• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pyungwi-san

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Effects of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Shengmai-San and Pyungwi-San on Gastrointestinal Motility in Mice (생맥산 및 평위산 추출물의 위장관 운동 조절 효능에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Min Cheol;Park, Jin Ryeong;Shim, Ji Hwan;Ahn, Tae Seok;Kim, Byung Joo
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.68-74
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Shengmai-san and Pyungwi-san, a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. Methods: The in vivo effects of Shengmai-san and Pyungwi-san on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. Results: In normal Institute of Cancer Research mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by Shengmaisan (0.01~1 g/kg) and Pyungwi-san (0.01~1 g/kg). The ITRs of acetic acid induced peritoneal irritation model and streptozotocin-induced diabetic model mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by Shengmai-san (0.01~1 g/kg) and Pyungwi-san (0.01~1 g/kg). Conclusions: These results suggest that both Shengmai-san and Pyungwi-san are a good candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD.

A Study on Acute Oral Toxicity of Pyungwi-san and Fermented Pyungwi-san in ICR Mice (ICR 마우스를 이용한 평위산과 발효평위산 급성독성 연구)

  • Jang, Doo-Rye;Hwang, Youn-Hwan;Jung, Ki-Youn;Ha, Jeong-Ho;Park, Hwa-Yong;Ma, Jin-Yeul
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of Pyungwi-san(Pingwei-san in Chinese) in ICR mice, according to KFDA and OECD guideline. Methods: In the present study, 15 male and female ICR mice administrated singly by gavage at dose levels of 0 and 2000 mg/kg of Pyungwi-san. During the experimental period, no treatment-related death was observed. There were no adverse effects on clinical signs, body weight, and gross findings at all treatment groups. Results: These results showed that the single oral adminstration of Pyungwi-san (Pingwei-san) did not cause any toxic effect at the dose levels of 2000 mg/kg in rats. Conclusions: Taken together, the median lethal dose($LD_{50}$) of Pyungwi-san (Pingwei-san) was considered to be over 2000 mg/kg body for both sexes.

Study on Safety of Pyungwi-san in Sprague-Dawley Rats (Spargue-Dawley 랫드를 이용한 평위산의 안전성 연구)

  • Shin, In-Sik;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Ha, Hye-Kyung;Huang, Dae-Sun;Huh, Jung-Im;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.426-429
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity and safety of Pyungwi-san (Pingwei-san) in Sprague-Dawley rat though the current regulatory guideline. The preliminary study showed that the single oral administration of Pyungwi-san (Pingwei-san) did not induce any toxic effect at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg. Based on the results, 2000 mg/kg was selected as the limited dose. In this study, 10 rats of each sex were randomly assigned to two groups of 5 rats each and were administrated singly by gavage at dose levels of 0 and 2000 mg/kg. After single administration, Mortalities, clinical signs, body weight changes, gross findings were observed for the 15-day period. Throughout the study period, no treatment-related deaths were observed. There were no adverse effects on clinical signs, body weight, and gross findings at all treatment groups. These results showed that the single oral adminstration of Pyungwi-san (Pingwei-san) did not cause any toxic effect at the dose levels of 2000 mg/kg in rats. In conclusion, the $LD_{50}$ of Pyungwi-san (Pingwei-san) was considered to be over 2000 mg/kg body for both sexes.

Changes of Principal Components and Microbial Population in Pyungwi-san Decoction according to the Preservation Temperature and Period (평위산 전탕액의 보관온도 및 기간에 따른 주요성분 및 미생물 군집 변화)

  • Seo, Chang-Seob;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Shin, Kwang-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: To optimize the preservation method of herbal decoction, we investigated the content of principle components of Pyungwi-san, liquiritin, glycyrrhizin, and hesperidin according to preservation temperature and period. We also investigated the changing patterns of pH and microbial population in Pyungwi-san decoction as a model case. Methods: With samples preserved at different temperatures, the content of liquiritin, glycyrrhizin, and hesperidin was determined using HPLC and microbial population was determined as viable counting method up to 8 times every month. Identification of isolated bacteria was performed by 16S rDNA analysis. Results: The content of liquiritin and glycyrrhizin did not change according to the preservation temperature and period, but that of hesperidin was severely decreased at room temperature. The isolate from the decoction was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Microbial population appeared after 3 months' preservation and reached maximum value at 4 months; at all tested temperatures, the pH showed the lowest value (4.4-4.5) simultaneously. Conclusion: From the results, it seems to be that the microbial growth affects the pH of preserved decoction but not the change of liquiritin and glycyrrhizin content.

