The study is conducted to analyze the questioning styles in three middle school environmental textbooks in terms of frequency, type, and placement of questions. It is also to analyse and compare the kinds of scientific processes elicited by the questions in the topics of textbook. The instrument was the Textbook Questioning Strategies Assesment Instrument (TQSAI) which was developed the Cooperative Teacher Preparation Program, University of California. The mean number of questions per topic was 4.0 and the ratio of questions to sentences was 3.8%. The numbers of empirical and non-empirical questions were 52.5% and 47.5% for textbook D, 56.6% and 43.4% for textbook J, and 92.7% and 7.3% for textbook K, respectively. The open-hearted question was the highest in all types of questions for three middle school environmental textbooks. The explanatory question was the highest in all characteristics of questions. The types of various questions were distributed throughout textbooks including the green field, debate-discussion, examination, and so on.
Even though the 7th national curriculum based on learner-centered instruction as fundamental spirit has been operated for 10 years or so, still the instruction style nation widely implemented in current classrooms is closer traditional style than it. It is a big challenge for a teacher who is used to a traditional one to try to fully make learner-centered instruction. The paper describes the teacher's cognizance change on it with the point of views of children's ability to construct knowledge, instructional materials, questioning techniques, and children's achievements.
In contemporary advertising market, one of main trends is to speak surrealistic visual language which provides 'enjoyable spectacles'. Specially, in the beginning of 21st century, there discovered more and more exhibitions and discourses about surrealism reinterpreted from the viewpoint of postmodernism. Surrealism as a creative style of expression based upon free association, has been a great inspiration for fashion ads for commercial communication as well as fashion design since its origin. However, there has been ignored the idea of analyzing surrealistic image expressed in fashion ads in spite of their flood. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to grasp its cultural meaning through analyzing aesthetic characteristics of surrealistic image expressed in fashion ads. It will provide a better understanding of surrealistic image in fashion ads reflecting popular taste and preference directly as popular visual culture, focusing on post modern context. A case study of surrealistic fashion ads limits to TV or print commercials and digital ads as image ads stimulating visual expressions. The Results can be summarized as follows. Surrealism is an avant garde style which deconstructs the established meaning system as well as the existing formalistic order and then put them together in the frame of 'dream' and 'unconsciousness'. Defamiliarization questioning the whole edifice of representation can be adapted to. By means of paradox and metaphor, unfamiliar new visual world can be represented. The plastic characteristics of surrealistic image in fashion ads are founded as surrealistic styling of time and space, distortion of object by methods of automatism, depaysement, parody and trompe-l'oeil which bring about the deconstruction of gestalt. Aesthetic values of surrealistic fashion ads appear as dualistic representation, allegoric symbolism, fantastic romanticism. Ultimately they lead to marvelous. mysterious, humorous visual effects. Foster reinterpreted these effects of surrealism from Freud's 'Uncanny Concept'. 'Uncanny' means the phenomenon recurring to familiar being defamiliarized by repression. Surrealistic fashion ads strengthen this shocking effect more and more dramatically in company with our post modern needs for fantastic adventure and thrilling spectacle. It can be thought that surrealistic fashion ads reflects uncanny as an alternative which can relieve us of our stress and anxiety and which realize our potential desire in contemporary post industrial stage.
Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
The purpose of this study is to find a solution to effectively nurse elderly people in the aging society of next generation by analyzing relationship among the social problem of elderly people in the future society, their preferred life style, and their understanding level of an asylum for the aged. Data for this study were collected by questioning 316 persons(257 visitors at C University hospital and 59 residents in Chun - Ra Nam Do) from December 1996 to March 1997. The results were as follows: The assumption that an individual's preferred life style at old age depends on his /her understanding level of the social problem of elderly people was verified ($X^2=9.75$, p<0.00). The assumption that one's understanding of an asylum for the aged depends on his /her understanding level of the social problem of elderly people was verified ($X^2=4.40$, p<0.05). The assumption that one's understanding of an asylum for the aged depends on his/her pre-ferred life style at old age was verified($X^2=34.51$, p<0.01). Among those who want to live together with children when they get old, the following differences in their conception were noted: Elderly people who has lost his /her wife /husband should marry again(p<0.01). Children should take care of their parents(p<0.01). Children should live with their parents(p<0.01), A desirable living style for an elderly people. An undesirable living style for an elderly people. Among those who want to live alone when they get old, the following differences were observed: It is okay for children to live separately from their parents as long as they provide financial support(p<0.01). Any child, regardless of the distinction of sex or the order of birth among siblings, can take care of his/her parents(p<0.05), It is desirable for an elderly people to live alone (p<0.01). It is undesirable for an elderly people to live in an asylum for the aged(p<0.05). It was verified that those who view an asylum for the aged in a negative way believe that children should take care of their parents. Also, it was verified that those who view an asylum for the aged in a positive way believe that children should provide financial support to their parents even though they do not live together(p<0.01). Regardless of the subjects' opinions on seriousness of the social problem of elderly people, the assumption that any child, regardless of the distinction of sex or the order of birth among siblings, can take care of his/her parents was verified(p<0.01) (p<0.05). Regardless of the subjects' view on asylum for the aged, the assumption that it is undesirable place for an elderly people to live was verified (p<0.01). The assumption that one's understanding of an asylum for the aged depends on the distinction of sex among general characteristics such as sex, age, educational background, occupation, and religion was verified(t=-2.82, p<0.01). The assumption that an individual's preferred life style at old age depends on the distinction of sex among general characteristics such as sex, age, educational background, occupation, and religion was verified(t=l.68, p<0.l).
The purpose of this study was to find out the image as science teachers recognized by pre-service science teachers. The data was collected from 312 pre-service science teachers from Kyungpook National University in Daegu and participants were asked to write about the image of science teachers they liked most and least in their secondary school years freely. The result of this research was as follows. The image as science teachers categorized 2 factors: science instructional situation, image of science teacher. Each factor was subdivided into more detailed ones. First of all, 'science instructional situation' category subdivided into lesson style, teaching-learning materials, teaching methods, and class atmosphere. In lesson style, 'experiment' and 'observation' gained the most favorable comments, and questioning-answering gained the least. In teaching-learning materials, print materials such as handouts, worksheets, reports were the most liked, and 'writing on the blackboard' was the least liked. In teaching methods, the 'detailed and systematic explanation of the theory and concepts' was preferred to rote learning and memorization lacking explanation. In class atmosphere, friendly and free atmosphere was the most preferred, and uncomfortable, boring one was the least preferred. Secondly, in 'image of the science teachers' category and 'quality as the teachers' sub-category, thoughtful and considerate teachers who respect students' personality was the most preferred. On the contrary, they didn't prefer teachers who were indifferent and humiliated students. Finally in 'characteristics of the teachers' sub-category, the participants liked clear, energetic voice, and mild expression, and they didn't like formal style, overly fancy clothes, etc. Based on the result of this study, more empirical study on the teachers' image is needed, and the thoughts of educational administrators, students, parents, and teachers should be reflected because an undesirable teacher can be advised and get opportunity to be a better teacher.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
This study, which starting from Yangyang Jukdo's topography formation and questioning revealed in landscape guide and landscape commentary board, is to sort out the characteristics of Jukdo natural landscape through literature research, field observation research and stakeholder interview as part of the proper recognition of Jokdo landscape and search for landscape resources, and pursued a review of nominations and criticism. The results of this study are summarized as follows. Yangyang Jukdo is an island named because it was full of blue bamboo. From before the first half of the 14th Century. to the middle of the 18th Century., there was a Gwanlan-pavilion to see the sea and the bamboo in the west. The time when the original island, the Jukdo, have been a land-tied island connected with the land by the tombolo formed by the erosion of the sand. It is located at the end of the 14th Century. and before the middle of the 18th Century. In Jukdo, colorful weathered terrains, coastal terrain, and structural terrain formed by long-time weathering are found. Among them, the type of weathering, the tafoni style and the gnamma style are the scenic landscapes with the key stories of legend and poetry that are brought to Jukdo. In addition, there are seven kinds of letters caved in the rocks in Jukdo. The rocks found on the coast, basketball cannons, shrines, and sutras are seen as shrouds based on a Taoist hermit motifs and style. In addition, it can be interred from the photography of "jeongssisejeog" that the souvenir of Jukdo was the family of Chogyejeong of mid 18th Century. In terms of observational geography and poetry, Jukdo has been handed down a great deal of missionary color with key motifs such as 'Jukdo-seongoo', 'Jukdo-Dolgooyoo', or 'Stone mortar of Taoist hermit' It is proved that the pearl which is called 'The stone of the Taoist hermit' is a porthole formed in a separate space rather than the topography of the geomorphology in terms of shape, size and function. Currently named Shun-tang is a product of the ridiculous 'naming' of interest. The present landscape guide and commentary is not only incompatible with the place of Jukdo, but also does not match the traditional cultural landscape. Future scenery information such as guide signs and commentary boards should be improved in the direction of positively highlighting the stories and motifs related to the present that are present in order to enhance the landscape identity of Yangyang Jukdo.
