• Title, Summary, Keyword: Purinergic receptor

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Characterization of Purinergic Receptors in Rat Atrium (흰쥐 심방근에서의 Purinergic 수용체의 특성)

  • Kim, Jae-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 1994
  • In rat atrium the characteristics of purinergic receptors were investigated by observing the effects of some purinergic receptor agonists and antagonists on action potential and contractile force. The statistically significant effects of $ATP(10^{-6}{\sim}10^{-3}M)$ and adenosine $(10^{-6}{\sim}10^{-3}M)$ on normal action potential characteristics were a dose-dependent shortening of action potential duration $(APD_{90})$ by both agents and hyperpolarization by $ATP(10^{-4},10^{-3}M)$. $CAP(10^{-8}{\sim}10^{-4}M)$, an $A_1$ adenosine receptor agonist, shortened $(APD_{90})$ markedly in a dose-dependent manner and these effects were almost abolished by $DPCPX\;(10^{-6}\;M), an $A_1$, adenosine receptor antagonist, but not affected by $DMPX(2{\times}10^{-6}\;M)$, an $A_2$ adenosine receptor agonist. On the other hand, CGS $21680(10^{-7}{\sim}10^{-4}M)$, an $A_2$ adenosine receptor agonist, elicited a slight shortening of $(APD_{90})$ and these effects were inhibited by DPCPX but persisted in the presence of DPMX. Adenosine $(10^{-6}{\sim}10{\-4}\;M)$ decreased the basal contraction of atrial muscle in a dose-dependent manner and these effects were not inhibited by DMPX but by DPCPX. These results suggests that purinergic receptor agonists depress the cardiac activity by a short ening of action potential duration and this effect is mostly mediated by $A_1$ adenosine receptors in rat atrium.

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Characteristics of Purinergic Receptor Expressed in Human Retinoblastoma Cells

  • Kim, Dae-Ran;Kong, In-Deok
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2007
  • Recently, much attention has been paid to human retinoblastoma since it provide a good model system for studying mechanisms underlying cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and for developing cancer therapy. However, until now it is unclear whether purinergic receptors are involved in the calcium mobilization in the retinoblastoma cells. In this regard, we measured possible purinergic signaling in WERI-Rb-1 cells using $Ca^{2+}$ imaging technique and RT-PCR method. ATP-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ transients was maintained to about $90.7{\pm}1.0%$ of the control (n=48) even in the absence of extracellular calcium. The ATP-induced intracellular calcium response was only attained to $10.4{\pm}1.8%$ (n=55) of peak amplitude of the control after preincubation of 1 ${\mu}MU-73122$, a PLC inhibitor, but it was not affected by 1 ${\mu}MU-73343$, a inactive form of U-73122. And also ATP-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ rise was almost attenuated by 20 ${\mu}M$ 2-APB, a putative $IP_3$ receptor inhibitor. Two subtypes of $IP_3$ receptor $(IP_{3-1}R,\;IP_{3-2}R)$ were identified by a RT-PCR method. These findings suggest that purinergic stimuli can cause calcium mobilization via $PLC-IP_3$ pathway after the activation of P2Y receptors in the retinoblastoma cells, which may play important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, and cell death.

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Purinergic-mediated Calcium Homeostasis and Dopamine R~lease in PC 12 Cells: Effect of Ethanol

  • Kim, Won-Ki
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.16-16
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    • 1997
  • Extracelluar ATP evokes many biological processes, including neuronal excitation and neurotransmitter secretion, through activation of purinergic P2 receptors. Although excitatory and inhibitory receptor-operated channels (ROC) and voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) have been reported to be altered by acute and chronic exposure to ethanol, little is known of the ethanol effects on purinergic receptor-operated channels in neuronal cells.(omitted)

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The purinergic receptor P2X5 contributes to bone loss in experimental periodontitis

  • Kim, Hyunsoo;Kajikawa, Tetsuhiro;Walsh, Matthew C.;Takegahara, Noriko;Jeong, Yun Hee;Hajishengallis, George;Choi, Yongwon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.9
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    • pp.468-473
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    • 2018
  • Purinergic receptor signaling is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of inflammation. The P2X family purinergic receptors P2X5 and P2X7 have both been implicated in bone biology, and it has been suggested recently that P2X5 may be a significant regulator of inflammatory bone loss. However, a role for P2X5 in periodontitis is unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the functional role of P2X5 in ligature-induced periodontitis in mice. Five days after placement of ligature, analysis of alveolar bone revealed decreased bone loss in $P2rx5^{-/-}$ mice compared to $P2rx7^{-/-}$ and WT control mice. Gene expression analysis of the gingival tissue of ligated mice showed that IL1b, IL6, IL17a and Tnfsf11 expression levels were significantly reduced in $P2rx5^{-/-}$ compared to WT mice. These results suggest the P2X5 receptor may regulate bone loss related to periodontitis and it may thus be a novel therapeutic target in this oral disease.

