• Title, Summary, Keyword: Quercus mongolica Fisch

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Phytochemical variation of Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. and Quercus serrata Murray (Fagaceae) in Mt. Jiri, Korea - Their taxonomical and ecological implications - (지리산 신갈나무와 졸참나무의 식물화학적 변이 양상 - 분류학적, 생태학적 의미 -)

  • Park, Jin Hee
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.574-587
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    • 2014
  • In this study, vertical distribution patterns of Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. and Q. serrata Murray in Korea were recognized and possibility of introgressive hybridization and gene flow between Q. mongolica and Q. serrata in Mt. Jiri was inferred by flavonoid analyses. The most critical factor on distribution patterns was the altitude in accordance with temperature condition. A zonal distribution was recognized: Quercus mongolica zone in the upper area and Q. serrata zone in the lower area. In Central Korea, the range of vertical distribution of Q. mongolica was above alt. 100m, almost everywhere, whereas that of Q. serrata was from alt. 0 m to alt. 500(-700) m, and the species is rare above that altitude. But in Southern Korea, Q. serrata is found up to above alt. 1,000 m, whereas frequency of Q. mongolica reduces as elevation in decline and the species is rare below alt. 300 m, even though pure stands being formed on higher mountain slope. Altitudinal distribution of the two species, however, overlaps, where the two species occur together. Thirty-seven individuals of Q. mongolica and Q. serrata in Mt. Jiri and other area were examined for leaf flavonoid constituents. Twenty-three flavonoid compounds were isolated and identified; they were glycosylated derivatives of the flavonols kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, and four compounds among the flavonoid compounds were acylated. Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and its acylated compounds were major constituents and present in all individuals. Quercus mongolica is distinguished from Q. serrata by the presence of quercetin 3-O-arabinosylglucoside and by high concentration of three acylated compounds, acylated kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, and by relatively low concentration or lacking of rhamnosyl flavonol compounds. There are intraspecific variations in flavonoid profiles for Q. mongolica and Q. serrata, the flavonoid profiles for individuals of two species in hybrid zone (sympatric zone) tend to be similar to each other, qualitatively and quantitatively. These findings strongly suggest that gene exchange or gene flow occurs through the introgressive hybridization between Q. mongolica and Q. serrata in Mt. Jiri. Therefore, Quercus crispula, occupying morphologically intermediate position between Q. mongolica and Q. serrata, is suspected of being a hybrid taxon of two putative parental species.

Notes on the biomass expansion factors of Quercus mongolica and Quercus variabilis forests in Korea

  • Li, Xiaodong;Son, Yeong-Mo;Lee, Kyeong-Hak;Kim, Rae-Hyun;Yi, Myong-Jong;Son, Yo-Whan
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.243-249
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    • 2012
  • Biomass expansion factors, which convert timber volume (or dry weight) to biomass, are used for estimating the forest biomass and accounting for the carbon budget at a regional or national scale. We estimated the biomass conversion and expansion factors (BCEF), biomass expansion factors (BEF), root to shoot ratio (R), and ecosystem biomass expansion factor (EBEF) for Quercus mongolica Fisch. and Quercus variabilis Bl. forests based on publications in Korea. The mean BCEF, BEF, and R for Q. mongolica was 1.0383 Mg/$m^3$ (N = 27; standard deviation [SD], 0.5515), 1.3572 (N = 27; SD, 0.1355), and 0.2017 (N = 32; SD, 0.0447), respectively. The mean BCEF, BEF, and R for Q. variabilis was 0.7164 Mg/$m^3$ (N = 17; SD, 0.3232), 1.2464 (N = 17; SD, 0.0823), and 0.1660 (N = 8; SD, 0.0632), respectively. The mean EBEF, as a simple method for estimating the ground vegetation biomass, was 1.0216 (N = 7; SD, 0.0232) for Q. mongolica forest ecosystems, and 1.0496 (N = 8; SD, 0.0725) for Q. variabilis forest ecosystems. The biomass expansion factor values in this study may be better estimates of forest biomass in Q. mongolica or Q. variabilis forests of Korea compared with the default values given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Herbicidal Activity of Wood Vinegar from Quercus mongolica Fisch (신갈나무 (Quercus mongolica Fisch) 목초액의 제초활성)

