• Title, Summary, Keyword: Purinoceptor

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Effect of purinoceptor to perivascular nerve stimulation on isolated coronary artery of pig (돼지 적출 심관상동맥에 있어서 혈관주위 신경자극에 의한 purinoceptor의 효과)

  • Jeon, Seok-cheol;Shim, Cheol-soo;Kim, Joo-heon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.730-736
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    • 1998
  • To elucidate whether or not innervation of purinergic nerve and functional action of $P_{2X}$-, $P_{2Y}$-purinoceptor, the neurogenic effects of perivascular nerve stimulation were investigated using by physiograph recording system in isolated coronary artery of pig. 1. The contractile responses induced by perivascular nerve stimulation (20V, 0.5msec, 20sec) were the frequency (2~64Hz) dependent manner. 2. The neurogenic contractile responses induced by perivascular nerve stimulation were inhibited by the pretreatment with either ATP or adenosine ($10^{-7}{\sim}10^{-4}M$). 3. The neurogenic contractile responses induced by perivascular nerve stimulation (20V, 16Hz, 0.5msec, 20sec) were increased by the pretreatment with reactive blue 2, but were not affected by the pretreatment with 8-phenyltheopylline ($10^{-5}M$). 4. The neurogenic contractile responses induced by perivascular nerve stimulation (20V, 16Hz, 0.5msec, 20sec) were inhibited by the desensitization of the P2X-purinoceptor using by treatment of $10^{-5}M$, -methylene ATP as 3 times over again. The accomplished present study on isolated coronary artery of pig suggest that purinergic nerve is innervated and that the neurogenic contractile response was mediated by activation of $P_{2X}$-purinoceptor and the neurogenic relaxative response was mediated by activation of both $P_1$ and $P_{2Y}$-purinoceptor.

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ATP-Induced Histamine Release Is in Part Related to Phospholipase $A_2$-Mediated Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells

  • Lee, Yun-Hye;Lee, Seung-Jun;Seo, Moo-Hyun;Kim, Chang-Jong;Sim, Sang-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.552-556
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    • 2001
  • Histamine and arachidonic acid (AA) release was measured using the P2-purinoceptor antaongists, phospholipase $A_2{\;}(PLA_2)$ and cyclooxygenase (COX)/lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors to determine whether or not ATP-induced histamine release is associated with arachidonic acid (AA) release in rat peritoneal mast cells. ATP increased histamine release in a dose dependent manner, whereas adenosine did not. PPADS (a selective P2X-purinoceptor antagonist) and suramin (a nonselective P2X,2Y-purinoceptor antagonist) inhibited ATP-induced histamine release in a dose dependent manner. However, RB-2 (a P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist) did not block ATP-induced histamine release. Manoalide and oleyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (OPC), secretory PLA$_2$ inhibitors, also inhibited ATP-induced histamine release dose-dependently. Both COX inhibitors (ibuprofen and indomethacin) and LOX inhibitors (baicalein and caffeic acid) inhibited ATP-induced histamine in a dose dependent manner. ATP significantly increased [$^3H$]AA release by 54%. PPADS and suramin significantly inhibited ATP-induced [3H]Ph release by 81% and 39%, respectively. ATP-induced histamine release was significantly inhibited by a variety of protein kinase inhibitors, such as bisindolmaleimide, genistein, methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate, W-7 and trifluoperazine. Overall, the results suggest that ATP-induced histamine release is in part related to the PLA2-mediated AA metabolism and P2X-purinoceptors.

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Action of P2X-purinoceptor on urinary bladder smooth muscle of pig (돼지 방광 평활근에 있어서 P2X-purinoceptor의 작용)