Characteristics of Purinergic Receptor Expressed in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

  • Lee, Hyung-Joo;Baik, Joon-Heum;Kim, Min-Jeong;Kim, Na-Hyun;Kong, In-Deok
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 2009
  • Extracellular ATP elicits diverse physiological effects by binding to the G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors on the plasma membrane. In addition to the short-term effects of extracellular nucleotides on cell functions, there is evidence that such purinergic signalling can have long-term effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and death. The 3T3-L1 cell line derived from mouse embryo is a well-established and commonly utilized in vitro model for adipocytes differentiation and function. However, the distributions and roles of P2Y subtypes are still unknown in the preadipocyte. In this study, we identified the distributions and roles of P2Y subtypes in preadipocyte using $Ca^{2+}$ imaging and realtime PCR. ATP increased the $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ in a concentration-dependent manner. ATP increased $Ca^{2+}$ in absence and/or presence of extracellular $Ca^{2+}$. Suramin, non-selective P2Y blocker, largely blocked the ATP-induced $Ca^{2+}$ response. U73122, a PLC inhibitor, completely inhibited $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization in 3T3-L1 cells. The mRNA expression by realtime PCR of P2Y subtypes was $P2Y_2:P2Y_5:P2Y_6=1.0:12.5:0.3$. In conclusion, we showed that $P2Y_5$ receptor is a dominant purinergic receptor in preadipocytes, and multiple P2Y receptors could involve in differentiation and migration via regulating of intracellular calcium concentration.

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Control of Parturition Time on Pig;IV. Effect of ATP on Uterine Smooth Muscle Motility (돼지 분만 시기의 조절에 관하여;IV. 자궁 평활근의 운동성에 대한 APT의 영향)

  • 박상은;황보원;변유성;조광제
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.154-162
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    • 1996
  • The effcets of adenosine 5'-triphosphate(ATP) were investigated on the uterine smooth muscle motility in the pig. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The effects of the porcine uterine smooth muscle and the contractile responses increased between the concentration of ATP $10^{-5}$ and $10^{-3}$ M with a dose-dependent manner. 2. The contractile response induced by ATP($10^{-4}$ M) was not blocked by pretreatment with cholinergic receptor blocker, atropine ($10^{-6}$ M) 3. The contractile response induced by ATP ($10^{-4}$ M) was not blocked by pretreatment with $\alpha$ -adrenergic receptor blocker, phentolamine(10$^{-6}$ M) and ${\beta}$-adrenergic blocker, propranolol ($10^{-6}$ M). 4. The contractile response induced by ATP($10^{-4}$ M) was not appeared in 4Ca^{++}$ -free medium. As the concentration of $Ca^{++}$ in $Ca^{++}$ -free medium was increased, the contractile response induced by ATP ($10^{-4}$ M) was enhenced but was completely inhibited by pretreatment with $Ca^{++}$ -channel blocker, papaverine($10^{-6}$ M) or verapamil($10^{-6}$ M). From these results, it was conclued that the effects of ATP were the contraction mediated by purinergic receptor in uterine smooth muscle of pig.

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Expression and Characterization of Purinergic Receptor, $P2Y_{10}$ in Hematopoietic Stem Cells

  • Lee Eun-Jong;Kim Dong-Ku
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2005
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow and replenish all adult hematopoietic lineages throughoutthe lifetime. In this study, we analyzed the expression of receptors of $P2Y_{10}$, purinergic receptor families in murine hematopoietic stem cells, hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the biological activity of $P2Y_{10}$ was investigated with B lymphocyte cell line, Ba/F3 in effect to cell growth and cell cycle. From the analysis of expression in hematopoieticstem cell. and progenitor with RT-PCR, $P2Y_{10}$ was strongly expressed in murine hematopoieticstem cells (c-kit+ Sca-l+ Lin-) and progenitor cell population, such as c-kit- Sca-l+ Lin-, c-kit+ Sca-l- Lin- and c-kit- Sca-l- Lin-. To investigate the biological effects by $P2Y_{10}$, retroviral vector from subcloned murine $P2Y_{10}$ cDNA was used fur gene introduction into Ba/F3 cells, and stable transfectant cells were obtained by flow cytometry sorting. In cell proliferation assay, the proliferation ability of $P2Y_{10}$ receptor gene­transfected cells was strongly inhibited, and the cell cycle was arrested at G1 phase. These result suggest that the $P2Y_{10}$ may be involved the biological activity in hematopoietic stem cells and immature B lymphocytes.

