Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
The effects of the fruiting body of Agaricus blazei Murill on the weight gains, food intakes, food efficiency ratios, serum and hepatic lipids concentrations were investigated in male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats, 21 weeks old, were given four different types of diets for a succeeding period of 10 weeks: either a normal diet (5% corn oil), a high fat diet (high fat; 20% lard), a 3% or 5% Agaricus diet (high fat diet+3% or 5% Agaricus powder). The body weight gains and food efficiency ratios of the rats fed 5% Agaricus diet were significantly lower than those of the rats fed high fat diet. The hepatic and kidney weights of the rats fed Agaricus diets were similar to those of the rats fed high fat diet. The epididymal fat pad weights of the rats fed 3% or 5% Agaricus diets were significantly lower than those of the rats fed high fat diet. The concentrations of hepatic and serum triglyceride in the rats fed 5% Agaricus diet were significantly lower than those in the rats fed high fat diet. But the hepatic total cholesterol of rats fed the 3% or 5% Agaricus diets were similar to those of rats fed the high fat diet. The concentrations of serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index in rats fed the 3% or 5% Agaricus diets were significantly decreased compared with those of rats fed the high fat diet. The HDL-cholesterol/total- cholesterol ratios of the rat fed 3% or 5% Agaricus diet were significantly increased compared with those of rats fed the high fat diet. There were no differences in serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and phospholipid among the experimental groups. These results showed that the 5% Agaricus diet feeding decreased the total cholesterol, the triglyceride, the LDL-cholesterol and the atherogenic index, and increased the HDL-cholesterol/total-cholesterol ratio in serum of rats.
This study was performed to observe the effects of dietary fat levels and sources on lipids contents and cellularities of liver, brain, and adipose tissue of early weaned rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were prematurely weaned from postnatal 17th day with the experimental diets differ in fat levels : low(5%), medium(10%), high(20%) and fat sources : butter, soybean oil, butter＋ soybean oil. On the postnatal 29th day, contents of total lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol and phospholipid of serum, liver, brain and adipose tissue were determined, and DNA was determined to assess the cell growth. Rats early weaned fed high fat diet showed lower total lipid and triglyceride levels in serum and liver than those fed medium or low fat diet Rats early weaned fed high fat diet had adipocytes of fewer number, but larger size than those of rats fed low or medium fat diets. Rats early weaned fed soybean oil diet had more adipocytes thu those fed butter diet. Rats normally weaned to commercial chow diet showed lower total lipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels in serum and liver, had fewer adipocytes than all early weaned rats except for rats fed high fat-butter diet. These results suggest that high fat-butter diet is ideal weaning diet at early weaning.
The effects of liquid culture of Agaricus blazei Murill on the weight gains, serum and hepatic lipid concentrations were studied in male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (7 weeks old) were given four different types of diets for 6 weeks, respectively: a normal diet group, a high fat control diet group (normal diet+15% lard +0.5% cholesterol), a 30% or 40% A. blazei diet groups (high fat control diet+30% or 40% A. blazei in water) according to the levels of A. blazei supplementation. The body weight gains, food intake, food efficiency ratios, and the liver, kidney, and epididymal fat pad weights of the rats fed 30% or 40% A. blazei diets were similar to those of the rats fed high fat control diet. The concentrations of serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index in rats fed the 30% or 40% A. blazei diets were significantly decreased compared with those of rats fed the high fat control diet. The HDL-cholesterol/total-cholesterol ratios of the rats fed 30% or 40% A. blazei diet were significantly increased compared with those of rats fed the high fat control diet. The fecal excretion of total lipid . in the rats fed 40% A. blazei diet was significantly increased compared with those of rats fed the high fat control diet. The concentrations of serum total lipid in the rats fed 40% A. blazei diet was significantly lower than that in the rats fed high fat control diet. But the concentrations of serum HDL-cholesterol, hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride of rats fed the 30 or 40% A. blazei diets were similar to those of rats fed the high fat control diet. These results showed that the 30 or 40% A. blazei diets feeding decreased the total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index, and increased the HDL-cholesterol/total-cholesterol ratio in serum of rats.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary grape skin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in rats fed high fat diet. The Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either control (5% fat) diet or high fat (25% fat) diet which was based on AIN-93 diet for 2 weeks, and then they were grouped as control group (C), control + 5% grape skin group (CS), high-fat group (HF), high fat + 5% grape skin group (HFS) with 10 rats each and fed corresponding diets for 4 weeks. The hepatic thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were increased in high fat group as compared with control group, but reduced by grape skin. The serum total antioxidant status, and activities of hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase, xanthine oxidase and glucose-6-phosphatase were increased by supplementation of grape skin. Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in CS group than in C group. Grape skin feeding tended to increase the concentration of total glutathione, especially in control group. The ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione was lower in high fat groups than in control groups. The ratio was increased by dietary supplementation of grape skin in control group. These results suggest that dietary supplementation of grape skin would be effective on protection of oxidative damage by lipid peroxidation through improvement of antioxidant defense system in rats fed high fat diet as well as rats with low fat diet.
