• Title, Summary, Keyword: RD cost estimation

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Relation between the Building Exterior Conditions and Energy Costs in the Running period of the Apartment Housing (공동주택의 건물외부조건과 에너지비용과의 관계분석)

  • Lee, Kang-Hee;Ryu, Seung-Hoon;Lee, Yeun-Taek
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2009
  • The energy cost is resulted from the energy use. Its sources are divided into some types and depended on the building use or energy-use type. The energy cost should be affected by the amount of the energy use. The cost could be calculated to consider various factors such as the insulation, heating type, building shape and others. But it can not consider all of the affect factors to the energy cost and need to categorize the factors to the condition for estimating the cost. In this paper, it aimed at providing the estimation model in linear equation and multiple linear regression, utilizing the building exterior condition and management characteristics in apartment housing. Its survey are conducted in two parts of management characteristics and building exterior condition. The correlation analysis is conducted to get rid of the multicolinearity among the inputted factors. The number of linear equation model is 11 and includes the 1st, 2nd and 3rd equation function, power function and others. Among these, it suggested the 2nd and 3rd function and power function in terms of the statistics. In multiple linear regression model, the building volume and management area are inputted to the estimation.

A Study on Efficient Coding Mode Decision for H.264/AVC (H.264/AVC의 효율적인 부호화 모드 결정에 관한 연구)

  • Hur, Tae-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Computer Industry Society
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.801-812
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    • 2005
  • H.264/AVC is the international video coding standard which has significant improvements of coding efficiency. ITU-T(International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication standardization sector) and MPEG(Moving Picture Experts Group) adopts various complex coding tool such as variable block size motion, multiple reference frames, quarter-pel motion estimation/compensation (ME/MC) and rate-distortion(RD) optimization, etc. H.264 reference model employs complex mode decision technique based on RD optimization which requires high computational complexity. In this paper, we propose an efficient coding mode decision based on the cost distribution of RD in the macroblock coding mode sequence. Simulation results show that the proposed method reduces encoding time by 34% on average and save the number of computing RD cost by 82%.

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Developments on Low Cost Protection Circuit of Discharge for D-type Non-rechargeable Lithium Batteries(Li/SOCl2) (D형 리튬 1차 단위전지(Li/SOCl2)용 저가형 과방전 차단회로 개발)

  • Ahn, Mahn-Ki;Jung, Yeong-Tak;Lim, Jae-Sung;Roh, Tae-Joo
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.665-674
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    • 2018
  • In this paper, we propose a development results of a D-type non-rechargeable lithium battery($Li/SOCl_2$) on improvement in a low cost protection circuit of discharge for domestic military power source. According to this study, we describe a new design and product with 8-bit microcontroller in the protection circuit which can estimate state of health of the battery regardless of occurring an initial voltage delay. Also this paper discuss and facilitate development as solution to a safety about the non-rechargeable lithium batteries. As a result, we verified a quality of the protection circuit by a development test and evaluation(DT&E) process.

A Fast Intra-Prediction Method in HEVC Using Rate-Distortion Estimation Based on Hadamard Transform

  • Kim, Younhee;Jun, DongSan;Jung, Soon-Heung;Choi, Jin Soo;Kim, Jinwoong
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.270-280
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    • 2013
  • A fast intra-prediction method is proposed for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) using a fast intra-mode decision and fast coding unit (CU) size decision. HEVC supports very sophisticated intra modes and a recursive quadtree-based CU structure. To provide a high coding efficiency, the mode and CU size are selected in a rate-distortion optimized manner. This causes a high computational complexity in the encoder, and, for practical applications, the complexity should be significantly reduced. In this paper, among the many predefined modes, the intra-prediction mode is chosen without rate-distortion optimization processes, instead using the difference between the minimum and second minimum of the rate-distortion cost estimation based on the Hadamard transform. The experiment results show that the proposed method achieves a 49.04% reduction in the intra-prediction time and a 32.74% reduction in the total encoding time with a nearly similar coding performance to that of HEVC test model 2.1.

