcelain (Triceram) which were mounted in a former with 7 mm diameter and 1 mm height. Samples were thermocycled for 1000 cycles at between $5-55^{\circ}C$. Shear bond strength (MPa) was measured with Instron Universal Testing Machine with cross head speed of 1 mm/min. The failure pattern was observed at the fractured surface and divided into adhesive, cohesive, and combination failure. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's multiple range test (${\alpha}=0.05$). Results: Lucitone 199 ($17.82{\pm}5.13\;MPa$) showed the highest shear bond strength, followed by Triceram ($12.97{\pm}2.11\;MPa$), and Sinfony ($6.00{\pm}1.31\;MPa$). Most of the failure patterns in Lucitone 199 and Sinfony group were adhesive failure, whereas those in Triceram group were combination failure. Conclusion: Heat curing resin formed the strongest bond to titanium which is used as a CAD/CAM milling block. But the bond strength is still low compared with the bond utilizing mechanical interlocking and there are many adhesive failures which suggest that more studies to enhance bond strength are needed.

Evaluation of titanium surface properties by $Nd:YVO_4$ laser irradiation: pilot study ($Nd:YVO_4$ 레이저 조사에 따른 티타늄의 표면특성 평가: 예비 연구)

  • Kim, Ae-Ra;Park, Ji-Yoon;Kim, Yeon;Jun, Sei-Won;Seo, Yoon-Jeong;Park, Sang-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the roughness and surface alternations of three differently blasted titanium discs treated by $Nd:YVO_4$ Laser irradiation in different conditions. Materials and methods: Thirty commercially pure titanium discs were prepared and divided into three groups. Each group was consisted of 10 samples and blasted by $ZrO_2$ (zirconium dioxide), $Al_2O_3$ (aluminum oxide), and RBM (resorbable blasted media). All the samples were degreased by ultrasonic cleaner afterward. Nine different conditions were established by changing scanning speed (100, 300, 500 mm/s) and repetition rate (5, 15, 35 kHz) of $Nd:YVO_4$ Laser (Laser Pro D-20, Laserval $Korea^{(R)}$, Seoul, South Korea). After laser irradiation, a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis, and surface roughness analysis were used to assess the roughness and surface alternations of the samples. Results: According to a scanning electron microscope (SEM), titanium discs treated with laser irradiation showed characteristic patterns in contrast to the control which showed irregular patterns. According to the X-ray diffraction analysis, only $Al_2O_3$ group showed its own peak. The oxidation tendency and surface roughness of titanium were similar to the control in the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. The surface roughness was inversely proportional to the scanning speed, whereas proportional to the repetition rate of $Nd:YVO_4$. Conclusion: The surface microstructures and roughness of the test discs were modified by the radiation of $Nd:YVO_4$ laser. Therefore, laser irradiation could be considered one of the methods to modify implant surfaces for the enhancement of osseointegration.

Cell study on the Magnesium ion implanted surface with PSII (PSII를 이용한 마그네슘 이온 주입 임플란트에 대한 MC3T3-E1 골모양 세포 반응 연구)

  • Shin, Hyeong-Joo;Kim, Dae-Gon;Park, Chan-Jin;Cho, Lee-Ra;Lee, Hee-Su;Cha, Min-Sang
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.361-374
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    • 2009
  • For successful osteogenesis around the implants, interaction between implant surface and surrounding tissue is important. Biomechanical bonding and biochemical bonding are considered to influence the response of adherent cells. But the focus has shifted surface chemistry. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast like cell responses of magnesium (Mg) ion implanted titanium surface produced using a plasma source ion implantation method. Commercially pure titanium disc was used as substrates. The discs were prepared to produce four different surface, A: Machine turned surface, B: Mg implanted surface, C: sandblasted surface, D: sandblasted and Mg implanted surface. MC3T3 El osteoblastic like cells were cultured on the disc specimens. Cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and synthesis of extracellular matrix were evaluated. The cell adhesion morphology was evaluated by SEM. RT PCR assay was used for assessment of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. ALP activity was measured for cell differentiation. The results of this study were as follows: 1. SEM showed that cell on Mg ion groups was more proliferative than that of non Mg ion groups. On the machine turned surface, cell showed some degree of contact guidance in aligning with the machining grooves. 2. In RT PCR analysis, osteonectin and c-fos mRNA were more expressed on sandblasted and Mg ion implanted group. 3. ALP activity was not significantly different among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: It might indicate Mg ion implanted titanium surface induce better bone response than non Mg ion groups.