This study was designed to investigate the effect of age on the lipid metabolism in the rats fed different diets. In experiment A male Wistar rats of 5 weeks of age and of 32 weeks of age were divided into low fat diet groups and high fat-cholesterol groups. The rats were sacrificed 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after experiment begins. Also after 4 weeks. the rats in low and high fat diet groups were tube-fed 500mg of choelsterol and were sacrified 3 days later. In experiment b, male Wistar rats of 4 weeks of age and of 6 months of age were divided into 2 groups of butter and cron oil groups. And then eachgroup were divided into 2 subgroups ; meal feeding and nibbling groups . Each diet was fed for 4 weeks. In experiment A, age of the rats and experimental diets did not affect the serum cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were higher in rats fed high fat cholesterol diet than in those fed low-fat or high -fat diets, but age of the animals had no effect on liver lipid content. The weight and cholesterol content of epidymal fat pad, however were higher in adult rats than in young ones regardless of the diets fed. When the rats were challenged with 500mg cholesterol, the rates of increase in serum and hepatic cholesterol level were higher in adult rats compared to young rats regardless of the diets . On the other hand, the rate of increase of small intestinal cholesterol content was lower in adult rats than in young rats. In experiment B, serum cholesterol and triglyceride content were relatively higher in young rats than adult ones. Stored body lipid was higher in adult rats, as judged by epididymal fat pad weight and total carcass lipid. Meal frequency and the kinds of fat in the diet did not affect the serum choelstero concentration . The serum triglyceride levels. however, was higher in butter fed rats thancron oil fed ones. The cholesterol content of live rand epididymal fat pad was lower in butter fed groups than corn oil groups for both young and adult rats, but there was no difference in liver triglycerides livel.
The adipose tissue hormone leptin has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of flood intake and energy expenditure via thermogenesis by uncoupling protein(UCP) in brown adipose tissue(BAT). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of high fat diet on the serum leptin levels, BAT UCPl expression and the body fat mass in rats after weaning. During experimental period of 12 weeks, 4 male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed for the baseline experiment at 4 weeks of age while the remaining rats were fed the two different diets: the control diet AIN-76A(n = 20), high fat(beef tallow) diet(n = 20) ad libitum, which provided 11.7% or 40% of calories as fat, respectively. At 16 weeks of age, the increase in the food efficiency ratio(FER) was related to fat mass in rats on high fat diet. Serum leptin level was increased by age and dietary high fat. There was no difference in serum insulin level between groups until 10 weeks of age, but rats fed high fat diet for 12 weeks showed hyperinsulinemia. The amount of body fat pads was increased significantly in high fat group compared to normal diet group. Visceral fat mass affected acutely by high fat diet, as a result, it was higher in rats fed high fat diet for 2 weeks than normal diet. At 16 weeks of age, BAT and visceral fat mass were significantly high in high fat group. Also, the serum leptin levels reflected the amount of body fat mass. BAT UCPI mRNA expression increased with age and dietary high fat. This study demonstrates that dietary high fat increased serum leptin levels, BAT UCPI expression and body fat mass. Futhermore, in rats fed high fat diets, the increases in leptin and UCPI expression counteracts only in part the excess adiposity and obesity.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
The effect of exercise and/or high fat diet on carnitine status and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I(CPT I) level were investigated in Weanling Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed an AIN 76 diet or a modified high fat AIN diet, supplemented with 35% corn oil, for 31 days. During the 31 day period half of the animals in each dietary group were exercised on a treadmill for 90 minutes per day. Carnitine concentrations were determined in plasma and liver and CPT I mRNA levels were measured by Northern blot analysis with CPT I cDNA probe in livers of rats. Exercise rats gained less weight than non exercised rats during the study for high fat diet group. Exercise rats had a higher plasma acid soluble acylcarnitine and acid insoluble acylcarnitine concnetrations than non exercised rats for normal diet group. Exercise or high fat diet increased liver carnitine concentration, but a mixed effect was not shown. In exercised rats, CPT I mRNA levels increased significantly relative to those of nonexercised rats. CPT I mRNA levels also increased when compared high fat fed rats with those of normal diet fed rats. These data suggest that there is a correlation between carnitine concen trations and CPT I mRNA levels and that CPT I can be regulated at the transcriptional level by exercise and/or high fat diet.