Modulation of Pacemaker Potentials by Pyungwi-San in Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Murine Small Intestine - Pyungwi-San and Interstitial Cells of Cajal -

  • Kim, Jung Nam;Song, Ho Jun;Lim, Bora;Kwon, Young Kyu;Kim, Byung Joo
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2013
  • Objective: Pyungwi-san (PWS) plays a role in a number of physiologic and pharmacologic functions in many organs. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that generate slow waves in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of PWS in mouse small-intestinal ICCs. Methods: Enzymatic digestion was used to dissociate ICCs from the small intestine of a mouse. The whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record membrane potentials from the cultured ICCs. Results: ICCs generated pacemaker potentials in the GI tract. PWS produced membrane depolarization in the current clamp mode. Pretreatment with a $Ca^{2+}$-free solution and a thapsigargin, a $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase, inhibitor in the endoplasmic reticulum, eliminated the generation of pacemaker potentials. However, only when the thapsigargin was applied in a bath solution, the membrane depolarization was not produced by PWS. Furthermore, the membrane depolarizations due to PWS were inhibited not by U-73122, an active phospholipase C inhibitor, but by chelerythrine and calphostin C, protein kinase C inhibitors. Conclusions: These results suggest that PWS might affect GI motility by modulating the pacemaker activity in the ICCs.

Quantitative Determination of the Marker Components in Pyungwi-San Using LC-ESI-MS/MS (LC-ESI-MS/MS를 이용한 평위산 주요 성분의 함량 분석)

  • Seo, Chang-Seob;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.270-277
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    • 2018
  • Pyungwi-san has been used to treat the digestive system diseases, physconia, nausea, anorexia, and dyspepsia in Korea. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was optimized for simultaneous determination of the 14 marker components, spinosin, liquiritirn apioside, liquiritin, narirutin, 6'''-feruloylspinosin, hesperidin, liquiritigenin, glycyrrhizin, 6-gingerol, atractylenolide III, honokiol, atractylenolide II, magnolol, and atractylenolide I in Pyungwi-san extract. All analytes were separated on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH $C_{18}$ analytical column ($2.1{\times}100mm$, $1.7{\mu}m$) with maintained at $45^{\circ}C$. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% (v/v) aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile. The MS conditions were as follows: capillary voltage 3.3 kV, extractor voltage 3.0 V, RF lens voltage 0.3 V, source temperature $120^{\circ}C$, desolvation temperature $300^{\circ}C$, desolvation gas 600 L/h, cone gas 50 L/h and collision gas 0.14 mL/min. The coefficient of determination of 14 analytes was 0.9989-1.0000. The limits of detection and quantification values of the all analytes were 0.04-2.56 and 0.13-7.69 ng/mL, respectively. As a result of the analysis using the established LC-ESI-MS/MS method, the 5 components, spinosin, 6'''-feruloylspinosin, atractylenolide III, II, and I derived from Zizyphi Fructus and Atractylodis Rhizoma, were not detected in this extract. On the other hand, the 9 components except for the 5 components were 4.15-498.87 mg/kg in lyophilized Pyungwi-san extract. Among these components, glycyrrhizin, marker compound of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, was detected the most amount as a 498.87 mg/kg.

Estimation of shelf-life by long-term storage test of Pyungwi-san (평위산 전탕팩의 장기보존 시험에 따른 유통기한 설정)

  • Seo, Chang-Seob;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Lim, Soon-Hee;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.183-194
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : To estimate the shelf-life by long-term storage test of Pyungwi-san. Methods : Experiments were conducted to evaluate the stability such as the selected physicochemical, heavy metal, microbilogical experiment under an acceleration test and long-term storage test of Pyungwi-san in different storage under room temperature, refrigeration and freezing. Futhermore, HPLC analysis was performed for the determinations of glycyrrhizin in the Pyungwi-san on an Inertsil ODS-3 column(250 mm ${\times}$ 4.6 mm, 5 um) using solvent 35% acetonitrile include 0.05% phosphoric acid at 254 nm. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. Results : The significant change was not showed in pH, heavy metal, microbiological, identification test and quantitative analysis based on acceleration test and long-term storage test. Retention time of glycyrrhizin in HPLC chromatogram was about 16.065 min and calibration curve showed good linearity($R^2$ = 0.9999). The contents of glycyrrhizin in acceleration test and long-term storage test were 0.068~0.076 mg/mL and 0.066~0.077 mg/mL, respectively. Shelf-lifes of room temperature, refrigeration and freezing by long-term storage test were predicted 41, 24 and 34 months, respectively. Conclusions : The suggested shelf-life would be helpful on the storage and distribution of herbal medicine.

