• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka

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Effect of Electron-Beam Irradiation on Flavor Components in Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) (전자선 조사가 신고배의 향기성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Won;Shim, Sung-Lye;Ryu, Keun-Young;Jun, Sam-Nyeo;Jung, Chan-Hee;Seo, Hye-Young;Song, Hyun-Pa;Kim, Kyong-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to examine the effects of electron beam irradiation on volatile flavor components of Shingo pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) and on their changes according to storing period following irradiation. Volatile flavor components in pear were extracted using simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. 46 components were identified in control whereas 45, 44, 48 and 51 components were identified in irradiated samples by electron beam at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 3 kGy, respectively. Hexanal, n-hexanol, and (E)-2-hexenal were identified as the major volatile flavor components of all samples. The characteristic volatile flavor components of irradiated pear by electron beam were similar to those of control, and their effects depending on irradiation source were not different. In addition, there was no noticeable change in volatile flavor components of pear with storage at $4^{\circ}C$ for 30 days or with irradiation. Sensory evaluation indicated that the consumer receptiveness tended to be higher at a low level of radiation dose under 1 kGy than control, albeit not significant. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at low level of radiation dose under 1 kGy could be considered as an effective method to exterminate vermin and thus to improve the shelf-stability of pear without deterioration.

Shoot regeneration via culture of leaf explants in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) (잎 절편 배양을 이용한 배 '신고' (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka)의 신초 재분화)

  • Kim, Se Hee;Shin, Il Sheob;Cho, Kang Hee;Kim, Dae Hyun;Kim, Hyun Ran;Kim, Ki Ok;Lee, Hyang Bun;Do, Kyung Ran;Chun, Jae An;Hwang, Hae Seong
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 2013
  • Genetic manipulation of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) breeding is still difficult due to lack of reliable regeneration system. The aim of this research is to establish shoot regeneration system from leaf explants for pear (P. pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) using various concentrations of plant growth regulators and carbon source supplemented to medium. The highest regeneration rate of about 20% was found on a medium containing 4.4 g/L of Murashige and Skoog (MS) without vitamins, Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) vitamins were added separately. Leaf explants of pear were cultured on MS medium containing 7 g/L of Daishin agar supplemented with various concentrations of NAA (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 mg/L) in combination with BA(3, 5, 10 mg/L) for shoot regeneration. In medium with 5 mg/L of BA and 0.01 mg/L of NAA, adventitious shoot regeneration rate was higher than others treated. The optimal results were observed using MS medium supplemented with 30 g/L sorbitol as carbon source on regeneration system. Sorbitol is considered better carbon source than sucrose for shoot regeneration of pear (P. pyrifolia cv. Niitaka). In order to increase of shoot regeneration in pear (P. pyrifolia cv. Niitaka), plant agar and Daishin agar used as gelling agents, Daishin agar is more efficient in shoot regeneration.

Calcium Deficiency Causes Pithiness in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) Fruit (칼슘 결핍에 의한 '신고' 배 (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) 과실에서의 바람들이)

  • Moon, Byung Woo;Jung, Hae Woong;Lee, Hee Jae;Yu, Duk Jun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: Pithy pear fruit are not distinguished externally from sound fruit and thus often cause unexpected economic losses. To find out the cause of pithiness, the pithiness incidence and characteristics of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) fruit picked from a spot frequently produced pithy fruit in an orchard were compared with those of fruit picked from another spot produced sound fruit every year. And the soil chemical properties of the two spots and mineral contents in fruit, shoots, and leaves of Japanese pear trees cultivated in the two spots were also examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The pithiness incidence was 0, 8.8, and 11.3% at 7 days before and 0 and 7 days after optimal harvest date, respectively, in the spot frequently produced pithy fruit. Flesh firmness was significantly lower in pithy fruit than in sound fruit, while soluble solids content was slightly higher in pithy fruit than in sound fruit. Unlike other mineral contents, Ca content was significantly lower in pithy fruit than in sound fruit. These results indicate that Ca deficiency in fruit is closely associated with decrease in flesh firmness and thus pithiness development. Ca content in soil of the spot frequently produced pithy fruit was also significantly lower than that in soil of the spot produced sound fruit. However, shoots or leaves did not exhibit significant difference in Ca and/or other mineral contents between the two spots, indicating that Ca deficiency in fruit is dependent on the translocation of Ca within a plant rather than soil Ca status. Although total-N, available $P_2O_5$, K, and Ca contents were significantly lower in soil of the spot frequently produced pithy fruit than in soil of the spot produced sound fruit, Mg and Na contents and pH were not different between the soil conditions. CONCLUSION(S): Fruit maturity and Ca level in fruit are closely related to the incidence of pithiness in 'Niitaka' Japanese pear.

