• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rain

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Comparison of the Properties of Yeongdong and Yeongseo Heavy Rain (영동과 영서 호우의 특성 비교)

  • Kwon, Tae-Yong;Kim, Jae-Sik;Kim, Byung-Gon
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.245-264
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    • 2013
  • Heavy rain over the Gangwon region has distinct characteristics in the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall, most of which are concentrated on a very short period of time and either part of Yeongdong and Yeongseo regions. According to its regional distribution, heavy rain events over the Gangwon region may be classified into Yeongdong and Yeongseo heavy rain in which rainfalls of more than 110 mm $(6 hrs)^{-1}$ (heavy rain warning) have been observed in at least one of the weather stations over only Yeongdong or Yeongseo region, but over the other region the rainfalls are less than 70 mm $(6 hrs)^{-1}$ (heavy rain advisory). To differentiate between Yeongdong and Yeongseo heavy rain, 9 cases for Yeongdong heavy rain and 8 cases for Yeongseo heavy rain are examined on their synoptic and mesoscale environments using some meteorological parameters and ingredients. In addition, 8 cases are examined in which heavy rain warning or advisory are issued in both Yeongdong and Yeongseo regions. The cases for each heavy rain type have shown largely similar features in some meteorological parameters and ingredients. Based on an ingredient analysis, there are three common and basic ingredients for the three heavy rain types: instability, moisture, and lift. However, it is found that the distinct and important process producing strong upward vertical motions may discriminate among three heavy rain types very well. Yeongdong heavy rain is characterized by strong orographic lifting, Yeongseo heavy rain by high instability (high CAPE), and heavy rain over both regions by strong synoptic-scale ascent (strong 850 hPa Q-Vector convergence, diagnostics for ascent). These ingredients and diagnostics for the ingredients can be used to forecasting the potential for regional heavy rain. And also by knowing which of ingredients is important for each heavy rain type, forecasters can concentrate on only a few ingredients from numerous diagnostic and prognostic products for forecasting heavy rain events.

Rain Detection via Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (심층 컨볼루셔널 신경망 기반의 빗줄기 검출 기법)

  • Son, Chang-Hwan
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.54 no.8
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2017
  • This paper proposes a method of detecting rain regions from a single image. More specifically, a way of training the deep convolutional neural network based on the collected rain and non-rain patches is presented in a supervised manner. It is also shown that the proposed rain detection method based on deep convolutional neural network can provide better performance than the conventional rain detection method based on dictionary learning. Moreover, it is confirmed that the application of the proposed rain detection for rain removal can lead to some improvement in detail representation on the low-frequency regions of the rain-removed images. Additionally, this paper introduces the rain transfer method that inserts rain patterns into original images, thereby producing rain effects on the resulting images. The proposed rain transfer method could be used to augment rain patterns while constructing rain database.

An Understanding of Elementary School Students on the Acid-Base, Acid Rain and Soil Acidification (초등학생들의 산-염기, 산성비, 토양산성화에 대한 이해)

  • KIM, Sung-Kyu
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1764-1782
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the understanding on the acid-base, acid rain and soil acidification of the elementary students. The participants in the current study were 280 6th graders from a elementary school in Gyeongnam Province. A questionnaire consists of four categories: understanding of (a) acid-base basic knowledge, (b) acid rain and (c) soil acidification. (d) In addition, students were asked to comment about the introduction of the acid rain experiment in the science textbook. The results are as follows; First, the results regarding acid-base basic knowledge. They know the classification, characteristics, and properties of acid-based solutions well but they don't know the acid-base neutralization, examples using properties and application in real life. Second, the results regarding acid rain, students know the definition and damage of acid rain but they don't know the causing substances, emission source and way of solution of acid rain for lack of knowledge. Third, the results regarding soil acidification was the well-known part for the students because they had continued learning about the soil from the lesson of acid rain. Also, we looked into the difference in gender and region about the understanding of acid-base, acid rain and soil acidification. According to the gender of the data about the understanding of acid-base, acid rain and soil acidification, the percentage of correct answers of female was higher than male's. Also we expected that urban students were higher than rural students on the understanding of acid-base, acid rain and soil acidification, but the understanding of urban students were similar to rural students. Fourth, we got positive answers and negative answers to the introduction of acid rain experiment. Most of the positive opinion were I want to know a lot acid rain experiment", followed by "It is possible to prevent the risk of the damage and It seems to having fun and new order. Most of the negative opinion were Acid rain experiment may be difficult and complicated followed by Just a theory in the book is enough, Acid rain experiment were boring and not fun, Acid rain experiment is dangerous, There are many to study in this order.

