• Title/Summary/Keyword: Pure Titanium

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COMPARISON OF THE BOND STRENGTH OF CERAMICS FUSED TO TITANIUM AND Ni-Cr ALLOY (티타늄과 니켈-크롬 합금의 도재결합강도 비교)

  • Park Sae-Young;Jeon Young-Chan;Jeong Chang-Mo
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.89-98
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    • 2003
  • Titanium requires special ceramic system for veneering. Low fusing dental ceramics with coefficients of thermal expansion matching that of titanium have been developed. The purpose of this study was determine the bond strengths between cast and noncast pure titanium and two commercial titanium porcelains, and to compare the results with a conventional nickel-chromium alloy-ceramic system. The bond strengths were determined using a 3-point flexure test. Three-point flexure specimens $25{\times}3{\times}0.5mm$ were prepared After removal of ${\alpha}-case$ layer, they were veneered with $8{\times}3{\times}1mm$ of ceramics at the center of the bar. Specimens were tested in a universal testing machine. Within the limits of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The bond strengths between pure titanium and two commercial porcelains exceeded th lower limit of the bonding strength value in ISO 9693(25MPa). 2. There was no significant difference between cast and noncast titanium-porcelain bonds. 3. There was no significant difference between two commercial titanium porcelains. 4. The bond strengths of the titanium-porcelain systems ranged from 73% to 79% of that of the Ni-Cr-conventional porcelain system.

Grindability of Ti-Xwt%Cu Alloys for Dental Applications (치과용 Ti-Xwt%Cu 합금의 연삭성)

  • Ahn, Jae-Seok
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2009
  • This study evaluated the grindability of series of Ti-Cu alloys in order to develop a Ti alloy with better grindability than commercially pure titanium(CP Ti). Experimental Ti-Xwt%Cu alloys(X=2, 5, 10) were made in an argon-arc melting furnace. Slabs of experimental alloys were ground using a SiC abrasive wheel on an electric handpiece at circumferential speed(15000, 30000rpm) by applying a force(250, 300gr). Grindability was evaluated by measuring the amount of metal volume removed after grinding for 2 minutes. Data were compared to those for CP Ti and Ti-6wt%Al-4wt%V alloy. From results, It was observed that the grindability of Ti-Cu alloys increased with an increase in the Cu concentration compared to CP Ti, particularly the 10wt%Cu alloy exhibited the highest grindability at all speeds. By alloying with Cu, the Ti exhibited better grindability at high speed. The continuous precipitation of $Ti_2Cu$ among the ${\alpha}$-matrix grains made this material less ductile and facilitated more effective grinding because small segments more readily formed. The Ti-10wt%Cu alloy has a great potential for use as a dental machining alloy.

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The effect of temperature in high temperature SHPB test (고온 SHPB실험에서 온도의 영향)

  • Park, Kyoung-Joon;Yang, Hyun-Mo;Min, Oak-Key
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 2001
  • The split Hopkinson pressure bar has been used for a high strain rate impact test. Also it has been developed and modified for compression, shear, tension, elevated temperature and subzero tests. In this paper, SHPB compression tests have been performed with pure titanium at elevated temperatures. The range of temperature is from room temperature to $1000^{\circ}C$ with interval of $200^{\circ}C$. To raise temperature of the specimen, a radiant heater which is composed of a pair of ellipsoidal cavities and halogen lamps is developed at high temperature SHPB test. There are some difficulties in a high temperature test such as temperature gradient, lubrication and prevention of oxidation of specimen. The temperature gradient of specimen is affected by the variation of temperature. Barreling occurred at not properly lubricated specimen. Stress-strain relations of pure titanium have been obtained in the range of strain rate at $1900/sec{\sim}2000/sec$ and temperature at $25^{\circ}C{\sim}1000^{\circ}C$.

