• Title, Summary, Keyword: Quantification and Valuation

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A Critical Review of Research on the Economic Valuation of Libraries (도서관 경제성 평가 연구의 비평적 분석)

  • Ko, Young-Man;Shim, Won-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.27-52
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    • 2011
  • The value of the library has always been recognized positively. Economic valuation of libraries and their services uses a concrete methodology that enables the quantification of library value and communication of said value among library stakeholders. This paper presents a comprehensive review of literature on economic valuation of the library based on a total of 89 studies conducted over the last quarter-century. Research on library valuation began in the mid-1990's with the formal exploration of the value of public libraries from a theoretical point of view. In the 2000's, various theories and methodologies were reviewed and put into actual measurement studies. The comprehensive review and analysis point to the need for the development of consistent and reliable set of methods, which will facilitate further application of methods and comparison of results.

Study of Benefit Characteristics for Low Impact Development (LID) Facilities demonstrated in Seoul Metropolitan (서울시 저영향개발(LID) 시범 시설에 대한 편익 특성 연구)

  • Lee, Seung Won;Kim, Reeho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.299-308
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    • 2016
  • Seoul metropolitan has established a vision as 'Healthy water-cycle city' to resolve urban water-environmental deterioration. And it established administrative structure to expand Low Impact Development (LID) facilities to recover aggravated water-cycle and water-environment. Therefore, various LID facilities are constructed and operated, however, benefit analytic plans for systematic valuation are insufficient. In this study, to analyze economic, environmental and social benefits of LID facilities, contents for benefit analysis were selected and categorized as water, energy, air quality and climate changes. As a result of quantification and valuation to the beneficial effects, LID facilities showed the total benefit as 1,191~3,292 won/yr. Characteristics of benefit distribution by analysis contents were various reflecting functional characteristics of each LID facility (Water: 30~90%, Energy: 4~44%, Air quality: <1~2%, Climate change: 5~22%). As a result of Triple Bottom Line analysis, economic benefit showed the greatest portion as 75~90%. As further studies, suggested benefit assessment plans for each LID facility should be applied to inter-connected LID systems on complex-scaled area, and synergy effects by various LID systems would be evaluated such as prevention of heat island and flood disasters.

Quantification of Ecological Impact as a Basis for Evaluation (독일에서의 환경영향의 정량적 평가)

  • Schweppe-Kraft, Burkhard
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.59-71
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    • 1993
  • Evaluation methods are employed in environmental impact assessment to choose between different project site, to determine the required measures to compensate impact and to decide whether the environmental impacts are more important than the social or economic effects of a project. The main obstacles that restrict use of quantitative evaluation method are a Lack of knowledge about the environmental effects (e.g. if impacts on wildlife or landscape amenities are predicted) and the relative importance of economic and social issues compared with nature conservation stability of ecosystem or landscape beauty. In Germany, the most common method for site planning is the "ecological risk analysis". It is a kind of multi-criteria-decision-method based on quantitative and qualitative description and ordinal ranking. The various kinds of "ecological balancing methods" that are more recently developed (within the last decade) to quantify the required amount for compensatory measures instead often use cardinal figures to express the value of ecosystems, the intensity of impacts, the need for additional measures to compensate for long recuperative periods when restoring ecosystems and so on. There are still only a view attempts to quantify decisions between environmental and socio-economic issues. Multicriteria-analysis as well as cost-benifit-analysis was used. Some new approaches which are still in a preliminary status are based on contingent valuation and on calculations for compensatory payments (instead of compensatory measures).

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Quantification of Carbon Reduction Effects of Domestic Wood Products for Valuation of Public Benefit

  • Chang, Yoon-Seong;Kim, Sejong;Kim, Kwang-Mo;Yeo, Hwanmyeong;Shim, Kug-Bo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 2018
  • This study was carried out to quantify degree of contribution of harvested wood product (HWP) on mitigation of climate change by valuation of public benefits, environmentally and economically. The potential carbon dioxide emission reduction of HWP was estimated by accounting carbon storage effect and substitution effect. Based on 2014 statistics of Korea Forest Service, domestic HWPs were sorted by two categories, such as wood products produced domestically from domestic and imported roundwood. The wood products were divided into seven items; sawnwood, plywood, particle board, fiberboard (MDF), paper (including pulp), biomass (wood pellet) and other products. The carbon stock of wood products and substitution effects during manufacturing process was evaluated by items. Based on the relevant carbon emission factor and life cycle analysis, the amount of carbon dioxide emission per unit volume on HWP was quantified. The amounts of carbon stock of HWP produced from domestic and from imported roundwood were 3.8 million $tCO_{2eq}$., and 2.6 million $tCO_{2eq}$., respectively. Also, each reduction of carbon emission by substitution effect of HWP produced from domestic and imported roundwood was 3.1 million $tCO_{2eq}$. and 2.1 million $tCO_{2eq}$., respectively. The results of this study, the amount of carbon emission reduction of HWP, can be effectively used as a basic data for promotion of wood utilization to revise and establish new wood utilization promotion policy such as 'forest carbon offset scheme', and 'carbon storage labeling system of HWP'.

Evaluation of Forest Recreation Functions through Quantification Method II (수량화II류를 이용한 산림휴양기능의 평가)

  • Kim, Hyun-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.97 no.4
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    • pp.437-444
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    • 2008
  • This study has intended to evaluate the forest recreation functions to seek methods to designate the recreational areas inside a recreation forest. This study has Mt. Chung-ok in Korea as a study area to which Quantification method II as a valuation measure was applied. This study also has chosen a degree of recreational utility as an external criterion and six factors including Forest type, Forest age, Slope, Riparian area, Road, and Facility for the 173 stands in this area. As a result, absolute discriminated success rate was obtained, so that the first and second estimated correlation ratios were 82% and 74%, respectively. Road and Slope had great influences on the potential power of recreational functions. In the category, recreational function was more influenced by the existence of road and the lower degree of slope. Also, this study has drawn an evaluation map, which displayed the potential power of recreational functions by classifying three discrimination points such as H(High), M(Medium), and L(Low) through calculating the degree of recreational utility of the recreation forest for the stands by applying an estimation formula of recreational function in the stands. This study seems to be worthwhile in terms of actual, experimental, and intuitive interpretation for the degree of recreational utility calculated by using Quantification method theory.