  • Park, Sang-eun;Hong, Yong-geun;Shim, Cheol-soo;Jeon, Seok-cheol;Kim, Joo-heon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 1997
  • The experiments were carried out to elucidate the relationships between neurogenic effects of electrical transmural nerve stimulation and effect of adenosine 5'-triphosphate(ATP) to purinoceptor on the urinary bladder smooth muscle of pig. The results were as follows : 1. The contractile responses induced by electrical transmural nerve stimulation(10V or 20V, 0.5msec, 10sec) were the frequency(2~64Hz) dependent manner. 2. The contractile response induced by carbachol was responsed with a dose-dependent manner and the maximum contractility was $10^{-4}M$. 3. The contractile responses induced by ATP were increased in a dose-dependent manner ($10^{-5}{\sim}10^{-3}M$). 4. The contractile response induced by electrical transmural nerve stimulation(10V, 2~32Hz, 0.5msec, 10sec) was partially blocked by the treatment with atropine($10^{-5}M$), and was powerfully inhibited by 3 times of addition with ATP($10^{-5}M$). 5. The contractile response induced by electrical transmural nerve stimulation(10V, 2~32Hz, 0.5msec, 10sec) was partially blocked by the treatment with atropine($10^{-5}M$), and was completely blocked by the desensitization of the $P_{2X}$-purinoceptor using ${\alpha}$, ${\beta}$-methylene ATP($5{\times}10^{-5}M$). These results suggest that purinergic nerve was innervated, and ATP and acetylcholine was released by the electrical transmural nerve stimulation in urinary bladder smooth muscle of pig.

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Effect of Ca2+ on contractile responses induced by perivascular nerve stimulation in isolated coronary artery of pig

  • Hong, Yong-geun;Shim, Cheol-soo;Kim, Joo-heon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.702-709
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    • 1999
  • The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ on contractile responses in isolated porcine coronary artery ring using by perivascular nerve stimulation (PNS). Especially, the study was focused on the source of $Ca^{2+}$ on $P_{2X}$-purinoceptor mediated muscle contraction which one of $P_2$-purinoceptor subtypes. The following results can be drawn from these studies : 1. The phasic contractions induced by PNS were inhibited with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine ($10^{-6}M$). 2. The phasic contractions induced by PNS were significantly inhibited by sequential treatment with atropine and adrenergic neural blocker, guanethidine ($10^{-6}M$). 3. The phasic contractions induced by PNS were inhibited with $P_{2X}$-purinoceptor desensitization by repetitive application of $\alpha$,$\beta$-Me ATP ($10^{-4}M$). 4. The phasic contractions induced by PNS were so weakened in calcium-free medium. 5. The phasic contractions induced by PNS were inhibited with calcium channel blocker, verapamil ($10^{-6}{\sim}5{\times}10^{-6}M$). 6. The phasic contractions induced by PNS on pretreated with verapamil ($10^{-6}{\sim}5{\times}10^{-6}M$) were not changed by $\alpha$,$\beta$-Me ATP ($10^{-4}M$). These results demonstrate that the neurogenic phasic contractions induced by PNS are due to adrenergic-, cholinergic- and $P_{2X}$-purinergic receptors and the origin of $Ca^{2+}$ on $P_{2X}$-purinoceptor mediated muscle contraction is extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ through plasmalemmal $Ca^{2+}$ channels.

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Evidence for Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) as an Excitatory Neurotransmitter in Guinea-Pig Gastric Antrum

  • Kang, Tong-Mook;Xu, Wenxie;Kim, Sung-Joon;Ahn, Seung-Cheol;Kim, Young-Chul;So, In-Suk;Park, Myoung-Kyu;Uhm, Dae-Yong;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.165-174
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    • 1999
  • We explore the question of whether adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in guinea-pig gastric smooth muscle. In an organ bath system, isometric force of the circular smooth muscle of guinea-pig gastric antrum was measured in the presence of atropine and guanethidine. Under electrical field stimulation (EFS) at high frequencies (>20 Hz), NO-mediated relaxation during EFS was followed by a strong contraction after the cessation of EFS (a 'rebound-contraction'). Exogenous ATP mimicked the rebound-contraction. A known $P_{2Y}-purinoceptor$ antagonist, reactive blue 2 (RB-2), blocked the rebound-contraction while selective desensitization of $P_{2Y}-purinoceptor$ with ${\alpha},{\beta}-MeATP$ did not affect it. ATP and 2-MeSATP induced smooth muscle contraction, which was effectively blocked by RB-2 and suramin, a nonselective $P_2-purinoceptor$ antagonist. Particularly, in the presence of RB-2, exogenous ATP and 2-MeSATP inhibited spontaneous phasic contractions, suggesting the existence of different populations of purinoceptors. Both the rebound-contraction and the agonist-induced contraction were not inhibited by indomethacin. The rank orders of agonists' potency were 2-MeSATP > ATP ${ge}$ UTP for contraction and ${\alpha},{\beta}-MeATP\;{\ge}\;{\beta},{\gamma}-MeATP$ for inhibition of the phasic contraction, that accord with the commonly accepted rank order of the classical $P_{2Y}-purinoceptor$ subtypes. Electrical activities of smooth muscles were only slightly influenced by ATP and 2-MeSATP, whereas ${\alpha},{\beta}-MeATP$ attenuated slow waves with membrane hyperpolarization. From the above results, it is suggested that ATP acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter, which mediates the rebound-contraction via $P_{2Y}-purinoceptor$ in guinea-pig gastric antrum.