Effect of Threshold on the Comparison of Radar and Rain Gauge Rain Rate (레이더 강우와 지상강우 비교에 대한 임계값의 영향 평가)

  • Yoon, Jungsoo;Ha, Eunho;Yoo, Chulsang
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.522-522
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the effect of threshold applied to the radar rain rate on the comparison of the radar and rain gauge rain rate was theoretically examined. The result derived was also evaluated theoretically, using the Bernoulli random field, and empirically, using Mt. Kwanak weather radar data. The results are summarized as follows. (1) In the application to the Bernoulli random field, it was found that the comparison of the radar and rain gauge rain rate with threshold does not introduce any systematic bias. (2) The same results could also be derived in the application to Mt Kwanak weather radar data. In all cases with several radar bin sizes and thresholds considered, the bias was estimated to be far less than 10% of the mean of the rain gauge rain rate. (3) However, in the comparison with threshold applied to both the radar and rain gauge rain rate, the bias was estimated to be higher than 20%. That is, the systematic bias was introduced. This result indicates that the comparison with threshold applied to both the radar and rain gauge rain rate should not be used.

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An Analysis of Radio Interference in the Rain Radars (강우 레이더 전파간섭 분석)

  • Kim, Young-Wan
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2013
  • The interference among the rain radars and interference in the adjacent wireless station due to the spurious signals from the rain radar were analyzed in this paper. The rain radar measures the rain intensity using S-band signal. The measured data are utilized in forecasting the rainfall. The interference among the rain radars or in the adjacent wireless stations may be caused by the operation with low elevation angle and the high output power. Based on the propagation analysis of S band signal and the deduced interference protection ratio of rain radar, the interference due to the rain radar are analyzed. Also, the radiation spectrum characteristics of a rain radar are deduced from the caused interference effects by the spurious signals of the rain radar. To minimize the interference effects for adjacent wireless stations, it is required to get the rejection characteristics of spurious signals above 105 dB. In viewpoints of interference for rain radars, it is necessary to operate the rain radar with a different PRF and operation time opposite to adjacent rain radars.

Prediction Model of Rain Attenuation for Ka-Band Satellite Communication (Ka-대역 위성 통신의 위한 강우에 의한 전파 감쇠 예측 모델)

  • 우병훈;강희조
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.6 no.7
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    • pp.1038-1043
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    • 2002
  • The demand for multimedia service using Ka-band satellite communication are growing rapi이y. So, in this paper, we have analyzed rain attenuation with typical model, and proposed prediction model of rain attenuation in high frequency(over 20[GHz]). Path loss model by rain attenuation is based upon rain rate of representative region(6 cities). Proposed prediction model of rain attenuation and parameter of satellite link can be available for the Ka-band satellite communication.

Analysis of Interference Protection among the Rain Radars (강우 레이더 전파간섭 분석)

  • Na, Sang-Kuen;Kim, Kun-Joong;Ji, Seg-Kuen;Kim, Young-Wan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.553-556
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    • 2012
  • The interference among the rain radars and interference in the adjacent wireless station due to the spurious signals from the rain radar were analyzed in this paper. The rain radar measures the rain intensity using S-band signal. The measured data are utilized in forecasting the rainfall. The interference among the rain radars or in the adjacent wireless stations may be caused by the high output power of rain radar. Based on the propagation analysis of S band signal and the deduced interference protection ratio of rain radar, the interference due to the rain radar are analyzed. Also, the radiation spectrum characteristics of a rain radar are deduced from the caused interference effects by the spurious signals of the rain radar.

