• Title, Summary, Keyword: Reciprocal Screw

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Stiffness Modeling of a Low-DOF Parallel Robot (저자유도 병렬형 로봇의 강성 모델링)

  • Kim, Han-Sung
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.320-328
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    • 2007
  • This paper presents a stiffness modeling of a low-DOF parallel robot, which takes into account of elastic deformations of joints and links, A low-DOF parallel robot is defined as a spatial parallel robot which has less than six degrees of freedom. Differently from serial chains in a full 6-DOF parallel robot, some of those in a low-DOF parallel robot may be subject to constraint forces as well as actuation forces. The reaction forces due to actuations and constraints in each serial chain can be determined by making use of the theory of reciprocal screws. It is shown that the stiffness of an F-DOF parallel robot can be modeled such that the moving platform is supported by 6 springs related to the reciprocal screws of actuations (F) and constraints (6-F). A general $6{\times}6$ stiffness matrix is derived, which is the sum of the stiffness matrices of actuations and constraints, The compliance of each spring can be precisely determined by modeling the compliance of joints and links in a serial chain as follows; a link is modeled as an Euler beam and the compliance matrix of rotational or prismatic joint is modeled as a $6{\times}6$ diagonal matrix, where one diagonal element about the rotation axis or along the sliding direction is infinite. By summing joint and link compliance matrices with respect to a reference frame and applying unit reciprocal screw to the resulting compliance matrix of a serial chain, the compliance of a spring is determined by the resulting infinitesimal displacement. In order to illustrate this methodology, the stiffness of a Tricept parallel robot has been analyzed. Finally, a numerical example of the optimal design to maximize stiffness in a specified box-shape workspace is presented.

Stiffness Analysis of Planar Parallel Manipulators with Serially Connected Legs (직렬체인 다리를 갖는 평면 병렬형 기구의 강성해석)

  • Kim, Han Sung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.164-172
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    • 2014
  • This paper presents a method for analyzing the stiffness of full and low DOF (degree of freedom) planar parallel manipulators with serially connected legs. The individual stiffness of each leg is obtained by applying reciprocal screws to the leg twist using passive joints and elastic elements consisting of actuators and links. Because the legs are connected in parallel, the manipulator stiffness is determined by summing the individual leg stiffness values. This method does not require the assumption that springs should be located along reciprocal screws and is applicable to a planar parallel manipulator with a generic or singular configuration. The stiffness values of three planar parallel manipulators with different DOFs are analyzed. The numerical results are confirmed using ADAMS S/W.

Stiffness Analysis of a Low-DOF Parallel Manipulator using the Theory of Reciprocal Screws (역나선 이론을 이용한 저자유도 평행구조 기구의 강성해석)

  • Kim, Han-Sung
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.573-578
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    • 2004
  • This paper presents a methodology for the stiffness analysis of a low-DOF parallel manipulator. A low-DOF parallel manipulator is a spatial parallel manipulator which has less than six degrees of freedom. The reciprocal screws of actuations and constraints in each leg can be determined by making use of the theory of reciprocal screws, which provide information about reaction forces due to actuations and constraints. When pure force is applied to a leg, the leg stiffness is modeled as a linear spring along the line. For pure couple, it is modeled as a rotational spring about the axis. It is shown that the stiffness model of an F-DOF parallel manipulator consists of F springs related to actuations and 6-F springs related to constraints connected from the moving platform to the base in parallel. The $6{\times}6$ Cartesian stiffness matrix is obtained, which is the sum of the Cartesian stiffness matrices of actuations and constraints. Finally, a 3-UPU parallel manipulator is used as an example to demonstrate the methodology.

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Stiffness Analysis of a Low-DOE Parallel Manipulator using the Theory of Reciprocal Screws (역나선 이론을 이용한 저자유도 병렬형 기구의 강성해석)

  • Kim Han Sung
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.680-688
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents a methodology for the stiffness analysis of a low-DOF parallel manipulator. A low-DOF parallel manipulator is a spatial parallel manipulator which has less than six degrees of freedom. The reciprocal screws of actuations and constraints in each leg can be determined by making use of the theory of reciprocal screws, which provide information about reaction forces due to actuations and constraints. When pure farce is applied to a leg, the leg stiffness is modeled as a linear spring along the line. For pure couple, it is modeled as a rotational spring about the axis. It is shown that the stiffness model of an it_DOF parallel nipulator consists of F springs related to actuations and 6-F springs related to constraints connected from the moving platform to the base in parallel. The 6x f Cartesian stiffness matrix is derived, which is the sum of the Cartesian stiffness matrices of actuations and constraints. Finally, the 3-UPU, 3-PRRR, and Tricept parallel manipulators are used as examples to demonstrate the methodology.