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Relaxation of P2-purinoceptor on isolated renal artery of rabbit (토끼 적출 신동맥에 있어서 P2-purinoceptor의 이완작용)

  • Kim, Joo-heon;Kim, Yong-keun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 1992
  • To elucidate the action of $P_2$-purinoceptor, effects of adenosine triphosphate(ATP) and perivascular nerve stimulation were investigated from polygraph in the isolated renal artery of rabbit 1. ATP caused the relaxation on the precontraction with noradrenaline$(10{\mu}M)$ on the presene and absence of endothelium in the isolated renal artery of rabbit, the relaxative response was increased between 0.1 and $30{\mu}M$ on dose-dependent manner. 2. The relaxative response induced by ATP$(10{\mu}M)$ on precontraction with noradrenaline$(10{\mu}M)$ was blocked by the pretreatment with reactive blue 2$(10{\mu}M)$. 3. ATP inhibited the contractile response by perivascular nerve stimulation(0.3ms, 80V, 50Hz, 1 sec), the inhibitory action was blocked by the pretreatment with 8-phenyltheophylline$(10{\mu}M)$.

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Effects of purinergic nerve on relaxation of pig coronary artery (돼지 심관상동맥의 이완작용에 대한 purinergic 신경의 효과)

  • Kim, Joo-heon;Shim, Cheol-soo;Jeon, Seok-cheol
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.533-540
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    • 1997
  • To elucidate the effects of purinergic nerve on relaxation of pig coronary artery, the effects of ATP, 2-methylthio ATP and electrical perivascular nerve stimulation were investigated from physiograph on the isolated coronary artery of pig. The results btained were as follows; 1. The relaxative responses induced by perivascular nerve stimulation(20V, 0.5msec, 10sec) were the frequency(1~8Hz) dependent manner with phentolamine($10^{-5}M$) and atropine($10^{-6}M$) on isolated coronary artery of pig. 2. The relaxative responses induced. by adenosine($10^{-7}{\sim}5{\times}10^{-3}M$) or ATP($10^{-7}{\sim}5{\times}10^{-5}M$) on precontraction with histamine($10^{-5}M$) were the dose-dependent manner, but the contractile responses were often induced by ATP($10^{-4}M$ and $10^{-3}M$). 3. The relaxative responses induced by 2-methylthio ATP($2.5{\times}10^{-8}{\sim}2.5{\times}10^{-6}M$) on precontraction with histamine($10^{-5}M$) were the dose-dependent manner. 4. The relaxative response induced by 2-methylthio ATP($10^{-7}M$) on precontraction with histamine($10^{-5}M$) was completely blocked by the pretreatment with $P_{2Y}$-purinoceptor blocker, reactive blue 2($10^{-4}M$). 5. The neurogenic relaxative response induced by perivascular nerve stimulation(20V, 8Hz, 0.5msec, 10sec) was weakly inhibited by the pretreatment with ${\beta}$-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol($10^{-5}M$) and blocked by the addition with $P_{2Y}$-purinoceptor blocker, reactive blue 2($10^{-4}M$). The results suggest that the purinergic nerve is innervated, and its relaxative response was mediated by $P_{2Y}$-purinoceptor on isolated coronary artery in pig.

