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Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Extracts and Fractions from Parthenocissus tricuspidata Stems (담쟁이덩굴 추출물과 분획물의 항산화, 항당뇨 및 항염증 효과)

  • Cho, Eun Kyung;Choi, Young Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.399-405
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to analyze the effects on antioxidative, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Parthenocissus tricuspidata (PT) stem extracts. The total phenolic contents of hot water and ethanol extracts from PT stems were 61.5 mg TAE/g and 122.1 mg TAE/g, respectively. The antioxidative activities of hot water and ethanol extracts from PT stem were measured by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of ethanol extract and butanol fraction were approximately 95% and 92% at 1 mg/ml, respectively, and the SOD activities of ethanol extract and butanol fraction were about 91% and 97% at 1 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging and SOD activities of ethanol extract and butanol fraction from PT stem increased remarkably increased in a dose-dependent manner and were higher than in the hot water extracts. Compared to the acarbose, a known anti-diabetic drug, which was used as a positive control, the ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory capacity of PT stem showed a strong inhibitory rate in ethanol extract and in butanol and hexane fractions. We investigated the effect of hot water extract from PT stem on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Hot water extract from PT stem inhibited LPS-induced NO production up to 40% at a treatment of 1 mg/ml. These results suggest that PT stem extracts have an effect on antioxidative, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities and thus have great potential as antidiabetic materials and a source for natural health products.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Ulva pertusa Kjellman on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 Cells and Mouse Model (LPS로 유발한 대식세포의 염증반응과 마우스 귀 부종에 대한 구멍갈파래 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, Min-Ju;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Park, Sun-Hee;Choi, Hyeun-Deok;Park, So-Yeong;Jang, Mi-Ran;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.479-487
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    • 2016
  • Recently, various marine algae have been considered as a natural resource for anti-inflammation. In this research, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Ulva pertusa Kjellman ethanol extract (UPKEE). This study showed that UPKEE inhibited the secretion of cytokines including IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$, and $IL-1{\beta}$, and reduced the expression of $NF-{\kappa}B$ and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as well as iNOS and COX-2. In the formation of mouse ear edema test, three doses (10, 50, 250 mg/kg body weight) of UPKEE showed inhibitory activity after inducing inflammation using croton oil. In conclusion, we found that UPKEE showed an inhibitory effect on $NF-{\kappa}B$ and MAPKs, and reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. This result suggests that UPKEE can be used as a natural anti-inflammatory resource in food industry.

Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Codonopsis lanceolata Leaves (더덕 잎의 파이토케미컬(phytochemicals)과 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Gi Ho;Kim, Na Yeon;Kang, Shin-Ho;Lee, Hwa Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.680-685
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    • 2015
  • Phytochemicals in Codonopsis lanceolata leaves were saponins, triterpenes, tannins, and flavonoids, not alkaloids. The levels of total polyphenols and flavonoids in Codonopsis lanceolata leaves were measured to evaluate the antioxidant activity. C. lanceolata leaves showed strong 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and potent reducing power. In addition, C. lanceolata leaf extracts inhibited production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. To examine active phytochemical for antioxidant activity, aglycone fraction of C. lanceolata leaves was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Luteolin was identified as a main component of aglycone fraction and showed potent antioxidant activity as determined by a DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing power test. These results suggest that C. lanceolata leaves are a good source of antioxidants.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Onion (Allium cepa) Peel Hot Water Extract in vitro and in vivo (양파껍질 열수추출물의 in vitro 및 in vivo 항염증 효과)

  • Kang, Bo-Kyeong;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Ahn, Na-Kyung;Choi, Yeon-Uk;Kim, Min-ji;Bark, Si-Woo;Pak, Won-Min;Kim, Bo-Ram;Park, Ji-Hye;Bae, Nan-Young;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.148-154
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    • 2015
  • Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the flavonoids-rich materials in human diet and onion peel, which is the onion by-products, contains over 20 times more quercetin than the flesh. In this study, to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of onion peel hot water extract (OPHWE), the cell viability, nitric oxide (NO), pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interluekin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), and IL-$1{\beta}$, were measured using the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 cells. The Balb/c mice were used for an in vivo acute toxicity test and ICR mice were used for measurement of inhibition effects of croton oil-induced mouse ear edema. As a result, NO levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The production of IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, and IL-$1{\beta}$ was suppressed by 38%, 41%, and 34% respectively, compared with that of the LPS only group, without any cytotoxicity. The edema formation in the ICR mouse ear was also reduced compared to that in control. Moreover, there were no mortalities occurred in mice administered 5,000 mg/kg body weight of OPHWE. These results suggest that OPHWE has considerable anti-inflammatory activities and can be regarded as a potent candidate material to treat inflammatory diseases.

