• Title, Summary, Keyword: R factor

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Review of Gauge R&R Studies by Restricted and Unrestricted Design in the Two-Factor Mixed Model (2인자 혼합모형의 제약과 비제약 설계에 의한 게이지 R&R 연구의 고찰)

  • Choi, Sung-Woon
    • Proceedings of the Safety Management and Science Conference
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    • pp.657-665
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    • 2009
  • The paper reviews gauge R&R studies by two-factor mixed models including random and fixed factors. The two-factor mixed models include restricted models and unrestricted models considering the interaction of two factors. This study also classifies the models according to the number of factors, and the combination of various factors such as random factor, fixed factor, block factor and repetition type.

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A Study on R&D Critical Factors Affecting R&D Performance in Aviation and Aerospace Industries (항공·우주분야 연구개발사업(R&D) 성과영향요인이 R&D 성과에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • So, Eun Jung;Kim, Ki-Woong;Kim, Kwang-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.26-36
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    • 2019
  • Although the investment size of R&D in Aviation and Aerospace Industries is increasing, R&D performance has not been quite good considering resources invested in it. This study is to find which R&D critical factors affect R&D Performance in aviation and aerospace industries. According to the result of research, a technology provider factor, an organization factor, a system factor and a market environment factor influence positively on financial performance, and a policy factor influences negatively on financial performance. Otherwise, a technology provider factor and an organization factor influence positively on non financial performance, and technology factor influences negatively on non financial performance. Thus, personnel involved in R&D of Aviation and Aerospace Industries should develop policy and system taking positive and negative factors to improve R&D performance. It could lead to take the better performance from R&D in Aviation and Aerospace Industires.

An One-factor VaR Model for Stock Portfolio (One-factor 모형을 이용한 주식 포트폴리오 VaR에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Keunhui;Ko, Kwangyee;Beak, Jangsun
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.471-481
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    • 2013
  • The current VaR Model based on J. P. Morgan's RiskMetrics has problem that actual loss exceeds VaR under unstable economic conditions because the current VaR Model can't re ect future economic conditions. In general, any corporation's stock price is determined by the rm's idiosyncratic factor as well as the common systematic factor that in uences all stocks in the portfolio. In this study, we propose an One-factor VaR Model for stock portfolio which is decomposed into the common systematic factor and the rm's idiosyncratic factor. We expect that the actual loss will not exceed VaR when the One-factor Model is implemented because the common systematic factor considering the future economic conditions is estimated. Also, we can allocate the stock portfolio to minimize the loss.

Evaluation of the Response Modification Factor for RC Wall-type Structures (철근콘크리트 벽식 구조물의 반응수정계수 평가에 관한 연구)

  • 한상환;이리형;오영훈;천영수
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.433-438
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    • 1998
  • Design lateral strength calculated by current seismic design code is prescribed to be much lower than the force level required for a structure to respond elastically during design level earthquake ground motion. Present procedures for calculating seismic design forces are based on the use of elastic spectra reduced by a strength reduction factor known as "response modification factor, R". This factor accounts for the inherent ductility, overstrength, redundancy, and damping of a structural system. This study considers ductility and overstrength of the wall-type structure for investigating R factor. This means that R factor is determined from the product of "ductility-based R factor($R_$\mu$$) and overstrength factor($R_s$). $R_$\mu$$ factor is calibrated to attain the targer ductility ratio (system ductility capacity) and produced in the from of $R_$\mu$$ spectra considering the influence of target ductility, natural period, and hysteretic model. On the other hand, $R_s$ is more difficult to quantify, since it depends on both material and system-dependent uncertain parameters. In this study Rs factor was determined from the result of push-over analysis.-over analysis.

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Rainfall Erosion Factor for Estimating Soil Loss (토양유실량 여측(予測)을 위한 강우인자(降雨因子)의 분석(分析))

  • Jung, Pil-Kyun;Ko, Mun-Hwan;Im, Jeong-Nam;Um, Ki-Tae;Choi, Dae-Ung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.112-118
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    • 1983
  • Rainfall factor (R-factor), which is an index for the prediction of soil erosion in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), was computed from 21 years rainfall data at 51 locations in Korea. The values of R-factor are from 200 to 300 in the eastern part, and 300 to 700 in the western and southern part of the peninsula. Curvilinear regressions exist between annual rainfall and annual R-factor or between monthly rainfall and monthly R-factor. The R-factor can be estimated from the regression equation as a function of the amount of rainfall. According to the comparison between the actual soil loss measured by lysimeter and the soil loss predicted by the USLE, EI 30 for R-factor was recognized as a suitable factor for the USLE in korea.