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
In this study, we investigated the changes in beginning chemistry teachers' teaching practice without mentoring program and after the implementation of mentoring program. Participants in our study included two chemistry teachers who have less than one year of teaching experience and three mentor teachers. We collected data such as video recordings of teacher's classes, interview, and recordings of mentoring after each class. The results show there were slight changes in teaching contents, teaching procedure, and explanation method without mentoring. On the other hand, there were a lot of significant improvement in classroom environment, teaching contents and teaching procedure, teaching-learning techniques, questioning and feedback, and explanation method after mentoring has been implemented. However, there were no easy changes in the teaching style, understanding of students, and ways of interaction with students in connection with teaching purposes. Based on the results of this study, we explored the possibilities of instructional improvement through mentoring on beginning chemistry teacher's teaching practice. Therefore, we consider that more systematic and long-term mentoring is necessary to improve professionalism in teaching beginning teachers. In particular, we propose mentoring programs reflecting the individual needs of beginning teachers.
Journal of Elementary Mathematics Education in Korea
This study is on the teaching method for the students who belong to the same school (one, the gifted class, passed gifted education of Science High school ), 1-1, face-to-face learning (two, good students in regular classroom) with a teacher, paired learning teams (4 people, gifted classes), and group lessons (20 people, gifted classes) and using the justification analysis framework tool(PIRSO) of Kim(2010) analyzes the justification element of the students in the group classes regular polygons paper was to explore ways to improve the justification of the folding maps activities. As a result, the width of the largest polygon difficulty level appropriate to the class for gifted elementary school classes but the individual learning style of the 1-1 face-to-face with a teacher or discussion with colleagues and cooperative approach is justified, rather than the material of the study of origami activities it turned out to be more effective in improving the level of justification. Unlike the individual learning activities, the exploration for class is the need to strain in parallel to the student is selected as needed, rather than serial manner was confirmed that it is necessary to clearly present problems even from the beginning. Development of teaching through the implications obtained from this method of reconstruction activities and proposed improvement measures for questioning.
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
This article aims to (a) investigate children's images of a scientist's life style by comparing children's drawings about a scientist's schedule with those about a company employee's schedule in a weekday and on Sunday; and (b) examine the usefulness of 'Drawing A Scientist's Schedule (DASS)' test as a new instrument of learners' conceptions of a scientist and his/her work. To do those, thirty sixth- grade children participated in this study. The children, 15 boys and 15 girls, were selected from a classroom of an elementary school located in Gongju city. The children's drawings were analyzed in conjunction with individual interviews. The interviews facilitated the clarification of any ambiguous attributes of the drawings by questioning after their completion. Several significant conclusions can be drawn from this work: First, the children conceived that a scientist has more mandatory time, and less necessary and leisure time than does a company employee. Interestingly, many children thought that a scientist has similar life style on Sunday to that in a weekday, unlike a company employee. Second, in case of necessary time use in a weekday and on Sunday, the difference between a scientist and a company employee results from their sleeping time. Also, the children showed more various conceptions of a scientist's sleeping time than those of a company employee's sleeping time. Third, in case of mandatory time use, the children conceived that a scientist spends more time for his/her occupational work and less time for his/her housework activities than does a company employee. Fourth, the children's drawings showed that there is difference between a scientist's and a company employee's leisure time use and activities. Finally, the DASS test indicated its possibility and usefulness as an instrument for investigating learners' images on a scientist and his/her work. The instrument exhibited several distinctive children's conceptions that is difficult in identifying by using the DAST, a popular instrument.