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THE MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATION OF HUMAN GINGIVAL FIBROBLASTS ATTACHMENT AND SPREADING ON THE MECHANICAL TREATED TITANIUM PLASMA SPRAYED IMPLANT SURFACE (기계적 표면 처리된 TITANIUM PLASMA SPRAYED IMPLANT에 대한 치은섬유아세포전개양상의 형태학적 관찰)

  • Whang, Yun-Hi;Lee, Jae-Mok;Suh, Jo-Young
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.741-755
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    • 1995
  • Currently titanium is the material of choice for implants because of its biological acceptance. This high degree of biocompatibility is thought to result, in part, from the protective and stable oxide layer that presumably aids in the bonding of the extracellular matrix at the implant-tissue interface. Endosseous dental implants are interfaced with bone, connective tissue, and epithelium when implanted into the jaw bone. The soft tissue interface including connective tissue and epithelium is one of the most critical factors in the determination of implant maintenance and prognosis. For maintenance of failing or failed implants, it is essential to treat the implant fixture surface to remove bacterial endotoxins and make a surface tolerated by surrounding soft and hard tissues. In this study, the effect of mechanical treatment on titanium plasma sprayed implant on adhesiveness and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts and changed surface characteristics were studied. titanium plasma sprayed discs manufactured by Friedrichsfeld company were treated with loaw speed stone bur, a rubber point and a jetpolisher. Its surface components were analyzed with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to evaluate whether the surface characteristics were altered or not. To observe the spreading pattern of the human gingival fibroblasts which attached to the all specimens author used the scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows : Pure titanium and plasma sprayed titanium, stone polished titanium showed titanium peak and small amout of aluminum, so there was no alteration on surface characteristics. Under the scanning electron microscopic examination in the initial attachment of human gingival fibroblast, there was a slight enhancement in pure titanium, stone polished titanium than plasma sprayed titanium. After 6 hours, the pure titanium and stone polished titanium showed human gingival fibroblasts were elongated and connected with numerous processes. Human gingival fibroblasts were more intimately attached on the pure titanium discs than on the other discs. The human gingival fibroblasts attached on the plasma sprayed titanium by thin and elongated processes. After 24 hours, the human gingival fibroblasts connected with each other via numerous processes and compeletly covered the pure titanium and stone polshed titanium discs. Human gingival fibroblasts had multiple point contacts with more long and thin lamellopodia and showed a little bare surface on plasma sprayed titanium discs.

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Microstructural Change of Porous Surface Implant conditioned with Tetracycline-hydrochloride (염산티트라싸이클린의 적용시간에 따른 다공성 임프란트 표면 미세구조의 변화)

  • Jeong, Jae-Wook;Herr, Yeek;Kwon, Young-Hyuk;Park, Joon-Bong;Chung, Jong-Hyuk
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.319-334
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    • 2006
  • Mechanical and chemical methods are the two ways to treat the implant surfaces. By using mechanical method, it is difficult to eliminate bacteria and by-products from the rough implant surface and it can also cause the structural change to the implant surface. Therefore, chemical method is widely used in order to preserve and detoxicate the implant surface more effectively. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of tetracylcline-hydrochloride(TC-HCI) on the change of implant surface microstructure according to application time. Implants with pure titanium machined surface, SLA surface and porous surface were used in this study. Implant surface was rubbed with sponge soaked in 50mg/ml TC-HCI solution for $\frac{1}{2}$ min., 1 min., $1\frac{1}{2}$ min., 2 min., and $2\frac{1}{2}$ min. respectively in the test group and with no treatment in the control group. Then, specimens were processed for scanning electron microscopic observation. 1. Both test and control group showed a few shallow grooves and ridges in pure titanium machined surface implants. There were not significant differences between two groups. 2. In the SLA surfaces, the control specimen showed that the macro roughness was achieved by large-grit sandblasting. Subsequently, the acid-etching process created the micro roughness, which thus was superimposed on the macro roughness. Irrespective of the application time of 50mg/ml TC-HCI solution, in general, test specimens were similar to control. 3. In the porous surfaces, the control specimen showed spherical particles of titanium alloy and its surface have a few shallow ridges. The roughness of surfaces conditioned with tetracycline-HCI was lessened and seen crater-like irregular surfaces relative to the application time. In conclusion, pure titanium machined surfaces and SLA surfaces weren't changed irrespective of the application time of tetracycline-HCI solution. But the porous surfaces conditioned with tetracycline-HCI solution began to be slightly changed from 2 min. This results are expected to be applied to the regenerative procedures for peri-implantitis treatment.

Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Effect of Tetracycline-HCl on the Change of Implant Surface Microstructure according to Application Time (염산테트라싸이클린의 적용시간에 따른 임플란트 표면변화에 관한 주사전자현미경적 연구)

  • Kim, Woo-Young;Lee, Man-Sup;Park, Joon-Bong;Herr, Yeek
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.523-537
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    • 2002
  • The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of tetracycline - HCl on the change of implant surface microstructure according to application time. Implants with pure titanium machined surface, SLA surface and $TiO_2blasted$ surface were used. Implant surface was rubbed with 5Omg/ml tetracycline - HCl solution for ${\frac}{1}{2}$ min., 1 min., $1{\frac}{1}{2}$ min., 2 min., and 3min. respectively in the test group and with no conditioning in the control group. Then, the specimens were processed for scanning electron microscopic observation. The following results were obtained. 1. In the pure titanium machined surfaces, the control specimen showed a more or less rough machined surface composed of alternating positive and negative lines corresponding to grooves and ridges. After treatment, machining line was more pronounced for the control specimens. but in general, test specimens were similar to control. 2. In the SLA surfaces, the control specimen showed that the macro roughness was achieved by large-grit sandblasting. subsequently, the acid-etching process crated the micro roughness, which thus was superimposed on the macro roughness. 3. In the SLA surfaces, irrespective of the application time of 50mg/ml tetracycline-HCl solution, in general, test specimens were similar to control. 4. In the $TiO_2blasted$ surfaces the control specimen showed the rough surface with small pits. The irregularity of the $TiO_2blasted$ surfaces with 50mg/ml tetracycline-HCl solution was lessened and the flattened areas were wider relative to the application time of tetracycline - HCl solution. In conclusion, pure titanium machined surfaces and SLA surfaces weren't changed irrespective of the application time of tetracycline-HCl solution. And the $TiO_2blasted$ surfaces conditioned with tetracycline - HCl solution began to be changed from $1{\frac}{1}{2}$ min. This results are expected to be applied to the regenerative procedures for peri-implantitis treatment.

The Biocompatibility Of Cultured Bone Marrow Cells And Gingival Fibroblasts On The Titanium Surfaces (티타늄 배양에 대한 배양골수와 치은 섬유아세포의 생체적합성)

  • Oh, Choong-Young;Park, Joon-Bong;Kwon, Young-Hyuk;Lee, Man-Sup
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.143-160
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response in aspect of attachment and growth rate of osteoblasts and growth rate of osteoblasts and human gingival fibroblasts to the commercially pure titanium(CP titanium)and titanium alloy(Ti-6AI-4V) that are used widely as implant materials, and to obtain the basic information to ideal implant materials. In the studly, commercially pure titanium in first test group, titanium alloy(Ti-6AI-4V) in second test group, cobalt-chrome-molybdenum alloy(Co-Cr-Mo alloy) in positive control group, and tissue culture polystyrene plate in negative control group were used. The results of this study were as follows. 1. Bone marrow cells cultured on CP titanium and Ti-6Al-4V showed significantly greater attachment and growth rate(p(0.05) compared to Co-Cr-Mo alloy in each time. 2. There were no significant differences(p>0.05) in attachment and growth rate of bone marrow cells cultured on CP titanium and Ti-6AI-4V or tissue culture plate. 3. Most bone marrow cells cultured on CP titanium, Ti-6Al-4V and tissue culture plate were attached well to each substratum in first 2days, and then, grew at higher growth rate. On the other hand, some cells cultured on Co-Cr-Mo alloy failed to attach in first 2 days, and then, attached cells grew at lower growth rate than other groups. 4. Attachment and growth rates of gingival fibroblasts cultured on CP titanium and Ti-6Al-4V showed no significant differences(p>0.05) compared to Co-Cr-Mo alloy in 2 days, but significantly greater increase(p<0.05) in 5 and 9 days. 5. There were no significantly differences(p>0.05) between growth rates on gingival fibroblasts cultured on CP titanium, Ti-6Al-4V and tissue culture plate in 2 and 5days, but a significant lower growth rate(p<0.05) on CP titanium and Ti-6Al-4V versus tissue culture plate. 6. Some gingival fibroblasts cultured on all specimen groups failed to attach, but attached cells grew well, especially on CP titanium, Ti-GAl-4V and tissue culture plate. 7. There were no significant differences(P>0.05) between growth rates of both bone marrow cells and gingival fibroblasts cultured on CP titanium and Ti-6AI-4V. As a result of this study, both commercially pure titanium and Ti-6AI-4V showed excellent biocompatibility and there was no significant difference in the cellular response to the both metals. Bone marrow cells cultured on each substratum showed significantly greater growth rate and responded sensitively to cytotoxic effects of metal surfaces compared to gingival fibroblasts. Considering cell response to the substrate, it was likely that the composition itself of titanium metals have no significant effect on the biocompatibility. Further study need to be done to evaluate the influence of surface characteristics on cellular responses.