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A Theoretical Study on Wet Scavenging of Atmospheric Aerosols by Rain Drops (대기에어로졸 입자의 이론적 강수세정에 관한 연구)

  • 박정호;최금찬
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1999
  • In this work, a theoretical model has been formulated which allows the study of the scavenging efficiencies of aerosol particles by the rain drops. Aerosol particles are scavenged by the simultaneous brownian diffusion, interception and inertial impaction force. In addition the calculations based on the collision efficiency model are carried out for the collision of aerosol particles with diameter range 0.01~30 $mu extrm{m}$ and rain drops with diameter 0.02$\times$$2^{n/3}$(n=1, 2, …, 17)cm. The results indicate that: (1) the below-cloud scavenging affects mainly the coarse particles (>3 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$), the fine particles remaining almost unchanged; (2) the scavenging efficiencies by below-cloud in the heavy rain (rain intensity, 10 mm/hr) surpass the efficiency found in the drizzle rain (rain intensity, 1 mm/hr).

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Experimental Studies on Wet Scavenging of Atmospheric Aerosols by Rain Drops

  • Park Jeong-Ho;Suh Jeong-Min;Choi Kum-Chan
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.21 no.E3
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2005
  • Wet scavenging by rain drops is a most important removal process of air pollutants. In order to study the scavenging mechanisms of aerosol particles, the characteristics of chemical components in the rain water were examined as a function of the amount of rainfall. Rain water were collected continuously and separated into the soluble and insoluble components. The elemental concentrations in both components were determined by a PIXE analysis. The physical and chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols during the rainfall events were measured simultaneously. The elemental concentrations in rain water decreased substantially just after rain started and then gradually declined in subsequential rain fall exceeding 1.0 mm. The large particles were scavenged more easily than the fine particles. Fe, Ti and Si in rain water were in high insoluble state. Contrarily, almost whole of S was dissolved in rain water.

A Methodology for Rain Gauge Network Evaluation Considering the Altitude of Rain Gauge (강우관측소의 설치고도를 고려한 강우관측망 평가방안)

  • Lee, Ji Ho;Jun, Hwan Don
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.113-124
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    • 2014
  • The observed rainfall may be different along with the altitude of rain gauge, resulting in the fact that the characteristics of rainfall events occurred in urban or mountainous areas are different. Due to the mountainous effects, in higher altitude, the uncertainty involved in the rainfall observation gets higher so that the density of rain gauges should be more dense. Basically, a methodology for the rain gauge network evaluation, considering this altitude effect of rain gauges can account for the mountainous effects and becomes an important step for forecasting flash flood and calibrating of the radar rainfall. For this reason, in this study, we suggest a methodology for rain gauge network evaluation with consideration of the rain gauge's altitude. To explore the density of rain gauges at each level of altitude, the Equal-Altitude-Ratio of the density of rain gauges, which is based on the fixed amount of elevation and the Equal-Area-Ratio of the density of rain gauges, which is based on the fixed amount of basin area are designed. After these two methods are applied to a real watershed, it is found that the Equal-Area-Ratio generates better results for evaluation of a rain gauge network with consideration of rain gauge's altitude than the Equal-Altitude-Ratio does. In addition, for comparison between the soundness of rain gauge networks in other watersheds, the Coefficient of Variation (CV) of the rain gauge density by the Equal-Area-Ratio is served as the index for the evenness of the distribution of the rain gauge's altitude. The suggested method is applied to the five large watersheds in Korea and it is found that rain gauges installed in a watershed having less value of the CV shows more evenly distributed than the ones in a watershed having higher value of the CV.