• Title, Summary, Keyword: RF Transmission

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Effect of Variety and Shading Material on Growth Characteristics and Ginsenoside Contents of 2-Year-Old Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) Grown in Imperfectly Drained Paddy Soil (배수약간불량 논토양에서 품종 및 해가림 피복물 종류가 2년생 인삼의 생육과 진세노사이드 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sung-Woo;Yeon, Byeong-Yeol;Kim, Chung-Guk;Shin, Yoo-Su;Hyun, Dong-Yun;Kang, Seung-Won;Cha, Seon-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.434-438
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    • 2008
  • To selection of optimal shading material, two-year-old ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) of new cultivar, 'Cheonpoong' (CP), and native species 'Hwangsookjong' (HS) were cultured under three kinds of shading materials such as three-layered blue and a one-layered black PE (polyethylene) net (TBSB), blue PE sheet (BS), and aluminium coated PE sheet (AS) in imperfectly drained paddy soil. Growth characteristics, yield and ginsenoside contents were investigated under three shading materials. Yield and ginsenoside contents of ginseng were distinctly affected by intensity and quality of sunlight penetrated through shading materials. Light transmission ratio, air and soil temperature according to shading materials were higher in order of BS, AS, and TBSB. However, ratio of aerial phase and porosity of the soil were higher in order of AS, BS, and TBSB, respectively. There was no significantly difference in the ratio of rusty colored root by shading materials. CP showed higher stem length, leaf area, and root weight than that of HS, while the former showed distinctly lower discolored leaf ratio than that the other. Eight kinds of ginsenosides content of CP were higher than that of HS in $Rg_1$, Re, Rf, $Rb_1$ and Rc except $Rg_2$, $Rb_2$, and $Rb_3$. Total ginsenoside contents of CP was distinctly higher than that of HS. Total ginsenoside contents as affected by shading materials was higher in order of BS, TBSB, and AS in CP, while TBSB, BS, and AS in HS.

Minimal Sampling Rate for Quasi-Memoryless Power Amplifiers (전력증폭기 모델링을 위한 최소 샘플링 주파수 연구)

  • Park, Young-Cheol
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.185-190
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    • 2007
  • In this paper, minimum sampling rates and method of nonlinear characterization were suggested for low power, quasi-memoryless PAs. So far, the Nyquist rate of the input signal has been used for nonlinear PA modeling, and it is burdening Analog-to-digital converters for wideband signals. This paper shows that the input Nyquist rate sampling is not a necessary condition for successful modeling of quasi-memoryless PAs. Since this sampling requirement relives the bandwidth requirements for Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for feedback paths in digital pre-distortion systems, relatively low-cost ADcs can be used to identify nonlinear PAs for wideband signal transmission, even at severe aliasing conditions. Simulation results show that a generic memoryless nonlinear RF power amplifier with AMAM and AMPM distortion can be successfully identified at any sampling rates. Measurement results show the modeling error variation is less than 0.8dB over any sampling rates.

A Study on the standardization of ETCS (Focused on RF) (자동요금징수시스템(ETCS) 표준화 연구(주파수방식을 중심으로))

  • Kwon, Han-Joon;Lee, Ki-Hyun;Kim, Yong-Deak
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.62-73
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, domestic standard revision plan of dynamic frequency method which is used both in unmanned automatic toll collection system and manned collection system of the express highway is presented. For such ETCS, the infrared rays (870 nm) of active frequency method and the frequency integrated method (5.8 GHz) are adopted and extended to be operated to the all around the Toll Gate. This standardization plan is based on inter connection reference model between OSI (Open System Interconnection) in process of ITS short range radio communication standardization of 5.8 GHz bandwidth to support traffic information and control system service, and the derived revision plan by starting from physical layer which support interoperability for multiple access between RSE (Road Side Equipment) and OBE (On Board Equipment), in which is categorized into physical layer, data link layer, and application layer. In case of radiation power, existing standard is divided by class1 (within 10 m) and Class2 (within 100 m) according to transmission lengthwhile it is operated with just single standard 'Class1' because of notification of Ministry of Information and Communication in 2004. In the case of the limitation value of incident power in communication area, considering operation plan of ETCS that is on actuality operation the measurements are reflected to the standard. In other wort this paper proposed the improvement standard of incident power, pseudo response in the communication area and radiated power in order to secure stability and compatibility among operator systems about the needed part on ETCS operation.