Hypolipidemic and Anti-oxidant Effects of Chunghyl Plus in Type II Diabetic Mice Model (제2형 당뇨 마우스 모델에서 청혈플러스의 항고지혈 및 항산화효과)

  • Choi, Koh Eun;Seol, In Chan;Kim, Yoon Sik;Cho, Hyun Kyoung;Yoo, Ho Ryong
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.164-176
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    • 2016
  • This study was perfomed to investigate the effects of Chunghyul-plus(CHP) on oxidative damage and hyperlipidemia in db/db mouse. After treatment with CHP, safety in cytotoxicity, heavy metal toxicity, production of reactive oxygen species(ROS), nitric oxide (N0) and proinflammatory cytokine IL-Ib, TNF-a, IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells. Serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, GLP-1, glucose, food intake, body weight, organ weight, AST, ALT, ALP, BUN, creatine and histologic change of liver and aorta were measured in db/db mouse after oral administration of CHP. CHP showed safety in cytotoxicity and toxicity of liver and kidney for logn time administration. CHP increased the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity. CHP showed significant inhibitory effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS), and showed inhibitory effect on nitiric oxide(NO) compared to control group. CHP decreased cytokine IL-6 production significantly, and decreased IL-1β and TNF-α compared to control group. CHP decreased body and organ weitht, intake food, and glucose levels compared to control group. CHP decreased total cholesterol and triglyceride significantly, and decreased LDL-cholesterol levels and increased HDL-cholesterol levels compared to control group. CHP decreased atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor significantly. CHP increased serum insulin and GLP-1 compared to control group. In histologic examination, lipophagy in the liver and aorta decreased in CHP treated mice and the cell was regular and boundary of vessel wall was clear compared to control group. These results suggest that CHP is effective in antioxidation activity and treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, stroke and other cardiocerebrovascular disease.

Anti-Diabetic, Alcohol-Metabolizing, and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Leaf Extracts (모링가 잎 추출물의 항당뇨, 알코올 대사 및 간 보호 활성)

  • Choi, Young Ju;Jung, Kyung Im
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.819-827
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to investigate anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, alcohol metabolizing, and hepatoprotective effects of hot water (MOW) and 80% ethanol (MOE) extracts from moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaf. The total phenol content of MOW and MOE were 45.49 and 63.06 mg tannic acid equivalents/g, respectively. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities of MOW and MOE were remarkably elevated in a dose-dependent manner, and about 60.8% and 71.3% at 1 mg/mL, respectively (P<0.01). Superoxide dismutase-like activities of MOW and MOE were 2.8% and 7.4% at 5 mg/mL, respectively (P<0.05). ${\alpha}-Glucosidase$ inhibitory activity also increased in a dose-dependent manner in both extracts, and MOE was higher about two times than MOW at 5 mg/mL (P<0.001). The effects of MOW and MOE on alcohol metabolizing activity were determined by measuring generation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). ADH and ALDH activities significantly increased upon addition of MOW and MOE (P<0.05). Anti-inflammatory activity was examined in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Nitric oxide production was reduced to 32.1% and 81.2% by addition of MOW and MOE at 1 mg/mL, respectively (P<0.05). MOW and MOE showed significant protective effects against tacrine-induced cytotoxicity in Hep3B cells at $100{\mu}g/mL$. These results suggest that moringa leaf extracts have great potential as natural health products.

Trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Modulates Nuclear Factor-${\kappa}B$ p65 Activity on the Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-${\alpha}$ in Porcine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (돼지 말초혈액 단핵구세포에서 trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid의 TNF-${\alpha}$ 생산에 대한 nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ p65 활성 조절 효과)

  • Kim, Young-Beum;Lee, Ill-Woo;Kang, Ji-Houn;Yang, Mban-Pyo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.190-195
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    • 2011
  • Nuclear factor ${\kappa}B$ (NF-${\kappa}B$) is a nuclear transcription factor that modulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$. trans-10, cis-12 (t10c12)-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) participates in the inhibition of TNF-${\alpha}$ production upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation. However, in our previous study, t10c12-CLA enhanced the production of TNF-${\alpha}$ by LPS-unstimulated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. To resolve this apparent contradiction, we hypothesized that the effect of t10c12-CLA on TNF-${\alpha}$ production depends on NF-${\kappa}B$ activation induced by LPS stimulation. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the in vitro effect of t10c12-CLA on TNF-${\alpha}$ production and NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 activity in LPS-stimulated and LPS-unstimulated porcine PBMCs. t10c12-CLA treatment resulted in increased TNF-${\alpha}$ production by LPS-unstimulated PBMCs but decreased TNF-${\alpha}$ production by LPS-stimulated PBMCs. t10c12-CLA increased the degradation of inhibitory ${\kappa}B$ ($I{\kappa}B$)-${\alpha}$ protein and activated NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 in LPS-unstimulated PBMCs, but had the opposite effect in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. Notably, t10c12-CLA enhanced NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 binding activity in LPS-unstimulated PBMCs exposed to caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitor. Conversely, it inhibited NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 binding activity in LPS-stimulated PBMCs exposed to CAPE. These results suggest that t10c12-CLA may have different actions under different physiological conditions, and that its effect may be associated with a change in NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 activity.

