• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ramp Sequence

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Space-time-dissociated differential sedimentation and its relationship with the rate of relative sea-level change: the Lower Ordovician Mungok Formation, Korea

  • Choi Yong Seok;Lee Yong Il
    • 한국석유지질학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.14-30
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    • 2000
  • Hierarchically controlled sequence stratigraphic analysis shows that the Lower Ordovician mixed carbonate-siliciclastic Mungok Formation, Korea consists of three depositional sequences: T1, T2, and T3. Sequence boundaries are generally marked by abrupt transition from coarse-grained shallow-water carbonates to fine-grained deeper-water carbonates mixed with fine-grained siliciclastics, and show indication of subaerial exposure such as karstification. Within this sequence stratigraphic framework, facies characteristics indicate that the Mungok sequences were mostly deposited in subtidal ramp environments. High-frequency cycles consist of upward-shallowing facies successions. Cycles of shallow-water and basinal deposits are not represented well, probably due to cycle amalgamation. Cycle stacking patterns do not show a consistent thickness change that reflects a large-scale sea-level change due to unfilled accommodation space. The Mungok sequences show that many factors including relative sea-level change and topography are involved in controlling sequence development on carbonate ramps. The depositional setting evolved from the high-energy ramps in the sequences T1 and T2 into the low-energy ramp in the sequence T3. Topography is interpreted to have been responsible for the different energy regimes of the carbonate ramps in the Mungok sequences. The high ramp gradient in the sequences T1 and T2 seems to be caused by space-time-dissociated differential sedimentation resulting in spatially narrow distribution of sediment filling, which in turn may be related to high rate of relative sea-level change. In contrast, low ramp gradient was maintained in the sequence T3 during slow changes of relative sea level resulting in broad distribution of sediment filling.

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Facies and sequence analysis on the Lower Ordovician Mungok Formation (전기 오오도비스기 문곡층의 시퀀스 및 상 분석)

  • Choi Yong Seok;Lee Yong Il
    • The Korean Journal of Petroleum Geology
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    • v.9 no.1_2
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2001
  • Hierarchically controlled sequence stratigraphic analysis shows that the Lower Ordovician mixed carbonatesiliciclastic Mungok Formation, Korea consists of three depositional sequences: T1, T2, and T3 in ascending order. Sequence boundaries are generally marked by abrupt transition from coarse-grained shallow-water carbonates to finegrained deeper-water carbonates mixed with fine-grained siliciclastics, and show indication of subaerial exposure such as karstification. Within this sequence stratigraphic framework, facies characteristics indicate that the Mungok sequences were mostly deposited on a subtidal ramp without slope break. The Mungok ramp had been under the influence of frequent tropical storm activity during deposition. The difference in lithology of tempestites seems to have been controlled by the nature of substrates and by proximality. High-frequency cycles consist of upward-shallowing facies successions. Cycles of shallow-water and basinal deposits are not well represented, probably due to cycle amalgamation. Cycle stacking patterns do not show a consistent thickness change that is usually associated with a large-scale sea-level change probably because of unfilled accommodation space.

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Stable Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy of the Cambrian Machari Formation in the Yeongweol Area, Gangweon Province, Korea

  • Chung, Gong-Soo;Lee, Jeong-Gu;Lee, Kwang-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.437-452
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    • 2011
  • The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) is found in the Machari Formation which was interpreted to have been deposited on the middle to outer carbonate ramp environment. The Machari Formation is the Middle to Late Cambrian in age and distributed in the Yeongweol area, Gangweon Province, Korea. The SPICE event in the Machari Formation begins with the first appearance datum of trilobite Glyptagnostus reticulatus and ends with the first appearance of datum of trilobite Irvingella. The SPICE is found in approximately 120 m thick sequence and ${\delta}^{13}C$ values in the SPICE interval range from 0.6 to 4.4‰. The SPICE in the Machari Formation is interpreted to be caused by burial of organic matter in the sea floor and subsequent increase of $^{13}C$ isotope of the Late Cambrian ocean. The SPICE interval in the Machari Formation corresponds to the highstand to transgressive systems tracts.