  • Kim, Song-Mun;Kim, Yong-Ho;Kim, Jin-Seog;Ahn, Mun-Sub;Heo, Su-Jeong;Hur, Jang-Hyun;Han, Dae-Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2000
  • The objective of this study was to determine if wood vinegar of Quercus mongolica Fisch has herbicidal activity. Growth of plants, such as barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-gulli P. Beauv), quackgrass (Agropyron smithii RYDB), canola (Brassica napus L.), velvetleaf (Abutilon avicennae), indian jointvetch (Aeschynomene indica), and common sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grown on agar batch treated with 0.01% wood vinegar were similar to that of plant without wood vinegar. The growth of such plants, however, reduced at $0.1{\sim}1%$ concentrations, and inhibited totally at >5% concentration. In greenhouse study, soil-applied wood vinegar did not inhibit tile growth of canola, barnyard grass, large crabgrass, and Abutilon avicennae even at the highest concentration, 80L $80L^{-1}\;10a^{-1}$, while foliar-applied wood vinegar did inhibit the growth of plants at higher than 40L $80L^{-1}\;10a^{-1}$. Growth of canola, barnyard grass, large crabgrass, and Abutilon avicennae treated with wood vinegar (80L $80L^{-1}\;10a^{-1}$) was reduced by 71, 46, 24, and 47%, respectively. In field experiment conducted at Chunchon and Taebeck, biomass of weeds treated with wood vinegar at less than 40L $80L^{-1}\;10a^{-1}$ were close to that of weeds treated without wood vinegar, while biomass of weeds at 80L $80L^{-1}\;10a^{-1}$ was reduced by 34-36%, compared to that of control, at both sites. However, the herbicidal activity of wood vinegar was much lower than that of glyphosate. Results in this study show that wood vinegar of Quercus mongolica Fisch has herbicidal activity, although the herbicidal activity was lower than that of glyphosate, a commercial herbicide.

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A Comparative Study on the Nutritive Value of Oak Browse (참나무 수엽의 사료가치 비교 연구)

  • 이인덕;이중해;이형석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 1993
  • Browse from Quercus aliena Blume, Quercus mongolica Fisch.. Quercus serrata Thunb., Quercus acutissima Carruth., Quercus variabilies Blume, and Quercus dentata Thunb. were analyzed for crude protein (CP). crude fiber(CF). neutral detergent fiber(NDF). acid detergent fiber(ADF). cellulose. lignin, in vitro dry matter digestibility(DMD), and tannin acid equivalents(TAE). According to the chemical composition and DMD. the total digestible nutrients(TDN). digestible energy(DE), and metabolizable energy(ME) were estimated. Oak browse samples were collected from May through October from 1990 to 1992 in Mt. Kyeryong. Browse from Quercus aliena, Quercus acutissima, and Quercus serrata contained higher levels of CP, DMD. TDN, DE. and ME. but lower levels of CF, NDF. ADF, and TAE as compared with other oak browse. Differences among seasons and years in the concentration of CP. NDF, and organic matter digestibility(0MD) were significantly appeared in all oak browse(P<0.05). The order of preference ratings of oak browse were Quercus aliena ) Quercus acutissima ) Quercus serrata ) Quercus mongollca ) Quercus variabilies ) Quercus dentata. As the results of this study, it could be considered that Quercus aliena and Quercus acutisslma were more valuable browse source than others.

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Analysis on the Community Structure of Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. in the Baekdudaegan Mountains by Elevation - Between Hyangnobong and Gitdaebaggybong - (해발고도에 따른 백두대간 신갈나무군락 특성 연구 - 향로봉에서 깃대배기봉 구간을 대상으로 -)

  • Jeong, Bo-Kwang;Oh, Choong-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.449-461
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    • 2013
  • This study is contributed to examine the vegetation characteristics of the Quercus mongolica which are located in between two summits, hyangnobong and gitdaebaggybong, with dividing two regions(I, II). A total of 63 Quercus mongolica communities were enrolled in this survey. A~E, 5 communities were the result of analysed classification by TWINSPAN. Spatial distribution of the communities; 'A' community is concentrated at an altitude of about 1,300 meters in Mt. Taebaek(II region). 'B' and 'C' communities are concentrated at an altitude of between 700 and 1500 meters in Mt. Seorak and Odae(Iregion). 'D' and 'E' communities are concentrated at an altitude of below 1,100 meters in Mt. Cheongok and geumdaebong(II region), and also Mt. Seorak and Odae(Iregion). Arboral and shrub populations, maximum species diversity and height of arboral of each communities have a characteristic of decreasing according to increasing altitude gradually. And the result of studying on arboreal growth increment with up to 40-year-old trees, there is no special tendency with growth increment in the altitude of subnormal 1,100 meters, but there is a tendency that growth increment becomes lower in the altitude of more than 1,100 meters. In correlation analysis, it is -0.53 in the Quercus mongolica and Betula costata community at an altitude of over 1,000 meters, the correlation shows negative(-). It is +0.59 in the Quercus mongolica and Rubus crataegifolius community at an altitude of less than 1,000 meters, the correlation shows positive(+). And those are cognate trees with the correlation of Betula costata, Betula costata Trautv., Tripterygium regelii Sprague&Takeda., Acer barbinerve Maxim. With a summary of the results, the changes in the environment according to the elevation affect Quercus mongolica community.