Effects of Nitrogen Supply Levels on Growth and Nitrogen Substance in Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) Seedlings (질소 시용수준에 따른 배 '신고' 실생묘의 생육과 질소관련물질의 변화)

  • Jin, Song-Nan;Choi, Dong-Geun;Kang, In-Kyu;Han, Kwang-Soo;Choi, Cheol
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.84-90
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to anticipate nitrate reduction state in tree through measurement of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and investigate the effect of nitrogen concentrations (100, 200, 400, and 600 $mg\;L^{-1}$) on growth, the nitrogen content of various tissue, and NRA of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) seedlings in sand culture. Nutrient solutions used in this experiment were adjusted to pH 6.5 and fixed the ratio of ammonium and nitrate to 1:3 and trickle-irrigated 3 times a day. Tree height and dry weight of various organs in seedlings were higher in low nitrogen concentration (100 and 200 $mg\;L^{-1}$) than in high nitrogen concentration (400 and 600 $mg\;L^{-1}$). The shoot growth in 600 $mg\;L^{-1}$ was extremely poor by nitrogen over supply. Increasing the nitrogen concentration, the concentration of nitrate-N in leaves and roots were insignificantly changed but that of stems increased. The accumulation of total and reduced nitrogen in all organs with increasing concentrations of nitrogen supply were increased at 30 days after treatment but those of all organs at 60 and 90 days after treatment were highest in 600 $mg\;L^{-1}$, whereas there were no significant changes among other nitrogen concentration. The in vivo (${+NO_3}^-$) NRA of all organs did not relate to nitrogen concentration but the in vivo (${-NO_3}^-$) NRA of leaves except roots increased with increasing the nitrogen concentration. Therefore, the proper nitrogen concentration to promote growth and nitrate reduction of pear tree was 200 $mg\;L^{-1}$.

Effect of Extraction Solvent on the Physiological Properties of Korean Pear Peel (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) (추출 용매를 달리한 한국산 배(Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) 과피의 생리 활성)

  • Park, Ji-Su;Han, Inhwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.254-260
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    • 2015
  • The effect of the extraction solvent on the physiological properties of the peel of the Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) was evaluated. The total phenol content was highest in the 80%(wt) methanol extract, whereas flavonoid content was highest in the 80% ethanol extract. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities, and their reducing power. The water and 80% methanol extracts of the pear peel had highest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and reducing power, respectively. The inhibition of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase was highest in the 80% methanol extract, and alcohol dehydrogenase activity was highest in the water extract. All three extracts had similar antimicrobial activity. Because water, 80% ethanol, and 80% methanol extracts exhibited high activities in different assays of physiological properties, each solvent could be used for specific purposes.

Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Trees and Soils in a 'Niitaka' Pear Orchard ('신고'배 재배지 내 수체 및 토양의 탄소 및 질소 저장량)