Supervised Shutdown of an Off-shore Wind Farm to meet the Grid Code in a Storm-driven Situation (강풍 시 전력망 연계기준을 만족하는 해상풍력발전단지 강제종료 방법)

  • You, Yue;Kim, Yeon-Hee;Zheng, Tai-Ying;Kang, Yong-Cheol
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.60 no.7
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    • pp.1299-1304
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    • 2011
  • A wind turbine (WT) should be shut down as fast as possible to minimize its own damage in a storm-driven situation. Shutdown of a large wind farm requires a power grid to have a ramp-up capability large enough to balance between generation and consumption of electrical energy. This paper proposes a supervised shutdown algorithm of a wind farm to meet a required ramp-down rate in a grid code in the case of a storm-driven situation. The information on the speed and the direction of wind is measured at a wind mast (WM) installed around a wind farm. If the wind speed exceeds a cut-out speed, the number of WTs to be shut down simultaneously is decided to meet a required ramp-down rate of a grid-code. Arrival times to each WT from the WM are calculated and sorted in the order of time. Then a sequence of groups is generated. The shutdown start/end times of each group are decided to avoid superposition between adjacent two groups. The performance of the proposed shutdown algorithm is verified under various storm scenarios. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm can not only protect the wind farm in the case of a storm-driven situation but also meet the required ramp-down rate. In addition, the algorithm can produce more energy than that of a conventional shutdown algorithm.

Fast MR Imaging Technique by Using Locally-Linear Gradient Field (부분적인 경사자계를 이용한 고속 자기공명 영상촬영기법)

  • 양윤정;이종권
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this paper is to propose a new localized imaging method of reduced imaging time luting a locally-linear gradient. Since most fast MR(Magnetic Resonance) imaging methods need the whole $\kappa$-space(Spatial frequency space) data corresponding to the whole imaging area, there are limitstions in reducing the minimum imaging time. The imaging method proposed in this paper uses a specially-made gradient coil generating a local ramp-shape field and uniform field outside of the imaging areal Conventional imaging sequences can be used without any RF/gradient pulse sequence modifiestions except the change in the number of encoding steps and the field of view.

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Design and Manufacture of FMCW Radar with Multi-Frequency Bandwidths (다중 대역폭을 갖는 FMCW 레이다 송수신기 설계 및 제작)

  • Hwang, Ji-hwan;Kim, Seung Hee;Kang, Ki-mook;Kim, Duk-Jin
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.377-387
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    • 2016
  • Design of X-band frequency FMCW based imaging radar with multi-resolutions and performances of the self-manufactured radar system are presented in this study. In order to implement the multi-bandwidths, a ramp sequence of the FMCW signal is consisting of two kinds of 'saw-tooth' waveform with different bandwidth, and a receiver circuit consisting of L-band source and frequency converter circuit is used to effectively extract spectra of beat-frequency from the received signal of X-band frequency. The system setups for performance measurement of self-manufactured radar system are maximum output power of 35 dBm, sampling frequency of 1.2 MHz and sweep time of 1 ms. Then, the measured resolutions of the modulated signal having bandwidth of 500 MHz and 300 MHz in range & azimuth-direction are (0.28 m, 0.26 m) and (0.44 m, 0.27 m), respectively.

Sequence Stratigraphy of the Yeongweol Group (Cambrian-Ordovician), Taebaeksan Basin, Korea: Paleogeographic Implications (전기고생대 태백산분지 영월층군의 순차층서 연구를 통한 고지리적 추론)