Nutritional Composition and Biological Activities of the Methanol Extracts of Sea Mustard (Undaria pinnatifida) in Market. (시판 미역의 영양성분 및 생리활성 분석)

  • Choi, Jae-Suk;Bae, Hee-Jung;Kim, Yang-Chun;Park, Nam-Hee;Kim, Tae-Bong;Choi, Young-Ju;Choi, Eun-Young;Park, Sun-Mee;Choi, In-Soon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.387-394
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    • 2008
  • This research was performed to determine the proximate compositions, mineral contents, alginic acid, antioxidative activities and amino acids of sea mustards (Miyeok: Undaria pinnatifida) collected from Gijang and Wando area. Ash content was higher in Gijang samples, whereas carbohydrate and moisture were higher in Wando Sil Miyeok. General compositions of dried sea mustard showed different contents as manufacture's company and places. The major free amino acids were hydroxyproline, alanine, glutamic acid and asparagine in Gijang samples. Both Gijang and Wando Sil Miyeok showed lower contents comparing with Gijang Gadak Miyeok. Major mineral content was Na, K, Ca, Mg and P, and especially, Na and K were the most abundant in both Gijang and Wando sea mustards. Alginic acid content was almost similar in both sea mustards. Antioxidative activity of methanol extract of sea mustards was measured by using DPPH radical scavenging and SOD-like activity. DPPH radical scavenging activity was 45.5% $(40\;{\mu}g/ml)$ in Gijang Gadak Miyeok and 37.0% and 26.0% $(40\;{\mu}g/ml)$ in Gijang and Wando Sil Miyok, respectively. SOD-like activity of Gijang and Wando Sil Miyok was 63% and 71% $(10\;{\mu}g/ml)$, respectively. These results show that biological activities depend on Miyeok manufacture's process. When stimulated macrophages RAW264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inhibition of NO production in Gijang Sil Miyeok (44.2%) was 9% high comparing with that of Wando Sil Miyeok (35.7%).

Mineral Contents and Physiological Activities of Dried Sea Tangle (Laminaria japonica) Collected from Gijang and Wando in Korea. (기장산과 완도산 건 다시마의 무기성분 및 생리활성 분석)

  • Choi, Jae-Suk;Shin, Su-Hwa;Ha, Yu-Mi;Kim, Yang-Chun;Kim, Tae-Bong;Park, Sun-Mee;Choi, In-Soon;Song, Hyo-Ju;Choi, Young-Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.474-481
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    • 2008
  • This research was performed to determine the proximate compositions, mineral contents, alginic acid, antioxidative activities and amino acids of sea tangles collected from Gijang and Wando area. Crude protein and ash contents were higher in Gijang sea tangle, whereas carbohydrate and moisture were higher in Wando in general. Mineral contents of Gijang sea tangle were higher than Wando. Especially, Na and K was the most abundant in both Gijang and Wando sea tangles. Alginic acid content was almost similar in both sea tangles. The major free amino acids were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, proline and hydroxyproline in both Gijang and Wando sea tangles. Antioxidative activity of methanol extract of sea tangle was measured by using DPPH radical scavenging and SOD-like activity. DPPH radical scavenging and SOD-like activity were about 17% ($40\;{\mu}g/ml$) and 7% ($5\;{\mu}g/ml$) higher, respectively, in Wando sea tangle. When stimulate the macrophages RAW264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inhibition of NO synthesis of the methanol extract was 11% higher in Wando sea tangle comparing with Gijang samples.

Preparation of a Functional Drink by Mixed Fermentation of Oak Mushrooms Extract and Whey (유청과 표고버섯 추출물의 혼합 발효를 통한 기능성 음료 제조)

  • Yang, Hee-Sun;Jo, Jun-Hee;Choi, Yu-Jin;Jung, Hoo-Kil;Park, Tae-Young;Jin, Seong-Woo;Choi, Bong-Suk;Seo, Kyoung-Sun;Huh, Chang-Ki
    • Journal of Milk Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of a functional drink prepared by mixed fermentation of oak mushroom extract and whey. As the ratio of oak mushroom extract increased, the pH value of the whey fermentative solution decreased proportionally, and the titratable acidity increased significantly. The number of lactic acid bacteria after 24 hours of culture was at a level of $10^{11}CFU/mL$ in all whey fermentative solutions containing oak mushroom extracts. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities after 24 hours of culture were higher in a fermentative solution containing oak mushroom extract than in the control. After 24 hours of culture, the nitric oxide production in whey fermentation solution by LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells was lower compared to that in whey fermentation solution with oak mushroom. Sensory evaluation revealed that, color, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability of the whey fermentation solution sample, which contained 1.0% oak mushroom extract, were much better than those of the other groups. Sensory evaluation of a whey drink containing oak mushroom flavor indicated that the whey drink containing 0.001% oak mushroom flavor was better than the other samples.

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