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ATP and Purinergic Receptor Agonists Stimulate the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway and DNA Synthesis in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells

  • Yuh In-Sub
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.211-219
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    • 2004
  • The effects of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and ATP analogs, P/sub 2y/ purinoceptor agonists, on growth of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells (NMuMG) were examined. Cells were plated onto 24 well plates in DMEM supplemented with 10 % fetal calf serum. After serum starvation for 24 hours, ATP, P/sub 2y/ purinoceptor agonists (AdoPP[NH]P, ATP-α-S, ATP-γ-S, β, γ-me-ATP and 2me-S-ATP), P/sub 2u/ purinoceptor agonist (UTP) and P/sub 2y/ purinoceptor antagonists (Reactive Blue 2, more selective to P/sub 2y/ receptor than PPADS; PPADS) were added. DNA synthesis was estimated as incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA (1 hour pulse with 1 μ Ci/ml, 18~19 hours after treatment). ATP, Adopp[NH]P, ATP-α-S or ATP-γ-S, significantly increased DNA synthesis at 1, 10 and 100 μM concentrations with dose-dependency (P<0.05), and the maximum responses of ATP and ATP analogs were shown at 100 μM concentration (P<0.05). The potency order of DNA synthesis was ATP≥ATP- γ -S>Adopp [NH]P>ATP-α-S. β, γ -me-ATP, 2me-S-ATP and UTP did not increase DNA synthesis. In autoradiographic analysis of percentage of S-phase cells, similar results were observed to those of DNA synthesis. Addition of 1, 10 or 100 μM Reactive Blue 2 or PPADS significantly decreased ATP (100 μM)-induced DNA synthesis, however, PPADS was less effective than Reactive Blue 2. In Elvax 40P implant experiment, ATP directly stimulated mammary endbud growth in situ suggesting the physiological regulator of ATP in mammary growth. ATP 100 μM rapidly increased MAPK activity, reaching a maximum at 5 min and then gradually decreasing to the base level in 30 min. ATP analogs, Adopp[NH]P and ATP-γ-S also increased MAPK activity, however, β, γ-me-ATP and 2me-S-ATP did not. The inhibitor of the upstream MAPK kinase (MEK), PD 98059 (25 μM), effectively reduced ATP (100 μM) or EGF(10 ng/ml, as positive control)-induced MAPK activity and DNA synthesis (P<0.05). These results indicate that ATP-induced DNA synthesis was prevented from the direct inhibition of MAPK kinase pathway. Overall results support the hypothesis that the stimulatory effects of normal mouse mammary epithelial growth by addition of ATP or ATP analogs are mediated through mammary tissue specific P/sub 2y/ purinoceptor subtype, and MAPK activation is necessary for the ATP-induced cell growth.

Effects of Exogenous ATP on Calcium Mobilization and Cell Proliferation in C6 Glioma Cell

  • Lee, Eun-Jung;Cha, Seok-Ho;Lee, Woon-Kyu;Lee, Kweon-Haeng;Lee, Sang-Bok
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.419-425
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    • 1998
  • To clarify the effect of extracellular ATP in cultured C6 glioma cells, ATP-induced cytosolic free calcium ($[Ca^{2+}]_i$) mobilization and cell proliferation were investigated. ATP-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increased in a dose-dependent manner $(10^{-7}\;M{\sim}10^{-3}\;M)$. ATP-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increases were slightly slowed in extracellular calcium-free conditions especially in sustained phase. ATP-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increment was also inhibited by the pretreatment of U73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, in a time-dependent manner. Suramin, a putative $P_{2Y}$ receptor antagonist, dose-dependently weakened ATP-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ mobilization. Significant increases in cell proliferation were observed at 2, 3, and 4 days after ATP was added. Stimulated cell proliferation was also observed with adenosine at days 2 and 3. This cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by the treatment with suramin. Ionomycin also stimulated cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, we suggest that extracellular ATP stimulates C6 glioma cell proliferation via intracellular free calcium mobilization mediated by purinoceptor.

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Purinoceptor and Intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ Regulation in Rat Prostate N euronencocrine Cells

  • Kim, Jun-Hee;Nam, Joo-Hyun;Uhm, Dae-Yong;Kim, Sung-Joon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.45-45
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    • 2002
  • Extracellular ATP regulates a wide range of cellular function including the growth of prostate gland. Purinoceptors (ATP receptors) are divided into P2X (ligand-gated ion channels) and P2Y (G-protein-coupled receptor) subfamilies. In the present study, we investigated the types of purinoceptors in rat prostate neuroendocrine (RPNE) cells using whole-cell patch clamp technique, intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ measurement and RT-PCR analysis.(omitted)d)

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