• Title, Summary, Keyword: RAW 264.7 cells

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Antiinflammatory Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 by Suppressing Nuclear Factor-${\kappa}B$ in Raw264.7 Macrophage Cells

  • Lee, Jeong-Min;Hwang, Kwon-Tack;Jun, Woo-Jin;Park, Chang-Soo;Lee, Myung-Yul
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1683-1688
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    • 2008
  • Lactobacillus casei 3260 (L. casei 3260) was evaluated in relation to the inflammatory response mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ (NF-${\kappa}B$) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. The treatment of Raw264.7 cells with L. casei 3260 significantly inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ (TNF-$\alpha$) and prostaglandins $E_{2}\;(PGE_{2})$, followed by suppression of COX-2. To clarify the molecular mechanism, the inhibitory effect of L. casei 3260 on the NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling pathway was examined based on the luciferase reporter activity. Although the treatment of Raw264.7 cells with L. casei 3260 did not affect the transcriptional activity of NF-${\kappa}B$, it did inhibit NF-${\kappa}B$ activation, as determined by the cytosolic p65 release and degradation of I-${\kappa}B{\alpha}$. Therefore, these findings suggest that the suppression of COX-2 through inhibiting the NF-${\kappa}B$ activation by LPS may be associated with the antiinflammatory effects of L. casei 3260 on Raw264.7 cells.

Study on Biological Effect of Water Extract from ARTEMISIAE ARGI FOLIUM on Mouse Macrophage Raw 264.7 Cells (마우스 대식세포(Raw 264.7)에 대한 애엽(艾葉) 물추출물의 생리활성 연구)

  • Park, Wan-Su
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.815-820
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    • 2008
  • Macrophage is the important cell for the immune system. Many of herbal drugs were searched about their immune-modulating activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biological effect of water extract from ARTEMISIAE ARGI FOLIUM (WAAF) on mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. ARTEMISIAE ARGI FOLIUM was known to have the antibacterial, immune-enhancing, and anticoagulative properties. Cytotoxicity of WAAF was verified by MTT assay. The intracellular production of hydro peroxide ($H_2O_2$) by WAAF was examined. The productions of nitric oxide (NO) and $TNF-{\alpha}$ from Raw 264.7 cell by WAAF were also examined. WAAF showed no cytotoxicity on RAW 264.7 cells for 3 hours. WAAF increased the production of $H_2O_2$ in Raw 264.7 cells. WAAF decrease the production of NO from the cells at low concentrations but increased at high concentrations. WAAF increased the production of $TNF-{\alpha}$ from the cells. Therefore, It could be suggested that WAAF has the immune-modulating effect.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Oyster Shell Extract in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 Cells

  • Lee, Se-Young;Kim, Hak-Ju;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2013
  • This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of oyster shell extract on the production of pro-inflammatory factors [NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2)] and pro-inflammatory cytokines [Interleukin-$1{\beta}$ (IL-$1{\beta}$), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-${\alpha}$] in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Cell viability, as measured by the MTT assay, showed that oyster shell extract had no significant cytotoxicity in Raw 264.7 cells. The treatment with oyster shell extract decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species dose dependently and increased antioxidant enzyme activities, such as SOD, catalase, GSH-px in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Oyster shell extract significantly suppressed the production of NO and also decreased the expressions of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-${\kappa}B$. Additionally, oyster shell extract significantly inhibited the production of IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and TNF-${\alpha}$ in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Thus, these results showed that the oyster shell extract had an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

Proteome Analysis of Responses to Ascochlorin in LPS-induced Mouse Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells by 2-D Gel Electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS. (LPS로 자극된 macrophage RAW264.7 세포에서 ascochlorin에 대한 단백질체 분석)

  • Chang, Young-Chae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.814-825
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    • 2008
  • Ascochlorin (ASC) is prenyl-phenol compound that was isolated from the fungus Ascochyta viciae. ASC reduces serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and suppresses hypertension, tumor development, ameliorates type I and II diabetes. Here, to better understand the mechanisms by which ASC regulates physiological or pathological events and induces responses in the pharmacological treatment of inflammation, we performed differential analysis of the proteome of the mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells in response to ASC. In this study, we used a proteomic analysis of LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells treated by ASC, to identify proteins potentially involved in inflammatory processes. The RAW264.7 cell proteomes with and without treatment with ASC were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D SDS-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and bioinformatics. The largest differences in expression were observed for the calreticulin (4-fold decrease), ${\beta}-actin$ (4-fold decrease) and vimentin (1.5-fold decrease). In addition, rabaptin was increased 3-fold in RAW264.7 cells treated with ASC. The expression of some selected proteins was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis.