The conservation processing of archaeological wooden artifacts excavated from The HAMAN sungsan mountain fortress wall (함안 성산산성 출토 목제유물의 보존처리)

  • Ahn, Bok-Jun;Yang, Seok-Jin
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.155-170
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    • 2004
  • Jonam mountain is located in Gung nam Hamangun gayaeup, and it is 139.4m above sea. Most of Haman area consists of hill and mountains and Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc,Quercus acutissima Carruth, Quercus variabilis Bl, Quercus mongolica Fisch and Robiniapseudoacacia L are distributed. Sungsan mountain fortress wall is designated as a national historical spot 67th and our laboratory excavated and surveyed Sungsan mountain fortress wall from 1991 to 1994.Especially, we confirmed mud layer in 1992 and excavated wooden remains such as wooden strip with inscription and so on. Also, wooden strip with inscription and the wooden remains of the type which is various such as brush, knife, various club, vessel, awl were excavated in 2002.After classifying remains on the spot, they were washed. We found three pieces of wooden strip during washing, and three pieces of wooden strip during conservation processing. Also, we confirmed others. Until now, we have processed 8000 wooden remains, and we are processing about 1500wooden remains.

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Environmental and Ecological Characteristics Distribution of Natural Growth Region in Rhododendron Brachycarpum (만병초 자생지의 환경생태학적 특성)

  • Lee, Byung-Chul;Shim, Ie-Sung
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.1319-1328
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    • 2011
  • Rhododendron brachycarpum is a evergreen broad-leaved shrub and belongs to the Ericaceae family and the Rhododendron genus. It is well known for its beautiful leaves and flowers. There are 11 species of the Rhododendron genus in Korea. It includes 3 species - Rhododendron brachycarpum, Rhododendron aureum Georgi and Rhododendron brachycarpum var. roseum Koidz. They grow naturally over 1,000 meters above sea level of the Baekdu Mountain Range in Korea. These habitats, according to investigations of 9 Rhododendron brachycarpum natural habitats, are mostly located on the slope of mountains facing north at an altitude of 1,200 m to 1,526 m above sea level with angle of inclination from 30 degrees to 45 degrees. Based on the result of vegetation analysis of dominance species in the quadrates, there are Quercus aliena, Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb, Abies holophylla in species of upper trees, and so on. Dominant species of woody plants in tree layer are Quercus aliena, Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb, Abies holophylla, Betula platyphylla and Veeatrum patulum Loes. fil, Erythronium japonicum, Dryopteris crassirhizoma, Paeonia japonica var. glabra Makino are founded in herbaceous plants. And we can see another result of the investigation that the flowering rates of the plants with the buds are highly ranked mountains such as Mt. Hambaek 68%, Mt. Gyebang 40%, Mt. Yagksu 9%, Mt. Gaein 7% and Mt. Seolag 0%. The results show that there are 24 over 15-year-old Rhododendron brachycarpums in Mt. Odae and are 56 under 15-year-old trees in Mt. Hambaek and are no trees in Mt. Gyebang and are 9 over 30-year-dead trees only in Mt. Taebaeg. Out of found trees, the highest tree is 7 m in height and 0.6 m in diameter. Also this result shows what are the vulnerability factors of the natural habitats. They are as follows: indiscriminate trails in mountains, damages by mountain climbers, uncareful plant collecting, the fierce competitions with other plants such as Acer pseudosieboldianum var. ishidoyanum Uyeki, Quercus aliena, Celastrus orbiculatus and damages by disease and insect, unusual temperature in natural habitats, etc. Rhododendron brachycarpums have high ornamental value and excellent pharmaceutical effect. But the areas of its habitats decrease dramatically. So we need measures to protect and their natural habitats. It is necessary that we conductfurther investigations to designate conservation area for Rhododendron brachycarpums.