Efficient Mode Decision Algorithm Based on Spatial, Temporal, and Inter-layer Rate-Distortion Correlation Coefficients for Scalable Video Coding

  • Wang, Po-Chun;Li, Gwo-Long;Huang, Shu-Fen;Chen, Mei-Juan;Lin, Shih-Chien
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.577-587
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    • 2010
  • The layered coding structure of scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive inter-layer prediction causes noticeable computational complexity increments when compared to existing video coding standards. To lighten the computational complexity of SVC, we present a fast algorithm to speed up the inter-mode decision process. The proposed algorithm terminates inter-mode decision early in the enhancement layers by estimating the rate-distortion (RD) cost from the macroblocks of the base layer and the enhancement layer in temporal, spatial, and inter-layer directions. Moreover, a search range decision algorithm is also proposed in this paper to further increase the motion estimation speed by using the motion vector information from temporal, spatial, or inter-layer domains. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can determine the best mode and provide more efficient total coding time saving with very slight RD performance degradation for spatial and quality scalabilities.

Minimum Statistics-Based Noise Power Estimation for Parametric Image Restoration

  • Yoo, Yoonjong;Shin, Jeongho;Paik, Joonki
    • IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 2014
  • This paper describes a method to estimate the noise power using the minimum statistics approach, which was originally proposed for audio processing. The proposed minimum statistics-based method separates a noisy image into multiple frequency bands using the three-level discrete wavelet transform. By assuming that the output of the high-pass filter contains both signal detail and noise, the proposed algorithm extracts the region of pure noise from the high frequency band using an appropriate threshold. The region of pure noise, which is free from the signal detail part and the DC component, is well suited for minimum statistics condition, where the noise power can be extracted easily. The proposed algorithm reduces the computational load significantly through the use of a simple processing architecture without iteration with an estimation accuracy greater than 90% for strong noise at 0 to 40dB SNR of the input image. Furthermore, the well restored image can be obtained using the estimated noise power information in parametric image restoration algorithms, such as the classical parametric Wiener or ForWaRD image restoration filters. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can estimate the noise power accurately, and is particularly suitable for fast, low-cost image restoration or enhancement applications.

Fast CU Decision Algorithm using the Initial CU Size Estimation and PU modes' RD Cost (초기 CU 크기 예측과 PU 모드 예측 비용을 이용한 고속 CU 결정 알고리즘)

  • Yoo, Hyang-Mi;Shin, Soo-Yeon;Suh, Jae-Won
    • Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.405-414
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    • 2014
  • High Efficiency Video Coding(HEVC) obtains high compression ratio by applying recursive quad-tree structured coding unit(CU). However, this recursive quad-tree structure brings very high computational complexity to HEVC encoder. In this paper, we present fast CU decision algorithm in recursive quad-tree structure. The proposed algorithm estimates initial CU size before CTU encoding and checks the proposed condition using Coded Block Flag(CBF) and Rate-distortion cost to achieve the fast encoding time saving. And, intra mode estimation is also possible to be skipped using the CBF values acquired during the inter PU mode estimations. Experiment results shows that the proposed algorithm saved about 49.91% and 37.97% of encoding time according to the weighting condition.

Fast Coding Mode Decision for Temporal Scalability in H.264/AVC Scalable Extension (시간적 계층에서의 스케일러블 부호화 고속 모드 결정 방법)

  • Jeon, Byeungwoo
    • The Journal of Korea Institute of Information, Electronics, and Communication Technology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.71-75
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    • 2013
  • Recently proliferating heterogeneous multimedia service environments should be able to deal with many different transmission speeds, image sizes, or qualities of video. However, not many existing video compression standards satisfy those necessities. To satisfy the functional requirements, the standardization of the H.264/AVC Scalable Extension (SE) technique has been recently completed. It is an extension of the H.264/AVC which can encode several image sizes and qualities at the same time as a single bitstream. To perform optimum mode decision, motion estimation is performed for all MB modes, and the RD costs are compared to identify an MB mode with the smallest RD cost. This increases computational complexity of H.264/AVC SE encoding. In this paper, we propose an early skip mode detection scheme to reduce candidate modes and suggest an algorithm of fast mode decision utilizing reference modes according to the mode history.