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Implementation of an Efficient Slotted CSMA/CA Anti-collision Protocol for Active RFID System (능동형 RFID 시스템을 위한 효율적인 Slotted CSMA/CA 충돌방지 프로토콜의 구현)

  • Joo, Jin-Hoon;Chung, Sang-Hwa
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.37A no.12
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    • pp.1013-1022
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    • 2012
  • Tag collection is one of the major concerns in radio frequency identification(RFID) system. All tags in RFID reader's transmission range send response message back to the reader in response to collection request message on the given rf channel. When multiple tags respond simultaneously, tag-collision may occur. Tag-collision problem is one of the most important issues in active RFID performance. To mitigate this problem, frame slotted ALOHA(FSA) anti-collision protocol is widely used in active RFID system. Several studies show that the maximum system efficiency of FSA anti-collision protocol is 36.8%. In this paper, we propose an efficient slotted CSMA/CA protocol to improve tag collection performance. We compare our protocol to the FSA anti-collision protocol. For the experiment, an 433MHz active RFID system is implemented, which is composed of an RFID reader and multiple tags. We evaluated the tag collection performance using one RFID reader and 40 tags in the real test bed. The experimental result shows that proposed protocol improves the tag collection time, round and collision probability by 18%, 37.4% and 77.8%, respectively.

Schottky Contact Application을 위한 Yb Germanides 형성 및 특성에 관한 연구

  • Na, Se-Gwon;Gang, Jun-Gu;Choe, Ju-Yun;Lee, Seok-Hui;Kim, Hyeong-Seop;Lee, Hu-Jeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.399-399
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    • 2013
  • Metal silicides는 Si 기반의microelectronic devices의 interconnect와 contact 물질 등에 사용하기 위하여 그 형성 mechanism과 전기적 특성에 대한 연구가 많이 이루어지고 있다. 이 중 Rare-earth(RE) silicides는 저온에서 silicides를 형성하고, n-type Si과 낮은 Schottky Barrier contact (~0.3 eV)을 이룬다. 또한 낮은 resistivity와 Si과의 작은 lattice mismatch, 그리고 epitaxial growth의 가능성, 높은 thermal stability 등의 장점을 갖고 있다. RE silicides 중 ytterbium silicide는 가장 낮은 electric work function을 갖고 있어 n-channel schottky barrier MOSFETs의 source/drain으로 주목받고 있다. 또한 Silicon 기반의 CMOSFETs의 성능 향상 한계로 인하여 germanium 기반의 소자에 대한 연구가 이루어져 왔다. Ge 기반 FETs 제작을 위해서는 낮은 source/drain series/contact resistances의 contact을 형성해야 한다. 본 연구에서는 저접촉 저항 contact material로서 ytterbium germanide의 가능성에 대해 고찰하고자 하였다. HRTEM과 EDS를 이용하여 ytterbium germanide의 미세구조 분석과 면저항 및 Schottky Barrier Heights 등의 전기적 특성 분석을 진행하였다. Low doped n-type Ge (100) wafer를 1%의 hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution에 세정하여 native oxide layer를 제거하고, 고진공에서 RF sputtering 법을 이용하여 ytterbium 30 nm를 먼저 증착하고, 그 위에 ytterbium의 oxidation을 방지하기 위한 capping layer로 100 nm 두께의 TiN을 증착하였다. 증착 후, rapid thermal anneal (RTA)을 이용하여 N2 분위기에서 $300{\sim}700^{\circ}C$에서 각각 1분간 열처리하여 ytterbium germanides를 형성하였다. Ytterbium germanide의 미세구조 분석은 transmission electron microscopy (JEM-2100F)을 이용하였다. 면 저항 측정을 위해 sulfuric acid와 hydrogen peroxide solution (H2SO4:H2O2=6:1)에서 strip을 진행하여 TiN과 unreacted Yb을 제거하였고, 4-point probe를 통하여 측정하였다. Yb germanides의 면저항은 열처리 온도 증가에 따라 감소하다 증가하는 경향을 보이고, $400{\sim}500^{\circ}C$에서 가장 작은 면저항을 나타내었다. HRTEM 분석 결과, deposition 과정에서 Yb과 Si의 intermixing이 일어나 amorphous layer가 존재하였고, 열처리 온도가 증가하면서 diffusion이 더 활발히 일어나 amorphous layer의 두께가 증가하였다. $350^{\circ}C$ 열처리 샘플에서 germanide/Ge interface에서 epitaxial 구조의 crystalline Yb germanide가 형성되었고, EDS 측정 및 diffraction pattern을 통하여 안정상인 YbGe2-X phase임을 확인하였다. 이러한 epitaxial growth는 면저항의 감소를 가져왔으며, 열처리 온도가 증가하면서 epitaxial layer가 증가하다가 고온에서 polycrystalline 구조의 Yb germanide가 형성되어 면저항의 증가를 가져왔다. Schottky Barrier Heights 측정 결과 또한 면저항 경향과 동일하게 열처리 증가에 따라 감소하다가 고온에서 다시 증가하였다.