PASKYULA was formed in September, 1923 through the union of artists involved in two art groups: Kim Ki-Jin, Kim Bok-Jin, Yeon Hak-Nyeon who had previously participated in the ToWolHoi, and Park Young-Hi, Lee Sang-Hwa, An Seok-Ju, former members of the BaeckJo. After its founding, the PASKYULA artists had been searching for the social function of art to reform the harsh reality of Minjung and the nation with criticism toward society as well as art world. Their art theory for MinJung could grow relatively ease in relation to changing social and political conditions in the early 1920s. In August, 1925, PASKYULA organized the Korea Artista Proletaria Federatio with the YeomGunSa, and laid the groundwork for Proletariat art movement which was regularized in the late 1920s. From PASKYULA up to the early state of KAPF, the theory of art advocated by Kim Bok-Jin and An Seok-Ju could be summarized as "art for MinJung". At that time, widely ranging discourses on MinJung, however, was spawned in art theory, because many intellectuals-including artists and writers-begun to pay more attention to MinJung, who emerged as one of the social forces after the Samil Independent Movement. Sometimes, MinJung was construed as the target of enlightenment from a negative viewpoint. On the other hand, several intellectuals under the influence of individualism asserted that the discussion itself on MinJung exerted an evil influence on art. In contrast of these cases, the PASKYULA artists including Kim Bok-Jin, An Seok-Ju perceived that MinJung had the potential to change society, and regarded them as "a creator of genuine civilization and art". In the PASKYULA artist's writings, the concept of MinJung was often overlapped with the meaning of the Choson nation suffering under colony. Although their concept of MinJung was transformed gradually into the proletariat as they were under the strong influence of socialism, it did not change that they grasped the realities of the whole Choson Peninsula through the proletarian consciousness. In the early state of PASKYULA, the methodology for social function of art was presented in a twofold manner. First of all, Kim Bok-Jin emphasized on the necessity of education to improve MinJung's way of life through art, and it was embodied by the organization of ToWol Art Workshop and public lecture. Also, he championed "the popularization of art", which was one of methods to distribute art to MinJung. According to the PASKYULA artists, art should be not art for art' sake but art for MinJung. That was why they advocated the convergence of art and MinJung's life. Especially Kim Bok-Jin affirmed a link between art and industry because he considered industry the field inextricably linked with MinJung's life. In this context, his idea could be read as the generalization and equalization within the framework of possession. Kim Bok-Jin thought that the social ramifications of capitalism deprived MinJung of their right to enjoy art, and emphasized the artist' social role to return the right to them. That is, the even distribution of art was mainly discussed than the contents of art in the half of 1920s. By 1925, the contents of art itself became an issue in the PASKYULA art theory, and it was based in realism. Kim Bok-Jin and An Seok-Ju insisted that art should be reflection of real life. At that time, realism acquired the representation of MinJung and the nation's realities not realistic style. In fact, the various Western art styles including Futurism, Constructivism, Cubism etc. were exploited in the PASKYULA's visual images. Western art, target of criticism on theory, was selectively adopted in the works which were produced by Kim Bok-Jin and An Seok-Ju. Kim Bok-Jin's MoonYeUnDong cover design was conceived of as the example in which Western art was adopted with it's ideology under the influence of MAVO, while Western art shown in An Seok-Ju's illustrations served as a decorative function in many cases. Especially, An Seok-Ju attempted the various styles of Western art simultaneously, which may be seen as representing that PASKYULA did not have a firm ideology for their style. Also, it can be read as showing his hasty zeal to overcome Western art rapidly. The wish to establish "art for MinJung" as soon as possible was accompanied with the will to jump over the all steps of Western art though it was superficial. This aspiration of PASKYULA was expressed through the mass media, which had the potential for communicating to MinJung. At this point, there was a significant disparity between PASKYULA and another art groups in the first half of 1920s. However, the PASKYULA's method on the basis of the mass media could not but have a certain limitation because of the medium's properties. Nevertheless, PASKYULA' attempts may be considered to be valuable in sense that they expended the boundaries of Korean modern art into the commercial art questioning the matter of the distribution for art.
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