Functional Expression of P2Y Receptors in WERI-Rb1 Retinoblastoma Cells

  • Kim, Na-Hyun;Park, Kyu-Sang;Sohn, Joon-Hyung;Yeh, Byung-Il;Ko, Chang-Mann;Kong, In-Deok
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2011
  • P2Y receptors are metabotropic G-protein-coupled receptors, which are involved in many important biologic functions in the central nervous system including retina. Subtypes of P2Y receptors in retinal tissue vary according to the species and the cell types. We examined the molecular and pharmacologic profiles of P2Y purinoceptors in retinoblastoma cell, which has not been identified yet. To achieve this goal, we used $Ca^{2+}$ imaging technique and western blot analysis in WERI-Rb-1 cell, a human retinoblastoma cell line. ATP ($10\;{\mu}M$) elicited strong but transient $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase in a concentration dependent manner from more than 80% of the WERI-Rb-1 cells (n=46). Orders of potency of P2Y agonists in evoking $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ transients were 2MeS-ATP>ATP>>UTP=${\alpha}{\beta}$-MeATP, which was compatible with the subclass of $P2Y_1$ receptor. The $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ transients evoked by applications of 2MeS-ATP and/or ATP were also profoundly suppressed in the presence of $P2Y_1$ selective blocker (MRS 2179; $30\;{\mu}M$). $P2Y_1$ receptor expression in WERI-Rb-1 cells was also identified by using western blot. Taken together, $P2Y_1$ receptor is mainly expressed in a retinoblastoma cell, which elicits $Ca^{2+}$ release from internal $Ca^{2+}$ storage sites via the phospholipase C-mediated pathway. $P2Y_1$ receptor activation in retinoblastoma cell could be a useful model to investigate the role of purinergic $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ signaling in neural tissue as well as to find a novel therapeutic target to this lethal cancer.

Effect of Baclofen on the Cholinergic Nerve Stimulation in Isolated Rat Detrusor (흰쥐의 적출배뇨근에서 baclofen의 콜린성신경 억제작용)

  • Lee, Kwang-Youn;Lee, Keun-Mi;Choi, Eun-Mee;Choi, Hyoung-Chul;Ha, Jeoung-Hee;Kim, Won-Joon
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.246-259
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    • 1995
  • This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of baclofen on the detrusor muscle isolated from rat. Rats (Sprague-Dawley) were sacrificed by decapitation and exsanguination. Horizontal muscle strips of $2mm{\times}15mm$ were prepared for isometric myography in isolated muscle chamber bubbled with 95% / 5%-$O_2$ / $CO_2$ at $37^{\circ}C$, and the pH was maintained at 7.4. Detrusor strips contracted responding to the electrical field stimulation (EFS) by 2 Hz, 20 msec, monophasic square wave of 60 VDC. The initial peak of EFS-Induced contraction was tended to be suppresed by ${\alpha},{\beta}$-methylene-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (mATP), a partial agonist of purinergic receptor, and baclofen, a $GABA_B$ receptor agonist (statistically nonsignificant). The late sustained contraction by EFS was suppressed significantly (p < 0.05) by additions of atropione, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist and baclofen. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate-induced contraction was completely abolished by mA TP but not by baclofen. In the presence of atropine, the subsequent addition of acetylcholine could not contract the muscle strips: but the addition of acetylcholine in the presence of baclofen evoked a contraction to a remarkable extent. These results suggest that in the condition of present study, the cholinergic innervation may play a more important role than the purinergic one, and baclofen suppresses the contractility of rat detrusor by the stimulation of the $GABA_B$ receptors to inhibit the release of neurotransmitter from the cholinergic nerve ending.

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Analysis of Toxicity in Escherichia coli from the Expression of Human Purinergic Receptor $P2X_4$ (인간 퓨린수용체 $P2X_4$를 발현시킬 때 나타나는 대장균 독성의 원인분석)

  • Yu, Yon-Joo;Jung, Yun-A;Lim, Dong-Bin
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2011
  • In general, expression of membrane protein in Escherichia coli is very toxic to the host organism, but the mechanism for the toxicity is not clear yet. Expression of human purinergic receptor $P2X_4$ was found to be extremely toxic to the host E. coli. We examined this toxicity by isolation and analysis of less toxic mutant proteins. We could isolate 30 less toxic mutants of $P2X_4$ after hydroxylamine mutagenesis. Western blot showed that all of them produced proteins smaller than the wild type $P2X_4$. DNA sequencing of two largest mutant proteins showed that they were lost its second transmembrane domain. Localization analysis of these mutant proteins showed that they are not in cytoplasmic membrane, but in inclusion bodies. These data showed that inactive truncated $P2X_4$ is not toxic to E. coli and membrane integration and functionality of $P2X_4$ may be needed to show host toxicity.