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Response modification factors of concrete bridges with different bearing conditions

  • Zahrai, Seyed Mehdi;Khorraminejad, Amir;Sedaghati, Parshan
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.185-196
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    • 2019
  • One of the shortcomings of seismic bridge design codes is the lack of clarity in defining the role of different seismic isolation systems with linear or nonlinear behavior in terms of R-factor. For example, based on AASHTO guide specifications for seismic isolation design, R-factor for all substructure elements of isolated bridges should be half of those expressed in the AASHTO standard specifications for highway bridges (i.e., R=3 for single columns and R=5 for multiple column bent) but not less than 1.50. However, no distinction is made between two commonly used types of seismic isolation devices, i.e., elastomeric rubber bearing (ERB) with linear behavior, and lead rubber bearing (LRB) with nonlinear behavior. In this paper, five existing bridges located in Iran with two types of deck-pier connection including ERB and LRB isolators, and two bridge models with monolithic deck-pier connection are developed and their R-factor values are assessed based on the Uang's method. The average R-factors for the bridges with ERB isolators are calculated as 3.89 and 4.91 in the longitudinal and transverse directions, respectively, which are not in consonance with the AASHTO guide specifications for seismic isolation design (i.e., R=3/2=1.5 for the longitudinal direction and R=5/2=2.5 for the transverse direction). This is a clear indicator that the code-prescribed R-factors are conservative for typical bridges with ERB isolators. Also for the bridges with LRB isolators, the average computed R-factors equal 1.652 and 2.232 in the longitudinal and transverse directions, respectively, which are in a good agreement with the code-specified R-factor values. Moreover, in the bridges with monolithic deck-pier connection, the average R-factor in the longitudinal direction is obtained as 2.92 which is close to the specified R-factor in the bridge design codes (i.e., 3), and in the transverse direction is obtained as 2.41 which is about half of the corresponding R-factor value in the specifications (i.e., 5).

Evaluation of Response Modification Factor of Steel Special Resisting Frame Building Before and After Retrofitted with Buckling Restrained Brace (비좌굴가새의 보강 전과 후의 철골 특수모멘트저항골조 건물의 R계수 평가)

  • Shin, Jiuk;Lee, Kihak;Jo, Yeong Wook
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2013
  • This research presents that seismic performance of steel moment resisting frame building designed by past provision(UBC, Uniform Building Code) before and after retrofitted with BRB (Buckling-Restrained Brace) was evaluated using response modification factor (R-factor). In addition, the seismic performance of the retrofitted past building was compared with that specified in current provision. The past building considered two different connections: bilinear connection, which was used by structural engineer for building design, and brittle connection observed in past earthquakes. The nonlinear pushover analysis and time history analysis were performed for the analytical models considered in this study. The R-factor was calculated based on the analytical results. When comparing the R-factor of the current provision with the calculated R-factor, the results were different due to the hysteresis characteristics of the connection types. After retrofitted with BRBs, the past buildings with the bilinear connection were satisfied with the seismic performance of the current provision. However, the past buildings with the brittle connection was significantly different with the R-factor of the current provision.