Comparative Study of Pyungwi-san extracted by Different Decoction Extractor and Extraction Time (전탕장비 및 전탕시간 변화에 의한 평위산(平胃散) 전탕액 비교)

  • Seok, Ga Hyeong;Moon, Jung Min;Cho, Su In
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : Decoction, in Korean Medicine, is a pharmacological method of extraction, by boiling, of dissolved chemicals, or herbal prescriptions, which may include stems, roots, bark and rhizomes. Decoctions differ from most teas, infusions, in that they are usually boiled. This study was performed to compare the difference of water decoctions extracted by different decoction extractor and extraction time and to analyze the reason of decoctions extracted by each decoction extractor have different taste. Methods : With water decoction samples by Pressure extractor, Non-pressure extractor and Ultrasonic waves merge extractor for 1 hr, 2 hr and 3 hr were investigated the yield and the concentration of hesperidin and glycyrrhizin by HPLC/DAD system in Pyungwi-san decoction. Results : The samples of each extractor were gradually increased the yield and the concentration of hesperidin and glycyrrhizin. The HPLC pattern of samples is similar. The yield and the concentration of hesperidin and glycyrrhizin of Ultrasonic waves merge extractor was most highest of the three. The rate of increase of the yield and the hesperidin concentration of between 1 hr and 2 hr in Pressure extractor was the most highest of the three. But the concentration of glycyrrhizin in Pressure extractor was relatively similar to Non-pressure extractor. Conclusions : The yield and the concentration of reference compounds in Pyungwi-san water decoction was influenced by extracting method and extracting time. For scientific movement and standardization of extracting medicinal herbs method need to study of extractor validation and to study in vitro and in vivo.

Scavenging Property of Pyungwi-san Herbal-acupuncture Solution on ROS and RNS (평위산(平胃散) 약침액(藥鍼液)의 활성산소 및 활성질소 소거능)

  • Lee, Hyo-Seung;Moon, Jin-Young
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.165-170
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    • 2007
  • Pyungwi-san(PWS) have been using as a basic prescription of digestive disorder in Korean traditional medicine. This study was performed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract using different antioxidant tests including by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, metal chelating hydrogen peroxide scavenging, lipid peroxydation protective effect and scavenging effect of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. Herbal-acupuncture solution of PWS(PWS-HS) exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of DPPH radical adduct formation and it showed dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity onto superoxide anions. In addition, the result of metal chelating hydrogen peroxide scavenging and ammonium thiocyanate experiments showed that PWS-HS was an active scavenger of hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, it was also found to be effective in scavenging nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, well-known cytotoxic species that can oxidize several cellular components such as proteins, lipids and DNA.

Review on Insamyangwi-tang in Hyungsang Medicine (인삼양위탕에 대한 형상의학적 고찰)

  • Kang Kyung Hwa;Lee Yong Tae
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1569-1574
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    • 2004
  • A general review is made on Insamyangwi-tang(인삼양위탕). Following conclusions are drawn from the clinical cases of Insamyangwi-tang in Hyungsang medicine. Insamyangwi-tang is composed of four different prescriptions of Huisaeng-san, Sakoonja-tang, Eajin-tang and Pyungwi-san. Huisaeng-tang is usually prescribed for the intestinal convulsion. Sakoonja-tang for the deficiency of Ki. Eajintang for retention of phlegm, Insamyangwi-tang is effective in strengthening the spleen, drying the dampness, warming the middle-warmer to stop vomiting, regulating the flow of Ki, and eliminating phlegm. Insamyangwi-tang is applicable to malaria caused by cold, intestinal convulsion, abdominal mass, edema, tympanites, Yin syndrome of exogenous febrile disease, distension, lack of appetite, stomachache, and diarrhea. Persons with the following characteristic in Hyungsang are more susceptible to Insamyangwi-tang ; Jung type, Hyul type, fish type, Taium meridian type, white fat damp constitution, person with big mouth, and woman rather than man.