Objective: Ramulus mori (RM) has been known to be effective for the treatment of obesity. To show the effectiveness of RM in a more scientific way, RM extract was prepared and evaluated in high fat diet rats by measuring the changes of body weight and lipid metabolism as described briefly below. Methods: 200 g of crushed RM was extracted withmethyl alcohol. The extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to give 33.4 g. For 10 weeks, control group rats were fed a high fat diet, while the test group rats were fed with the same diet plus RM extract. The normal group was fed with a normal diet. 150 mg of RM extract per 1 kg of body weight was added to the diet in the test group rats. Results: The control group rats on the high fat diet gained weight significantly, whereas the test group rats on the high fat diet plus RM extract gamed less weight. The significant increase of liver weight caused by the high fat diet was also inhibited by the RM extract treatment. Total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels of serum in the high fat diet rats were remarkably increased, whereastheir levels on the high fat diet plus RM extract were less increased. While serum HDL-cholesterol levels were remarkably decreased in the high fat diet, its level was less decreased in the high fat diet plus RM extract. Furthermore, we observed that the activities of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase increased under the high fat diet, while their activities under the high fat diet plus RM extract were getting back nearly to the normal levels of the normal diet rats. Conclusions: These result show that the obesity caused by a high fat diet was effectively inhibited by an RM extract. Our results also showed that the abnormal lipid metabolism caused by a high fat diet was effectively cured by adding RM extract.
This study was designed to observe the effects of both control and atherogenic diets on the cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in serum and liver of adult rats fed diets supplying two levels of dietary fat and two different sources of dietary protein in early life. For the first experimental period, the rats were assigned into the four diet groups: High fat, casein (HC); High fat, gluten (HG); Low fat, casein (LC): Low fat, gluten (LG). Each group was subdivided into control and atherogenic groups for the second experimental period. Cholesterol and TG were determined in serum and liver after 7 hr fasting. The body weight gain was greater in the rats of the casein groups than those of the gluten groups tut not influenced by the level of the dietary fat. The difference in body weight from the quality of dietary protein in the first period was not disappeared even after the second period. After the first period, higher serum cholesterol was observed in the rats fed either casein or high fat diets. With the second experimental diet, rats fed atherogenic diet showed higher serum cholesterol concentration but lower serum TG levels compared to those fed control diet, regardless the diets fed in the first period. Serum cholesterol level of the rats of both groups which had been fed high fat diets in early life was increased compared to those of the low fat diet groups. This effect was more pronounced with the atherogenic diet groups than control groups. However, no differences were found in serum cholesterol levels resulted from the different types of dietary protein fed in the first period. Serum TG concentration was not influenced by the quality of protein and level of fat in the diet but seemed to be mere affected by the amount of carbohyrates in the diet. Liver cholesterol per unit weight was greater in the gluten diet groups than in the casein groups but total cholesterol was higher in casein fed rats. There were no differences in liver TG among the groups.
Acanthopanax senticosus was grown by a novel, proprietary method, of culturing isolated cells in a bioreactor. An extract from the cells was evaluated for its effect on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n＝6) were fed either an AIN-76 diet (control, NDCon), control diet plus Acanthopanax senticosus extract (ND＋Ex), a modified AIN-76 diet supplemented with 20% beef tallow (high fat, HFCon), or a high fat diet plus Acanthopanax senticosus extract (HF＋Ex), for 5weeks. Body weight gain was significantly higher in the HFCon group than the NDCon group. Feed consumption was significantly lower, but energy intake higher, in the groups fed high fat diets compared with the groups fed control diets. Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly increased but serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations were decreased in the groups fed the Acanthopanax senticosus extract. Abdominal fat accumulation and serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the HFCon group than the other groups. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) mRNA levels were increased in the groups fed Acanthopanx senticosus extract. These results suggest that supplementation of cell cultured Acanthopanax senticosus extract regulates CPT-I mRNA levels in liver and has an effect on the normalization of lipids in rats fed a high fat diet.
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