Estimation of R factor using hourly rainfall data

  • Risal, Avay;Kum, Donghyuk;Han, Jeongho;Lee, Dongjun;Lim, Kyoungjae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.260-260
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    • 2016
  • Soil erosion is a very serious problem from agricultural as well as environmental point of view. Various computer models have been used to estimate soil erosion and assess erosion control practice. Universal Soil loss equation (USLE) is a popular model which has been used in many countries around the world. Erosivity (USLE R-factor) is one of the USLE input parameters to reflect impacts of rainfall in computing soil loss. Value of R factor depends upon Energy (E) and maximum rainfall intensity of specific period ($I30_{max}$) of that rainfall event and thus can be calculated using higher temporal resolution rainfall data such as 10 minute interval. But 10 minute interval rainfall data may not be available in every part of the world. In that case we can use hourly rainfall data to compute this R factor. Maximum 60 minute rainfall ($I60_{max}$) can be used instead of maximum 30 minute rainfall ($I30_{max}$) as suggested by USLE manual. But the value of Average annual R factor computed using hourly rainfall data needs some correction factor so that it can be used in USLE model. The objective of our study are to derive relation between averages annual R factor values using 10 minute interval and hourly rainfall data and to determine correction coefficient for R factor using hourly Rainfall data.75 weather stations of Korea were selected for our study. Ten minute interval rainfall data for these stations were obtained from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and these data were changed to hourly rainfall data. R factor and $I60_{max}$ obtained from hourly rainfall data were compared with R factor and $I30_{max}$ obtained from 10 minute interval data. Linear relation between Average annual R factor obtained from 10 minute interval rainfall and from hourly data was derived with $R^2=0.69$. Correction coefficient was developed for the R factor calculated using hourly rainfall data.. Similarly, the relation was obtained between event wise $I30_{max}$ and $I60_{max}$ with higher $R^2$ value of 0.91. Thus $I30_{max}$ can be estimated from I60max with higher accuracy and thus the hourly rainfall data can be used to determine R factor more precisely by multiplying Energy of each rainfall event with this corrected $I60_{max}$.

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miR-140 inhibits porcine fetal fibroblasts proliferation by directly targeting type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor and indirectly inhibiting type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor expression via SRY-box 4

  • Geng, Hongwei;Hao, Linlin;Cheng, Yunyun;Wang, Chunli;Wei, Wenzhen;Yang, Rui;Li, Haoyang;Zhang, Ying;Liu, Songcai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.10
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    • pp.1674-1682
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    • 2020
  • Objective: This study aimed to elucidate the effect of miR-140 on the proliferation of porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) and identify the target genes of miR-140 in PFFs. Methods: In this study, bioinformatics software was used to predict and verify target genes of miR-140. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot were used to detect the relationship between miR-140 and its target genes in PFFs. Dual luciferase reporter gene assays were performed to assess the interactions among miR-140, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R), and SRY-box 4 (SOX4). The effect of miR-140 on the proliferation of PFFs was measured by CCK-8 when PFFs were transfected with a miR-140 mimic or inhibitor. The transcription factor SOX4 binding to promoter of IGF1R was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). Results: miR-140 directly targeted IGF1R and inhibited proliferation of PFFs. Meanwhile, miR-140 targeted transcription factor SOX4 that binds to promoter of porcine IGF1R to indirectly inhibit the expression of IGF1R. In addition, miR-140 inhibitor promoted PFFs proliferation, which is abrogated by SOX4 or IGF1R knockdown. Conclusion: miR-140 inhibited PFFs proliferation by directly targeting IGF1R and indirectly inhibiting IGF1R expression via SOX4, which play an important role in the development of porcine fetal.

Analysis of the fracture surface morphology of concrete by the method of vertical sections

  • Konkol, Janusz;Prokopski, Grzegorz
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.389-400
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    • 2004
  • The examinations carried out have confirmed a relationship existing between the character of fracture surfaces and the composition and structure of (basalt and gravel) concretes. For both concretes investigated, a very good correlation was obtained between the profile line development factor, $R_L$, and the fracture surface development factor, $R_S$. With the increase in the $R_L$ parameter, the fracture surface development factor $R_S$ also increased. Agreement between the proposed relationship of $R_S=f(R_L)$ and the proposal given by Coster and Chermant (1983) was obtained. Stereological examinations carried out along with fractographic examinations made it possible to obtain a statistical model for the determination of $R_L$ (or $R_S$) based on the volume of air voids in concrete, $V_{air}$, the specific surface of air pores, $S_V_{air}$ the specific surface of coarse aggregate, $S_{Vagg.}$, and the volume of mortar, $V_m$. An effect of coarse aggregate type on the obtained values of the profile line development factor, $R_L$, as well as on the relationship $R_S=f(R_L)$ was observed. The increment in the fracture surface development factor $R_S$ with increasing $R_L$ parameter was larger in basalt concretes than in gravel concretes, which was a consequence of the level of complexity of fractures formed, resulting chiefly from the shape of coarse aggregate grains.