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RF and Optical properties of Graphene Oxide

  • Im, Ju-Hwan;Rani, J.R.;Yun, Hyeong-Seo;O, Ju-Yeong;Jeong, Yeong-Mo;Park, Hyeong-Gu;Jeon, Seong-Chan
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.68.1-68.1
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    • 2012
  • The best part of graphene is - charge-carriers in it are mass less particles which move in near relativistic speeds. Comparing to other materials, electrons in graphene travel much faster - at speeds of $10^8cm/s$. A graphene sheet is pure enough to ensure that electrons can travel a fair distance before colliding. Electronic devices few nanometers long that would be able to transmit charge at breath taking speeds for a fraction of power compared to present day CMOS transistors. Many researches try to check a possibility to make it a perfect replacement for silicon based devices. Graphene has shown high potential to be used as interconnects in the field of high frequency electrical devices. With all those advantages of graphene, we demonstrate characteristics of electrical and optical properties of graphene such as the effect of graphene geometry on the microwave properties using the measurements of S-parameter in range of 500 MHz - 40 GHz at room temperature condition. We confirm that impedance and resistance decrease with increasing the number of graphene layer and w/L ratio. This result shows proper geometry of graphene to be used as high frequency interconnects. This study also presents the optical properties of graphene oxide (GO), which were deposited in different substrate, or influenced by oxygen plasma, were confirmed using different characterization techniques. 4-6 layers of the polycrystalline GO layers, which were confirmed by High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction analysis, were shown short range order of crystallization by the substrate as well as interlayer effect with an increase in interplanar spacing, which can be attributed to the presence of oxygen functional groups on its layers. X-ray photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of the $sp^2$ and $sp^3$ hybridization due to the disordered crystal structures of the carbon atoms results from oxidation, and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and XPS analysis shows the changes in oxygen functional groups with nature of substrate. Moreover, the photoluminescent (PL) peak emission wavelength varies with substrate and the broad energy level distribution produces excitation dependent PL emission in a broad wavelength ranging from 400 to 650 nm. The structural and optical properties of oxygen plasma treated GO films for possible optoelectronic applications were also investigated using various characterization techniques. HRTEM and electron diffraction analysis confirmed that the oxygen plasma treatment results short range order crystallization in GO films with an increase in interplanar spacing, which can be attributed to the presence of oxygen functional groups. In addition, Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of the $sp^2$ and $sp^3$ hybridization due to the disordered crystal structures of the carbon atoms results from oxidation and XPS analysis shows that epoxy pairs convert to more stable C=O and O-C=O groups with oxygen plasma treatment. The broad energy level distribution resulting from the broad size distribution of the $sp^2$ clusters produces excitation dependent PL emission in a broad wavelength range from 400 to 650 nm. Our results suggest that substrate influenced, or oxygen treatment GO has higher potential for future optoelectronic devices by its various optical properties and visible PL emission.

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A development of DS/CDMA MODEM architecture and its implementation (DS/CDMA 모뎀 구조와 ASIC Chip Set 개발)

  • 김제우;박종현;김석중;심복태;이홍직
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.1210-1230
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    • 1997
  • In this paper, we suggest an architecture of DS/CDMA tranceiver composed of one pilot channel used as reference and multiple traffic channels. The pilot channel-an unmodulated PN code-is used as the reference signal for synchronization of PN code and data demondulation. The coherent demodulation architecture is also exploited for the reverse link as well as for the forward link. Here are the characteristics of the suggested DS/CDMA system. First, we suggest an interlaced quadrature spreading(IQS) method. In this method, the PN coe for I-phase 1st channel is used for Q-phase 2nd channels and the PN code for Q-phase 1st channel is used for I-phase 2nd channel, and so on-which is quite different from the eisting spreading schemes of DS/CDMA systems, such as IS-95 digital CDMA cellular or W-CDMA for PCS. By doing IQS spreading, we can drastically reduce the zero crossing rate of the RF signals. Second, we introduce an adaptive threshold setting for the synchronization of PN code, an initial acquistion method that uses a single PN code generator and reduces the acquistion time by a half compared the existing ones, and exploit the state machines to reduce the reacquistion time Third, various kinds of functions, such as automatic frequency control(AFC), automatic level control(ALC), bit-error-rate(BER) estimator, and spectral shaping for reducing the adjacent channel interference, are introduced to improve the system performance. Fourth, we designed and implemented the DS/CDMA MODEM to be used for variable transmission rate applications-from 16Kbps to 1.024Mbps. We developed and confirmed the DS/CDMA MODEM architecture through mathematical analysis and various kind of simulations. The ASIC design was done using VHDL coding and synthesis. To cope with several different kinds of applications, we developed transmitter and receiver ASICs separately. While a single transmitter or receiver ASC contains three channels (one for the pilot and the others for the traffic channels), by combining several transmitter ASICs, we can expand the number of channels up to 64. The ASICs are now under use for implementing a line-of-sight (LOS) radio equipment.

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