• Title, Summary, Keyword: Quantization Index Modulation (QIM)

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AN IMPROVED JPEG2000 STEGANOGRAPHY USING QIM AND ITS EVALUATION BY STEGANALYSIS

  • Ishida, Takayuki;Yamawaki, Kazumi;Noda, Hideki;Niimi, Michiharu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Broadcast Engineers Conference
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    • pp.466-469
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    • 2009
  • This paper presents a modified QIM-JPEG2000 steganography which improves the previous JPEG2000 steganography using quantization index modulation (QIM). Post-embedding changes in file size and PSNR by the modified QIM-JPEG2000 are smaller than those by the previous QIM-JPEG2000. Steganalysis experiments to determine whether messages are embedded in given JPEG2000 images show that the modified QIM-JPEG2000 is more secure than the previous QIMJPEG2000.

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Audio Watermarking Using Quantization Index Modulation on Significant Peaks in Frequency Domain (주파수 영역에서 주요 피크에 QIM을 적용한 오디오 워터마킹)

  • Kang, Jung-Sun;Cho, Sang-Jin
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.303-307
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    • 2011
  • This paper describes an audio watermarking using Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) on significant peaks in frequency domain. The audio signal is broken up into L samples length frames with non-overlapping and rectangular window. The zero-crossing rate of each frame is calculated for decision whether it is proper to be watermarked or not. If the frame is legitimate, frequency magnitude response is computed by discrete Fourier transform. For the QIM, we set the quantization step size based on maximum value of frequency magnitude response and select n significant peaks with w samples around them in frequency domain, totally $n{\times}(w+1)$ samples. Finally, watermark embedding is performed. Decoder extract watermarks based on Euclidean distance, that is a blind detection. The proposed method is robust against many attacks of watermark benchmark.

Development of a Robust Multiple Audio Watermarking Using Improved Quantization Index Modulation and Support Vector Machine (개선된 QIM과 SVM을 이용한 공격에 강인한 다중 오디오 워터마킹 알고리즘 개발)

  • Seo, Ye-Jin;Cho, San-Gjin;Chong, Ui-Pil
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 2015
  • This paper proposes a robust multiple audio watermarking algorithm using improved QIM(quantization index modulation) with adaptive stepsize for different signal power and SVM(support vector machine) decoding model. The proposed algorithm embeds watermarks into both frequency magnitude response and frequency phase response using QIM. This multiple embedding method can achieve a complementary robustness. The SVM decoding model can improve detection rate when it is not sure whether the extracted data are the watermarks or not. To evaluate robustness, 11 attacks are employed. Consequently, the proposed algorithm outperforms previous multiple watermarking algorithm, which is identical to the proposed one but without SVM decoding model, in PSNR and BER. It is noticeable that the proposed algorithm achieves improvements of maximum PSNR 7dB and BER 10%.

Multiple Audio Watermarking using Quantization Index Modulation on Frequency Phase and Magnitude Response (주파수 위상 응답과 크기 응답에 QIM을 이용한 다중 오디오 워터마킹)

  • Seo, Yejin;Cho, Sangjin;Chong, Uipil
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2013
  • This paper describes a multiple audio watermarking using Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) on frequency phase and magnitude response. Proposed embedding procedure is composed of two stage. At the first stage, the watermark is embedded on the frequency phase response using QIM. In the second stage, the watermark is embedded using adaptive QIM with the step-size that is adaptively determined using the maximum value of the frequency magnitude response of every frame. The watermark is extracted by calculating the Euclidean distance as the blind detection. The proposed method is robust against most of attacks of audio watermark benchmarking. For the Fourier attacks, the proposed method shows over 95% recovery rate.

A Study on Optimizing Quantization Steps for QIM Watermarking Schemes (QIM 워터마킹 방식에서의 양자화 구간 간격 최적화에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Yun-Ho;Lee, Kwang-Woo;Kim, Seung-Joo;Yang, Hyung-Kyu;Won, Dong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, we propose a method for enlarging quantization steps of a QIM watermarking scheme which determines the perceptual quality and robustness of the watermarked images. In general, increasing the quantization steps leads to good robustness but poor perceptual quality of watermarked images and vice versa. However, if we choose the quantization steps considering the expected quantization results as well as the original images, we can increase both robustness and perceptual quality of the watermarked images.