  • Kwon, Y.K.
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.317-333
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    • 2012
  • The Yeongweol Group is a Lower Paleozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequence in the Taebaeksan Basin of Korea, and consists of five lithologic formations: Sambangsan, Machari, Wagok, Mungok, and Yeongheung in ascending order. Sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the group indicates that initial flooding in the Yeongweol area of the Taebaeksan Basin resulted in basal siliciclastic-dominated sequences of the Sambangsan Formation during the Middle Cambrian. The accelerated sea-level rise in the late Middle to early Late Cambrian generated a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic slope or deep ramp sequence of shale, grainstone and breccia intercalations, representing the lower part of the Machari Formation. The continued rise of sea level in the Late Cambrian made substantial accommodation space and activated subtidal carbonate factory, forming carbonate-dominated subtidal platform sequence in the middle and upper parts of the Machari Formation. The overlying Wagok Formation might originally be a ramp carbonate sequence of subtidal ribbon carbonates and marls with conglomerates, deposited during the normal rise of relative sea level in the late Late Cambrian. The formation was affected by unstable dolomitization shortly after the deposition during the relative sea-level fall in the latest Cambrian or earliest Ordovician. Subsequently, it was extensively dolomitized under the deep burial diagenetic condition. During the Early Ordovician (Tremadocian), global transgression (viz. Sauk) was continued, and subtidal ramp deposition was sustained in the Yeongweol platform, forming the Mungok Formation. The formation is overlain by the peritidal carbonates of the Yeongheung Formation, and is stacked by cyclic sedimentation during the Early to Middle Ordovician (Arenigian to Caradocian). The lithologic change from subtidal ramp to peritidal facies is preserved at the uppermost part of the Mungok Formation. The transition between Sauk and Tippecanoe sequences is recognized within the middle part of the Yeongheung Formation as a minimum accommodation zone. The global eustatic fall in the earliest Middle Ordovician and the ensuing rise of relative sea level during the Darrwillian to Caradocian produced broadly-prograding peritidal carbonates of shallowing-upward cyclic successions within the Yeongheung Formation. The reconstructed relative sea-level curve of the Yeongweol platform is very similar to that of the Taebaek platform. This reveals that the Yeongweol platform experienced same tectonic movements with the Taebaek platform, and consequently that both platform sequences might be located in a body or somewhere separately in the margin of the North China platform. The significant differences in lithologic and stratigraphic successions imply that the Yeongweol platform was much far from the Taebaek platform and not associated with the Taebaek platform as a single depositional system. The Yeongweol platform was probably located in relatively open shallow marine environments, whereas the Taebaek platform was a part of the restricted embayments. During the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic amalgamations of the Korean massifs, the Yeongweol platform was probably pushed against the Taebaek platform by the complex movement, forming fragmented platform sequences of the Taebaeksan Basin.

Characteristics of Image Sticking Observed During Background Display in AC-PDP (AC PDP의 배경광 잔상특성)

  • 류재화;임성현;김동현;김중균;이호준;박정후
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers C
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2004
  • In darkroom condition, it was observed that a white picture pattern lasted several minutes leaves a recognizable trace in subsequent black background picture. Although this is not a serious problem for the most current public display or home TV applications, the image sticking should be minimized for future high quality multimedia display applications. In order to characterize this picture memory effect having relatively long time scale, spatially resolved luminance measurement and light waveform measurement have been performed. Pixels located at the outer boundary of white pattern previously displayed shows highest luminance. These cells also shows fastest ignition at the ramp up reset sequence. The luminance and ignition voltage differences between boundary cells and the other cells are increased with display duration and number of sustain-pulse. It is speculated that image sticking observed at the boundary cell is originated from the transport of charged particles and re-deposition of reactive species such as Mg, O provided from strong sustain discharge region.

Localized MR Imaging Technique by Using Locally-Linear Gradient Field (부분적 경사자계를 이용한 국부자기공명 영상촬영기법)

  • Yang, Y.J.;Lee, J.K.;Jeong, S.T.;Cho, Z.H.;Oh, C.H.
    • Proceedings of the KOSOMBE Conference
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    • v.1995 no.11
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    • pp.247-249
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    • 1995
  • A new localized imaging technique of reduced imaging time using a locally-linear gradient is proposed. Since most fast MR imaging methods need the whole k-space data corresponding to the whole imaging area, there are limitations in reducing the minimum imaging time. The imaging method proposed in this paper uses a specially-made gradient coil generating a local ramp-shape field and uniform field outside of the imaging area. Conventional imaging sequences can be used without any RF/gradient pulse sequence modifications. The proposed localized imaging technique has been implemented on a 2.0 Tesla whole-body system at KAIST and the imaging results show the utility of the proposed technique.

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