• Title, Summary, Keyword: Reactor

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Performance of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor Depending on Reactor Configuration and Sludge Bed Fluidization (반응조 형태 및 슬러지층 유동화 특성에 따른 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) 반응조의 운전효율)

  • Jeong Byung-Gon
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2006
  • Effect of organic loading rate on UASB performance was evaluated under the renditions of some surface area/reactor volume ratio and different reactor diameter. At the low leading rate of 0.4 kg $COD/m^3{\cdot}d$, reactor performance was not affected by reactor diameter. At the organic loading rate of 6 kg $COD/m^3{\cdot}d$, however, volatile acid accumulation and low COD removal efficiency is observed in reactor having 6.4 cm diameter, while volatile acid is not accumulated at all and high COD removal efficiency is observed in reactor having 3 cm diameter. Such a difference of reactor performance depending on reactor diameter can be explained that sludge bed can be fluidized by evolved gas bubble in narrow reactor, while sludge bed ran not be fluidized by evolved gas bubble only in wide reactor. At a high organic loading rate of 20 kg $COD/m^3{\cdot}d$, it can be judged that there is no relation between reactor configuration and reactor performance because all reactors showed very low COD removal efficiencies regardless of reactor diameter. Narrow and tall type reactor is favorable condition for making sludge bed fluidization at a constant surface area/reactor volume ratio. Thus, it can be judged that reactor configuration and sludge bed fluidization have great influence to reactor performance.

Assessment of N-16 activity concentration in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission TRIGA Research Reactor

  • Ajijul Hoq, M.;Malek Soner, M.A.;Salam, M.A.;Khanom, Salma;Fahad, S.M.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2018
  • An assessment for determining N-16 activity concentrations during the operation condition of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission TRIGA Research Reactor was performed employing several governing equations. The radionuclide N-16 is a high energy (6.13 MeV) gamma emitter which is predominately created by the fast neutron interaction with O-16 present in the reactor core water. During reactor operation at different power level, the concentration of N-16 at the reactor bay region may increase causing radiation risk to the reactor operating personnel or the general public. Concerning the safety of the research reactor, the present study deals with the estimation of N-16 activity concentrations in the regions of reactor core, reactor tank, and reactor bay at different reactor power levels under natural convection cooling mode. The estimated N-16 activity concentration values with 500 kW reactor power at the reactor core region was $7.40{\times}10^5Bq/cm^3$ and at the bay region was $3.39{\times}10^5Bq/cm^3$. At 3 MW reactor power with active forced convection cooling mode, the N-16 activity concentration in the decay tank exit water was also determined, and the value was $4.14{\times}10^{-1}Bq/cm^3$.

A Study on the Design of Denitrification Reactor and the Characteristics (탈질화 반응기의 설계 및 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김선화;송주영
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 2001
  • Removal of nitrogen compound from waste water is essential and often accomplished by biological process. Deni-trification bacterium. Paracoccus denitrificans(KCTC 2350) is employed to estimate the ability and the characteristics of denitrification. In the immobilized biological reactor system, the measurement of absolute amount of active strain in the reactor is comparatively difficult or impossible. In this study, strain immobilized denitrification reactor was designed with the unwoven texture wrapped peeped hole plastic tube to calculated the absolute amount of active strain by comparing the activity of the immobilized reactor adn the free cell reactor. The reactor system was continuous stirred tank reactor and the rate of substrate consumption was assumed to be Michaelis-Menten equation. As a result, we found that the amount of immobilized active strain was the half of the total active strain in the reactor and the time required to reach in the equilibrium state in the immobilized reactor system was shorter than that of the free cell reactor system.

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Integrity of the Reactor Vessel Support System for a Postulated Reactor Vessel Closure Head Drop Event

  • Kim, Tae-Wan;Lee, Ki-Young;Lee, Dae-Hee;Kim, Kang-Soo
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.576-582
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    • 1996
  • The integrity of reactor vessel support system of the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) is investigated for a postulated reactor vessel closure head drop event. The closure head is disassembled from the reactor vessel during refueling process or general inspection of reactor vessel and internal structures, and carried to proposed location by the head lift rig. A postulated closure head drop event could be anticipated during closure head handling process. The drop event may cause an impact load on the reactor vessel and supporting system. The integrity of the supporting system is directly relevant to that of reactor vessel and reactor internals including fuels. Results derived by elastic impact analysis, linear and non-linear buckling analysis and elasto-plastic stress analysis of the supporting system implied that the integrity of the reactor vessel supporting system is intact for a postulated reactor vessel closure head drop event.

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The Removal of Organics, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Loop Reactor Using Fluidized Media (유동상 담체를 이용한 Loop Reactor에서 유기물 및 질소, 인 제거)

  • Seon, Yong-Ho
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.353-360
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    • 2009
  • This study was accomplished using Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic upflow packed-bed column reactors with fixed media and Loop Reactor with fluidized media instead of Oxic reactor. The objectives of this study was to investigate the characteristics of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus removal from sewage with the HRT. The average removal efficiencies of $BOD_5$ and SS increase as increasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) until 16 h of the HRT, and they were constant over 16 h of the HRT. The removal efficiency of $BOD_5$ in case of packed-bed reactor and Loop Reactor was about 86.6% and 90.9% respectively at 16 h of the HRT. The removal efficiency of SS in packed-bed reactor and Loop Reactor was about 78.0% and 88.2% respectively at 16 h of the HRT. The average removal efficiencies of $COD_{Cr}$ and $COD_{Mn}$ showed similar trends as those of $BOD_5$ and SS. At the HRT of 16 h, the removal efficiency of $COD_{Cr}$ in case of packed-bed reactor and Loop Reactor was 63.5%, 75.2% and that of $COD_{Mn}$ was 60.7%, 73.6% respectively. The average removal efficiencies of T-N and T-P increase as increasing the HRT. The removal efficiencies of T-N and T-P in Loop Reactor were 33.6% and 54.5% respectively at 16 h of the HRT and T-N and T-P were better removed in Loop Reactor. From this result, it was found that the performance of Loop Reactor was much higher than the performance of packed-bed reactor and the optimum HRT was 16 h.