Investigation of the Effect of Water Extract of Lithospermi Radix on the Expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS Genes in Raw 264.7 Cells (자초(紫草) 열수 추출물의 RAW 264.7 세포에서 IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Cho, Nam Joon;Choi, Young Ho;Lee, Woong Hee;Kim, Kee Kwang;Han, Hyo Sang
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.220-225
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    • 2017
  • Lithospermi Radix (LR) is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the mechanisms are not well known. In this study, LPS-induced mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with LR to investigate the time-dependent inflammation response of LR. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of LR for 24 hours, followed by MTS assay. Cell viability was increased at all experimental concentrations. The mRNA expression levels of $IL-1{\beta}$, $TNF-{\alpha}$ and iNOS were increased by treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with LR at a concentration of $200{\mu}g/ml$ for 6 hours and 24 hours. Treatment of LR with $200{\mu}g/ml$ concentration for 6 hours promoted mRNA expression levels of $IL-1{\beta}$, $TNF-{\alpha}$ and iNOS in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. However, $IL-1{\beta}$, $TNF-{\alpha}$ and iNOS mRNA expression was suppressed by treatment of LR with $200{\mu}g/ml$ concentration for 24 hours in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that the effect on inflammation of LR is promptly promoted and then to rapidly alleviate the inflammatory reaction. This study proposes that the time-dependent activities of herbal medicine is a very important factor in analyzing the anti-inflammatory effect of various herbal medicines including LR.

Immune Enhancing Effect of Houttuyniae Herba on Mouse Macrophage (어성초(魚腥草)의 면역활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hyun;Kim, Yoon-Sang;Lim, Eun-Mee
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.12-22
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate immune enhancing effect of Houttuyniae Herba water extract(HW) on RAW 264.7 cell of mouse macrophages. Methods: Effects of HW on productions of nitric oxide(NO) and hydrogen peroxide($H_2O_2$) in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were measured. Effect of HW on production of cytokines such as interleukin(IL)-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-${\alpha}$ in RAW 264.7 cells was accessed by a multiplex bead array assay based on xMAP technology. All of results were represented P<0.05 compared to the normal. Results: 1. After 24 hr incubation, HW increased significantly NO production in RAW 264.7 cells at the concentrations of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ${\mu}g$/mL. 2. After 24 hr incubation, HW increased significantly hydrogen peroxide production in RAW 264.7 cells at the concentrations of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ${\mu}g$/mL. 3. After 24 hr incubation, HW increased significantly IL-$1{\beta}$ production in RAW 264.7 cells at the concentrations of 100 and 200 ${\mu}g$/mL. 4. After 24 hr incubation, HW increased significantly IL-6 production in RAW 264.7 cells at the concentrations of 100 and 200 ${\mu}g$/mL. 5. After 24 hr incubation, HW increased significantly TNF-${\alpha}$ production in RAW 264.7 cells at the concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 ${\mu}g$/mL. Conclusions: These results suggest that HW has immune enhancing activity related with its increasement of NO, hydrogen peroxide, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and TNF-${\alpha}$ in macrophages.

Superoxide Formation and Cytotoxicity of RAW264.7 Macrophages Induced by Nitric Oxide

  • Lee, Hong;Pae, Hyun-Ock;Jun, Chang-Duk;Yoo, Ji-Chang;Park, Rae-Kil;Chung, Hun-Taeg
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.247-250
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    • 1997
  • We have studied cytotoxicity of S-nitroso-N-acetyl- N-DL-penicillamine(SNAP), a Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound, in RAW264.7 macrophages. SNAP is cytotoxic to RAW264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. PMA(200 nM) stimulated cells to produce superoxide anton radical($O_2^{-\cdot}$) and caused a little loss of RAW264.7 cell viability for 12 hr and diminished the cytotoxicity of SNAP. The mechanism by which PMA can protect cells against NO-mediated cytotoxicity was studied by peroxynitrite-enhanced chemiluminescence method. Observed results suggested that $O_2^{-\cdot}$ produced by PMAstimulated RAW264.7 cells may quench NO released by SNAP and reduce NO, thus attenuating NO-related damages.