Stand Structure Change in Different Aged Stands Along Altitudinal Gradients in the Western Part of Mt. Chiri (지리산 서부지역에서 고도와 임령에 따른 임분 구조 변화)

  • Park, Pil Sun;Song, Jun Im;Kim, Myeong Pil;Park, Hak Gi
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.95 no.1
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    • pp.102-112
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    • 2006
  • The change of species composition and stand structure along altitudinal gradients in different aged stands was studied in five natural stands located each at 400 m, 800 m, 1,000 m, and two at 1,300 m above sea level (asl) in the western part of Mt. Chiri in Korea. Trees larger than 2.5 cm DBH were inventoried in 3 to 8 $20m{\times}20m$ quadrats in each study site. Stand ages were estimated based on the ages of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. and Abies koreana Wilson, and used to analyze the changes in species composition and stand structure including diameter and height distributions. Species composition was changed along altitudinal gradients as P. densiflora dominated stands at 400 m asl while A. koreana dominated stands at 1,300 m asl. Major species of Quercus also changed along altitudinal gradients as Quercus variabilis Blume at 400 m asl, Quercus serrata Thunb. ex Murray at 800 m asl, and Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. at higher than 1,000 m asl. The diameter distribution did not show significant differences among stands of different altitudes. However, the height distributions of upper crown layers were significantly different among stands at below and above 1,000 m as) (P < 0.0001). Trees taller than 20 m rarely appeared in stands over 1,000 m asl. P. densiflora dominant stands at 400 m asl developed two clumped age groups as one in 30-40 ages and the other around 70 years old. Q. serrata dominant stands at 800 m asl, Q. mongolica dominant stands at 1,300 m asl and A. koreana dominant stands at 1,300 m asl were estimated to be around 30, 70, and over 140 years old after major disturbances, respectively. The diameter distribution with age structure indicated that P. densiflora at 1,300 m asl might be replaced by Q. mongolica, and Q. mongolica might be replaced by A. koreana and Pinus koraiensis later. A. koreana dominant stand seemed to stay its dominance quite long if the large disturbance would be absent.

A Study on Application of Combustion Products for Forest Fire Investigation (산불화재 감식을 위한 연소생성물의 응용에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Young-Ju;Lee, Hae-Pyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2011
  • This study was designed to provide basic data applicable to fire investigation through consideration of combustion products and propose vulnerability of combustibles through analysis of $CO_2$ emission. In order to achieve these research objectives, characteristics of combustion products such as smoke release rate of each part(raw leaves, branches and barks), $CO_2$ emission and ash production were considered targeting on 6 oak species(Quercus variabilis Blume, Quercus aliena Blume, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica Fisch, Quercus dentata Sapling and Quercus acutissima) using cone calorimeter and smoke density tester. As a result, it was found that raw leaves release smoke more relatively than branches and barks, when they burn, and that Quercus variabilis Blume has the highest smoke density. Also, Quercus acutissima released CO and $CO_2$ which are respectively, 6.67 times and 1.43 times more than Quercus variabilis Blume with low $CO_2$ emission. In addition, branches released CO and $CO_2$ more relatively. There was a big difference in ash production among raw leaves(3.1 g), branches(10.5 g) and barks(16.43 g). It was identified that Quercus serrata produces ashes which are nearly 9.95 times more than Quercus variabilis Blume. It demonstrates that Quercus serrata contains relatively higher minerals and that Quercus variabilis Blume can leave lots of traces like stain and carbonization, as it releases smoke a lot and it's difficult to predict visibility, when a forest fire breaks out in its community area. It is also considered that smoke particles containing oil in the air leave strain on the surface of a tree, and that CO and $CO_2$ emission increases, when crown fire to burn branches breaks out.

Antimicrobial Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Quercus spp. against Foodborne Pathogens (병원성 식중독 미생물에 대한 참나무과 식물 부위별 에탄올 추출물의 항균효과)

  • 윤재원;유미영;박부길;이명구;오덕환
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.463-468
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial effect of leaf, bark and xylem of 6 kinds of Quercus spp. against food borne disease bacteria. All of the samples tested showed the antimicrobial effect against food borne disease bacteria. Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus was more sensitive than gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium and Escerichia coli O157:H7, but no antimicrobial activity was observed against yeast and molds. Based on antimicrobial activity for kinds of Quercus spp., the antimicrobial activities of Quercus aliena Blume, Quercus mongolica Fisch, and Quercus dentata Thunb were stronger than those of Quercus variebilis Blume, Quercus serrata Thunb, and Quercus acutissima Carruth. In the meantime, the ethanol extract of Quercus spp. leaves showed the strongest antimicrobial activity compared to that of bark and xylem. Especially, the ethanol extract of Quercus aliena Blume leaf showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against foodborne disease bacteria among 6 kinds of Quercus spp.