  • Lee, Tae-Kyu;Choi, Jang-Jeon;Kim, Jong-Sung;Lee, Han-Chan;Ro, Hee-Myong
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.828-832
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    • 2013
  • To report country-specific carbon and nitrogen stocks data in a pear orchard by Tier 3 approach of 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, an experimental pear orchard field of the Pear Research Station, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Naju, Korea ($35^{\circ}01^{\prime}27.70N$, $126^{\circ}44^{\prime}53.50^{\prime\prime}E$, 6 m altitude), where 15-year-old 'Niitaka' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Niitaka) trees were planted at a $5.0m{\times}3.0m$ spacing on a Tatura trellis system, was chosen to assess the total amount of carbon and nitrogen stocks stored in the trees and orchard soil profiles. At the sampling time (August 2012), three trees were uprooted, and separated into six fractions: trunk, main branches, lateral branches (including shoots), leaves, fruits, and roots. Soil samples were collected from 0 to 0.6 m depth at 0.1 m intervals at 0.5 m from the trunk. Dry mass per tree was 4.7 kg for trunk, 13.3 kg for main branches, 13.9 kg for lateral branches, 3.7 kg for leaves, 6.7 kg for fruits, and 14.1 kg for roots. Amounts of C and N per tree were respectively 2.3 and 0.02 kg for trunk, 6.4 and 0.07 kg for main branches, 6.4 and 0.09 kg for lateral branches, 6.5 and 0.07 kg for roots, 1.7 and 0.07 kg for leaves, and 3.2 and 0.03 kg for fruits. Carbon and nitrogen stocks stored between the soil surface and a depth of 60 cm were 138.29 and $13.31Mg{\cdot}ha^{-1}$, respectively, while those contained in pear trees were 17.66 and $0.23Mg{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ based on a tree density of 667 $trees{\cdot}ha^{-1}$. Overall, carbon and nitrogen stocks per hectare stored in a pear orchard were 155.95 and 13.54 Mg, respectively.

Effects of Gamma Radiation arid Methyl Bromide Fumigation on Quarantine Pest and Quality of Asian Pears (감마선 및 Methyl Bromide처리가 배 과실의 검역해충과 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 권중호;강호진;조덕조;정헌식;권용정;변명우;최성진;최종욱
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2002
  • As an alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation for the control of quarantine pests of pears (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka), the effect of gamma irradiation (0.5~3 kGy) was comparatively investigated. Insects found in the pears were identified Tetranychus urticae Koch and Panonychus ulmi Koch, which were of quarantine importance. These insects were easily destroyed by MeBr even one day after fumigation. Whereas irradiation at 0.5~2 kGy was not enough to reach the mortality, even if 3 kGy showed the same mortality as MeBr after 17 days of treatment. Respiration of pears was stimulated by both increased doses of irradiation and MeBr fumigation. The rates of surface blackening and core browning were accelerated by MeBr rather than higher doses of irradiation. While the changes in flesh firmness and surface color were more apparent in irradiated samples at above 2 kGy than MeBr. There were negligible differences in the contents of titratable acidity, acetaldehyde and ethanol by the treatment conditions except for 3 kGy-irradiated group. Sensory evaluation showed that mere than 1 kGy was the threshold to induce the significant changes in quality of pears.

Causal Factors of Black Stain during Cold Storage of Pear(Pyrus pyrifolia cv.Niitaka) and Its Postharvest Control (신고' 배 저온 저장중 발생하는 얼룩과 원인 및 방지)

  • 홍윤표;정대성;이승구
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.447-453
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    • 2003
  • Causal factors related to the skin disorder such as black stains during cold storage of 'Niitaka' pear fruit are of great importance to solve the postharvest disorder problems. The morphological and biochemical changes observe of pear skin affected by different harvest times and storage environments. Occurrence rate of black stain in 'Niitaka' pear fruit was the highest in newspaper bagging with 75% among various bagging materials at harvest time because of the high relative humidity within the double layer paper bags. During cold storage, the rate was 54~100% in 30 $\mu\textrm{m}$ polyethylene (PE) film packaging. As the harvest time was postponed, the rate increasedduring cold stoinge. The into was 1.5 to 2.4 times higher in pears harvested in late September than in those harvested in early and mid October. There was no significant difference in occurrence of black stain fruit between the 30 and 50 $\mu\textrm{m}$ PE film bags. The causal fungus of the black stain pear was assumed as Gloeodes pomigena (Schweintz, 1920). The treatment of 0.1~0.5 ppm ozone gas prevented the occurrence of the pear fruit black stain until 180 days after cold storage. The ozone treatment on the affected fruit was also effective in preventing the progress of the black stain.