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Effects of Prunellae Spica Water Extract on Immune Response in Macrophage Cells (하고초 열수추출물이 대식세포 면역만응에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Ji-Hea;Kim, Yoon-Sang;Lee, Eun-Mee
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.91-100
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Prunellae Spica Water Extract(PSE) on immune response in macrophage cells. Methods: We had devided two group the one is normal group; not treated with PSE, and the other is experimental group; treated with PSE. We measured the cell viability of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells and investigated production of nitric oxide(NO) and cytokines such as interleukin(IL)-$1{\beta}$, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-$\alpha$ with sample PSE. Results: 1. Cell viability of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly decreased in both 24 hr and 48 hr incubation. 2. NO production of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased in both 24 hr and 48 hr incubation. 3. IL-$1{\beta}$ production of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased under concentration over $50\;{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ in 24 hr incubation. 4. IL-6 production of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased under concentration over $50\;{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ in 24 hr incubation. 5. TNF-$\alpha$ production of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased under concentration over $50\;{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ in 24 hr incubation. Conclusion: NO, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ production of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased. This study suggest that PSE stimulates the macrophage and enhances the immune response.

Structural Effects of Sulfated-Glycoproteins from Stichopus japonicus on the Nitric Oxide Secretion Ability of RAW 264.7 Cells

  • Cao, Rong-An;Lee, Su-Han;You, SangGuan
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.307-313
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    • 2014
  • The effect of various levels of proteins, sulfates, and molecular weight ($M_w$) of a sulfated-glycoprotein ($NF_3$) from a sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicus, on nitric oxide (NO) releasing capacity from RAW 264.7 cells was investigated. The $NF_3$ derivatives had various amounts of proteins (4.8~11.2%) and sulfates (6.8~25.2%) as well as different $M_w$ ($640.3{\times}10^3{\sim}109.2{\times}10^3g/mol$). $NF_3$ was able to stimulate RAW 264.7 cells to release NO with lower protein contents, indicating that the protein moiety was not an important factor to stimulate macrophages. On the other hand, the NO inducing capacity was significantly reduced with decreased levels of sulfates and $M_w$, implying that sulfates and $M_w$ played a pivotal role in activating RAW 264.7 cells. It was not clear why sulfates and a certain range of $M_w$ were essential for stimulating macrophages. It appeared that certain levels of sulfates and $M_w$ of sulfated-glycoproteins were required to bind to the surface receptors on RAW 264.7 cells.

Anti-Oxidative and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Combined Extract and Individual Extract of GamiSaengmaeksan (가미생맥산(加味生脈散) 및 개별약재의 항산화 및 항염증 효능에 대한 비교 연구)

  • Ji, Joong-Gu
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : The aim of this study is to investigate the various effects of individual or combined extract of GamiSaengmaeksan (GSS) on cell viability, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activityMethods : In order to evaluate cytotoxicity, MTT assay was performed. We investigated the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 and interleukin (IL)-1β, and nitric oxide(NO) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells to check the effects on anti-inflammatory activity. The level of NO production in RAW 264.7 cells was measured by using Griess reagent. The levels of cytokines and ROS were measured by Luminex and Flow cytometry, respectively.Results : At concentration of 200 ㎍/㎖ GSS, cytotoxicity was observed in RAW 264.7 cells. However, at concentration less than 100 ㎍/㎖ of both combine and individual GSS, cytotoxicity was not observed in Raw 264.7 cells. However, the level of ROS in RAW 264.7 cells were decreased at both extract of 100 ㎍/㎖ GSS. Also, the level of NO in RAW 264.7 cells were decreased from extraction of concentration of 100 ug/ml in GSS and individual-extraction of Liriopis Tuber, White Ginseng and Glycyrrhizae Radix. In addition, productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells were decreased from extraction of concentration of 10 and 100 (㎍/㎖) in GSS and individual-extraction of Liriopis Tuber.Conclusions : It is concluded that combined extract of GSS appears to be more effective in anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory effect than those in individual-extraction of GSS. These results may be developed as a raw material for new therapeutics to ease the symptoms related with inflammatory and oxidative stress.