Blind Digital Image Watermarking Methods Based on QIM (양자화 색인 변조에 기반한 블라인드 디지털 영상 워터마킹 방법)

  • Lee, Juck-Sik
    • 한국정보기술학회논문지
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2017
  • Frequency coefficients are obtained by applying the GCST(Gabor Cosine and Sine Transform) to an image in the spatial domain. A blind digital image watermarking method is proposed to embedding and detecting binary watermarks using QIM(Quantization Index Modulation) to these GCST frequency coefficients. Watermarks are embedded in the frequency domain, and then the watermarked image in the spatial domain is recovered using the inverse GCST. Sixteen attacks considering real situations are applied to the recovered image. The proposed watermarking method is a blind algorithm because the original image is not needed to detect watermarks from the attacked signal. In addition, other 4 frequency transforms such as DFT, DCT, DWT and DGT(Derivative of Gaussian Transform) are applied to the same image, and the watermarking performance of various transforms is evaluated and compared in terms of the bit error rate and the normalized correlation coefficient. It is shown in general that the performance of GCST is better than that of the other transforms.

An Efficient Selective Method for Audio Watermarking Against De-synchronization Attacks

  • Mushgil, Baydaa Mohammad;Adnan, Wan Azizun Wan;Al-hadad, Syed Abdul-Rahman;Ahmad, Sharifah Mumtazah Syed
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.476-484
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    • 2018
  • The high capacity audio watermarking algorithms are facing a main challenge in satisfying the robustness against attacks especially on de-synchronization attacks. In this paper, a robust and a high capacity algorithm is proposed using segment selection, Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) and the Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) techniques along with new synchronization mechanism. The proposed algorithm provides enhanced trade-off between robustness, imperceptibility, and capacity. The achieved watermarking improves the reliability of the available watermarking methods and shows high robustness towards signal processing (manipulating) attacks especially the de-synchronization attacks such as cropping, jittering, and zero inserting attacks. For imperceptibility evaluation, high signal to noise ratio values of above 22 dB has been achieved. Also subjective test with volunteer listeners shows that the proposed method has high imperceptibility with Subjective Difference Grade (SDG) of 4.76. Meanwhile, high rational capacity up to 176.4 bps is also achieved.

Watermarking Algorithm using Power of Subbands Decomposed by Wavelet Packet and QIM (웨이블릿 패킷 변환한 후의 대역별 에너지와 QIM을 이용한 워터마킹 알고리즘)

  • Seo, Ye-Jin;Cho, Sang-Jin;Chong, Ui-Pil
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1431-1437
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    • 2011
  • This paper proposes a novel watermarking algorithm that protects digital copyrights and is robust to attacks. Watermarks are embedded in the subband including the significant part of the signal such as a pitch. Generally, the subband containing the pitch has the biggest energy. In order to find this subband, wavelet packet transform is used to decompose the subbands and their energy are calculated. The signal of the selected subbands is transformed in frequency domain using FFT. The watermarks are embedded using QIM for samples higher than a certain threshold. The blind detection uses the Euclidean distance. The proposed method shows less than 5% BER in the audio watermark benchmarking.

An Empirical Digital Image Watermarking using Frequency Properties of DWT (DWT의 주파수 특성을 이용한 실험적 디지털 영상 워터마킹)

  • Kang, I-Seul;Lee, Yong-Seok;Seob), Young-Ho;Kim, Dong-Wook
    • Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.295-312
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    • 2017
  • Digital video content is the most information-intensive and high-value content. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the intellectual property rights of these contents, and this paper also proposes a watermarking method of digital image for this purpose. The proposed method uses the frequency characteristics of 2-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform (2D-DWT) for digital images and digital watermark on global data without using local or specific data of the image for watermark embedding. The method to insert digital watermark data uses a simple Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) and a multiple watermarking method that inserts the same watermark data in multiple. When extracting a watermark, multiple watermarks are extracted and the final watermark data is determined by a simple statistical method. This method is an empirical method for experimentally determining the parameters in the watermark embedding process. The proposed method performs experiments on various images against various attacks and shows the superiority of the proposed method by comparing the performance with the representative existing methods.