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A study on the mechanical properties of copper-titanium friction-welded joint (마찰압접에 의한 Cu와 Ti 압접부의 기계적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김성연;연윤모;김대업;정승부;서창제
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.192-195
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    • 2000
  • This paper describes a fundamental investigation of the friction welding condition for pure copper/pure titanium and the effect of friction time, upset pressure on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of friction welding. Under the constant upset pressure, the tensile strength make a little difference with an increase in friction time. At the constant friction time, the tensile strength increased with an increase in upset pressure. The tensile fracture of Cu to Ti joint occurred in Cu base material near interface.

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SUPERELASTICITY OF CAST SHAPE MEMORY Ni-Ti ALLOY (주조 형상기억 니켈-티타늄 합금의 초탄성)

  • Choi, Dong-Ik;Choie, Mok-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Esthetic Dentistry
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.32-43
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    • 1995
  • Ni-Ti alloy has excellent corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, shape memory effect and superelasticity, so it has been used widely in biomedical fields. But it has difficulty in casting due to its high melting temperature and oxygen affinity at high temperature. Recently it has been attempted to cast Ni-Ti alloy using new casting machine and investment. The purpose of this study was to examine the superelastic behavior of cast shape memory Ni-Ti alloy and to compare the mechanical properties of the cast shape memory alloy with those of commercial alloys for removable partial denture framework. Ni-Ti alloy(Ni 50.25%, Ti 49.75% : atomic ratio) was cast with dental argon-arc pressure casting machine and Type IV gold alloy, Co-Cr alloy, Ni-Cr alloy, pure titanium were cast as reference. Experimental cast Ni-Ti alloy was treated with heat($500{\pm}2^{\circ}C$) in muffle furnace for 1 hour. Transformation temperature range of cast Ni-Ti alloy was measured with differential scanning calorimetry. The superelastic behavior and mechanical properties of cat Ni-Ti alloy were observed and evaluated by three point bending test, ultimate tensile test, Vickers microhardness test and scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows : 1. Cast Ni-Ti alloy(Ni 50.25%, Ti 49.75% : atomic ratio) was found to have superelastic behavior. 2. Stiffness of cast Ni-Ti alloy was considerably lesser than that of commercial alloys for removable partial denture. 3. Permanent deformation was observed in commercial alloys for removable partial denture framework at three point bending test over proportional limit(1.5mm deflection), but was not nearly observed in cast Ni-Ti alloy. 4. On the mechanical properties of ultimate tensile strength, elongation and Vickers microhardness number, cast Ni-Ti alloy was similiar to Type IV gold alloy, Co-Cr alloy, Ni-Cr alloy and pure titanium. With these results, cast Ni-Ti alloy had superelastic behavior and low stiffness. Therefore, it is suggested that cast Ni-Ti alloy may be applicated to base metal alloy for removable partial denture framework.

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The effect of implant surface treated by anodizing on proliferation of the rat osteoblast (양극화 타이타늄 표면처리가 골모세포 증식에 미치는 영향)

  • Hur, Yin-Shik;Park, Joon-Bong;Kwon, Young-Hyuk;Herr, Yeek;Kim, Hyung-Sun;Cho, Byung-Won;Cho, Won-Il
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.499-518
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    • 2003
  • The surface characteristics of titanium have been shown to have an important role in contact ossseointegration around the implant. Anodizing at high voltage produces microporous structure and increases thickness of surface titanium dioxide layer. The aim of present study was to analyse the response of rat calvarial osteoblast cell to commercially pure titanium and Ti-6A1-4V anodized in 0.06 mol/l ${\beta}$-glycerophosphate and 0.03 mol/l sodium acetate. In this study, rat calvarial osteoblasts were used to assay for cell viability and cell proliferation on the implant surface at 1,2,4,7 days. 1. Surface roughness was 1.256${\mu}m$ at 200V, and 1.745${\mu}m$ at 300V. 2. The thickness of titanium oxide layer was increased 1 ${\mu}m$ with the increase of 50V. 3. The proliferation rate of osteoblastic cells was increased with the increase of the surface roughness and the thickness of titanium oxide layer. 4. There was no difference in cell viability and cell proliferation between commercially pure titanium and Ti-6A1-4V anodized at the same condition. In conclusion, the titanium surface modified by anodizing was biocompatible, produced enhanced osteoblastic response. The reasons of enhanced osteoblast response might be due to reduced metal ion release by thickened and stabilized titanium dioxide layer and microporous rough structures.