Stiffness Analysis of a Low-DOF Parallel Manipulator including the Elastic Deformations of Both Joints and Links (ICCAS 2005)

  • Kim, Han-Sung;Shin, Chang-Rok;Kyung, Jin-Ho;Ha, Young-Ho;Yu, Han-Sik;Shim, Poong-Soo
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.631-637
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents a stiffness analysis method for a low-DOF parallel manipulator, which takes into account of elastic deformations of joints and links. A low-DOF parallel manipulator is defined as a spatial parallel manipulator which has less than six degrees of freedom. Differently from the case of a 6-DOF parallel manipulator, the serial chains in a low-DOF parallel manipulator are subject to constraint forces as well as actuation forces. The reaction forces due to actuations and constraints in each limb can be determined by making use of the theory of reciprocal screws. It is shown that the stiffness model of an F-DOF parallel manipulator consists of F springs related to the reciprocal screws of actuations and 6-F springs related to the reciprocal screws of constraints, which connect the moving platform to the fixed base in parallel. The $6{times}6$ stiffness matrix is derived, which is the sum of the stiffness matrices of actuations and constraints. The six spring constants can be precisely determined by modeling the compliance of joints and links in a serial chain as follows; the link can be considered as an Euler beam and the stiffness matrix of rotational or prismatic joint can be modeled as a $6{times}6$ diagonal matrix, where one diagonal element about the rotation axis or along the sliding direction is zero. By summing the elastic deformations in joints and links, the compliance matrix of a serial chain is obtained. Finally, applying the reciprocal screws to the compliance matrix of a serial chain, the compliance values of springs can be determined. As an example of explaining the procedure, the stiffness of the Tricept parallel manipulator has been analyzed.

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3-D Finite element stress analysis in screw-type, cement-type, and combined-type implant fixed partial denture designs (임플란트 상부보철물의 유지형태에 따른 3차원 유한요소 응력분석)

  • Lee, Sung-Chun;Kim, Seok-Gyu
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.365-375
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    • 2009
  • Statement of problems: Stress analysis on implant components of the combined screw- and cement-retained implant prosthesis has not investigated yet. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the load distribution characteristics of implant prostheses with the different prosthodontic retention types, such as cement-type, screw-type and combined type by using 3-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and methods: A 3-dimensional finite element model was created in which two SS II implants (Osstem Co. Ltd.) were placed in the areas of the first premolar and the first molar in the mandible, and three-unit fixed partial dentures with four different retention types were fabricated on the two SS II implants. Model 1 was a cement-retained implant restoration made on two cement-retained type abutments (Comocta abutment; Osstem Co. Ltd.), and Model 2 was a screw-retained implant restoration made on the screw-retained type abutments (Octa abutment; Osstem Co. Ltd.). Model 3 was a combined type implant restoration made on the cement-retained type abutment (Comocta abutment) for the first molar and the screw-retained type abutment (Octa abutment) for the first premolar. Lastly, Model 4 was a combined type implant restoration made on the screw-retained type abutment (Octa abutment) for the first molar and the cement-retained type abutment (Comocta abutment) for the first premolar. Average masticatory force was applied on the central fossa in a vertical direction, and on the buccal cusp in a vertical and oblique direction for each model. Von-Mises stress patterns on alveolar bone, implant body, abutment, abutment screw, and prosthetic screw around implant prostheses were evaluated through 3-dimensional finite element analysis. Results: Model 2 showed the lowest von Mises stress. In all models, the von Mises stress distribution of cortical bone, cancellous bone and implant body showed the similar pattern. Regardless of loading conditions and type of abutment system, the stress of bone was concentrated on the cortical bone. The von-Mises stress on abutment, abutment screw, and prosthetic screw showed the lower values for the screw-retained type abutment than for the cement-retained type abutment regardless of the model type. There was little reciprocal effect of the abutment system between the molar and the premolar position. For all models, buccal cusp oblique loading caused the largest stress, followed by buccal cusp vertical loading and center vertical loading. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the FEA study, the combined type implant prosthesis did not demonstrate more stress around implant components than the cement type implant prosthesis. Under the assumption of ideal passive fit, the screw-type implant prosthesis showed the east stress around implant components.

Effect of Press Temperature and Time on Physical Properties of Larch Particleboard (압체온도(壓締温度)와 시간(時間)이 낙엽송(落葉松) 파티클 보오드의 물리적(物理的) 특성(特性)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Phil Woo;Chung, Gyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.63 no.1
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    • pp.12-20
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    • 1984
  • This research was performed to estimate the properties of particleboard based on the press time and temperature which was made of chip of larch that grows in Korea. The results in this study were as follows: 1) Even though the chips, 1:1-35 ratio between length and thickness, are relatively bad condition, the surface smoothness that can easily spread the adhesive evenly and thoroughly and bonding ability of chips can give proper physical properties. 2) It shows more mechanical properties at the press time of 10 min. in MOR (Modulus of Rupture), MOE (Modulus of Elasticity) and SHA (Screw Holding Ability). 3) It is not significant according to the press time 20 min. in MOR, IBS (Internal Bonding Strength) and SHA, for the reciprocal actions between the accelerating aging effect of chip and the softening effect of adhesion are occured. 4) IBS is rising according to the increasing temp at the press time of 10 min. Because it needs to transfer the plate heat to make the proper hardening temp. In the layer. 5) The heat treatment effects have greatly influenced the stahility of dimension by falling the absorption, anisotropy and inhomegenity. As a result of these the values of thickness and linear expansion ratio were respectively dropped by the increase of press temp and the time and so did absorption.

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