Estimation of Cattle Wastewater Treatment using Singang Advance Biology Reactor (SAB) (SAB 고율미생물반응기를 이용한 축산폐수처리의 성능 평가)

  • Lim, Bongsu;Kim, Doyoung;Park, Sungsoon
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.727-734
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the high rate biological reactor such as lab scale reactor before the application in site, and to get the basic data for possibility using liquid fertilizer with the effluent from biological reactor when the centrifugal machine was applied. The total volume of this reactor in 6 L, in composted of anoxic reactor (2 L), aerobic reactor (2 L), and nitification reactor (2 L). BOD removal efficiency rates when centrifugal machine was applied after effluent from biological reactor are over than 95%. This biological reactor was required post process to satisfy the effluent standards, and was need centrifugal machine to control the washout of microbes in the reactor. T-N removal efficiency rate in HRT 24 hr with centrifugation is 80.0%, and it is desirable to operate less than $1.3kgN/m^3{\cdot}d$ for 70% of T-N removal efficiency rate. T-P removal efficiency rate in HRT 24 hr is 68.2%, and become higher 71.3% after centrifugation. Considering in the 28.6% T-N removal efficiency rate, the nitrogen contents of the effluent from reactor is 0.34% to satisfy the liquid fertilizer.

Comparison of Liquid Composting Efficiency using Liquid Pig Manure in Different Condition (가축분뇨 슬러리 액비 부숙 조건별 특성비교)

  • Jung, Kwang-Yong;Cho, Nam-Jun;Jeong, Yee-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.301-305
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the liquid composting efficiency using pig manure in different condition such as simple storage type reactor, continuous aeration reactor, anaerobic reactor and anaerobic agitation reactor. Continuous aeration reactor was the most efficiency method to BOD and malodors removal than other methods. While nitrogen loss in continuous aeration reactor was 47% of initial concentration, which was the higher amount than any other digestion methods. The digestion efficiency between anaerobic reactor and anaerobic agitation reactor were similar, but E. coli and malodor removal efficiency were a little higher in the anaerobic agitation reactor. Simple storage type reactor which was conventional digestion method in rural area gave lower efficiency than aerobic and anaerobic digestion methods in view of BOD, E. coli and malodor removal. The liquid composting efficiency which were evaluated by various indicators like pH, BOD, E, coli, malodor and nitrogen loss was high in the order of anaerobic agitation reactor>continuous aeration reactor>anaerobic reactor>simple storage type reactor.

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Design of Hardward Diagnostic System for Reactor Internal Structures Using Neutron Noise (중성자 신호이용 원자로 내부 구조물 감시시스템 하드웨어 설계)

  • Park, Jong-Beom;Park, Jin-Ho;Hwang, Choong-Hwan;Kim, Soo-Hong
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.2166-2168
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    • 2001
  • Reactor Noise is defined as the fluctuations of measured instrumentation signals during full-power operation of reactor which have informations on reactor system dynamics such as neutron kinetics. The Reactor internal structures which consist of many complex components are subjected to flow-induced vibration due to high temperature and pressure in reactor coolant system. The above flow-induced vibration causes degradation of structural integrity of the reactor and may result in loosing mechanical binding component which might impact other equipment and component or cause flow blockage. It is important to analyze reactor noise signal for the early detection of potential problem or failure in order to diagnosis reactor integrity in the point of view of safety and plant economics. Detailed design of hardware diagnostic system reactor internal structures using neutron noise(RIDS).

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Cost-effective Design of an Inverter Output Reactor in ASD application (전동기 과전압 억제용 OUTPUT REACTOR의 최적 설계)

  • 김한종;이근호;장철호;이제필
    • Proceedings of the KIPE Conference
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 1999
  • In this paper, the cost-effective design of output reactor which is used to suppress the over-voltage at the motor terminal in the Adjustable Speed Drives(ASD) application is proposed. In the elevator drive system, the power cable length is relatively shorter than other ASD applications and then the over-voltage at the motor terminal depends on the frequency characteristics of the output reactor at the over-voltage operating frequency. The over-voltage suppression mechanism of output reactor in ASD application is analyzed and the dominant parameters of output reactor for the over-voltage suppression are extracted. Using these parameters as the design values and considering the high frequency characteristics of iron core in the reactor, a new cost-effective structure of output reactor is proposed. Experimental results of the conventional reactor and the proposed reactor with a 15kW induction motor are given to verify the proposed scheme.

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Characteristics of a Fusion Driven Transmutation Reactor

  • Hong, B.G.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.582-582
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    • 2012
  • Characteristics of a fusion-driven transmutation reactor was investigated. A compact reactor concept is desirable from an economic viewpoint. For the optimal design of a reactor, a radial build of reactor components has to be determined by considering the plasma physics and engineering constraints which inter-relate various reactor components. In a transmutation reactor, design of blanket and shield play a key role in determining the size of a reactor; the blanket should produce enough tritium for tritium self-sufficiency, the transmutation rate of waste has to be maximized, and the shield should provide sufficient protection for the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil. To determine the radial build of the blanket and the shield, not only a radiation transport analysis but also a burnup calculation were coupled with the system analysis and it allowed the self-consistent determination of the design parameters of a transmutation reactor.

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