• Title/Summary/Keyword: Recycled papers

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Study on the Analysis of PCBs in Papers by the Peak Pattern Method (피크패턴법을 이용한 종이재의 PCBs 분석 방법에 관한 연구)

  • 김기명;유승석;이광호
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 1999
  • The new approach using the Peak Pattern Method was conducted for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the papers or paper products to provide certain hygienic data for the recycled papers as well as white papers. The height of the each peak, obtained from the PCBs standards, was transformed to the spectrum to compare with that of the samples. In addition to the results of the single PCBs standards, the pattern of mixed PCBs standards with the adequate concentration and ratios were obtained prior to the analysis of the paper samples. The test showed excellent repetition within 5% variation, and the recoveries of PCBs ranged from 92% to 97%. The PCBs, considered as a hazard material, were analyzed using the Peak Pattern Method from six different types of paper samples including the roll tissue. It could not find the same pattern of the PCBs peaks from all of the paper samples.

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Deinking of Computer Printed Out and White Ledger (백상지 고지의 탈묵)

  • 한신호
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.48-56
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    • 2000
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the enzymatic deinking technology. Office recycled papers such as computer printed out(CPO) and white ledger(WL) were used in the evaluation of four different deinking conditions ; alkaline deinking , neutral deinking and enzymatic deinking at alkaline and neutral pH. Filltering pads were prepared after flotation deinking to measure brighteness gain and ink removal efficiency. Three different surfactants were also used in the evaluation of deinking efficiency including surface chemical properties by measuring foam height and stability, surface tension and cloud point of views. The results indicated that the neutral deinking method with enzyme and surfactant addition showed highest deinking efficiency of office recycled papers.

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Compatibility of the Recycled Linerboard Made in Acid Sizing System under Neutral or Alkaline Papermaking Conditions (산성 사이징된 재활용 섬유와 중성 사이징의 상용성)

  • Seo, Man Seok;Lee, Kyong Ho;Lee, Hak Lae
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.56-60
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    • 2016
  • Neutral or alkaline papermaking provides many advantages in paper strength and processing conditions. It also provides the opportunity of using calcium carbonate fillers in papermaking. These diverse advantages have made almost all paper machines of printing and writing papers run under neutral and alkaline conditions. On the other hand, linerboard machines, which use recycled papers as a raw material, are running under acid conditions using a rosin sizing system. Because the recycled raw materials used by the linerboard industry contain significant amounts of alkaline papers, the linerboard industry has an interest in the possibility of using the neutral or alkaline papermaking opportunity. In this study, the compatibility of the recycled linerboards under neutral or alkaline papermaking conditions was examined by recycling them under various pH conditions. The sizing degree of the papers recycled under neutral or alkaline was significantly lower than that of acid formed papers indicating that during the neutral or alkaline recycling process the rosin sized papers lost their sizing efficiency. Recycling of acid formed linerboards under neutral or alkaline conditions increased the amount of foam, and the foam contained substantial amount of solid materials derived from the acid sizing systems. Use of cationic polyelectrolytes including PEI and poly-DADMAC improved the sizing degree of the recycled papers under neutral and alkaline conditions. PEI decreased the foam generation as well while poly-DADMAC did not show any reducing effect of the foam. These results suggest that PEI forms coordinate bonds with rosin acid and precipitate them onto the surface of recycled fibers, while the reaction products between poly-DADMAC and rosin acid ions still remain water soluble under neutral or alkaline conditions.

A New Characterizing Method for Recycled Paper and the Application of Image Segmentation on the Measurement Sub-visible Dirt

  • Dong, Shijin;Zhang, Haitao;Cui, Xuejun;Li, Junfeng;Wang, Hongyan
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2008
  • The paper established a new method for fast measurement and characterizing of sub-visible dirt of recycled paper which is too small to be seen with naked eye. This method provided a new way for the evaluation of recycled paper that is hard to be characterized by the conventional method. Two effective thresholding algorithms HA and SDA were compared and their applicable conditions were discussed. Results showed that the HA could be used for un-printed paper while SDA is suited for recycled papers. The gloss of paper samples was measured and the relation between gloss and sub-visible dirt was investigated. The significant effect of this method for characterizing and comparing paper was exhibited. The experiment results indicated that sub-visible dirt measuring method could be a complementariness of the conventional methods.

New Concept of Stiffness Improvement in Paper and Board

  • Seo, Yung B.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.168-182
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    • 2001
  • A new concept of stock preparation for the increase of bending stiffness in paper and board was proposed. The 'stiff' fibers, which were mechanically not treated or treated slightly to remove fiber curls, were combined with extensively refined fibers (ERF) to produce higher stiffness papers than those where the whole fibers were refined. The combination of 'stiff' fibers and extensively refined fibers produced higher stiffness at the same tensile strength than the control furnish, in which all the fibers are refined together. In this concept, the fibers from recycled papers could be as much useful as the virgin fibers as long as they are stiff enough or they can produce highly bondable fiber fractions by extensive refining. Use of the concept in real paper mill needs considerations such as increase of refining energy, slower drainage, and added drying burden, but savings of wood fibers, utilization of more recycled fibers, and increase of physical properties may offset the negative concerns. The success of this concept implementation in mills, therefore, depends on the wood fiber market around the mills and the proper decision making for the papermakers about how to apply this concept.

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Type of Foreign Materials in Waste Paper Used for the Manufacture of Linerboard and Physical Properties of Recycled Fibers (골판지 원지 제조용 압축고지 내의 이물질 종류 및 재생섬유의 특성)

  • Yoon, Seung-Lak;Hwang, Jong-Yeol
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2007
  • To evaluate the quality of waste paper used for the manufacture of linerboard, the types of papers and foreign materials in compressed waste paper currently used were investigated. The recycled fibers were obtained from printing paper, newspaper, wrapping paper, white coated paperboard and corrugated container. Their fibers were observed by using a microscope, and the mechanical properties of the recycled papers manufactured from the recycled fibers were investigated. The compressed wastepaper was composed of 54% paperboard, 20% printing paper, and 20% newsprint. The content of foreign materials was about 4%, showing higher contents compared to 1% of foreign substances provided by Korea paper manufacturers' association. The types of foreign materials were various, which include vinyls, plastics, metals, woods, styrofoams, and cloths. Sound fibers were generally observed in the recycled fibers of printing papers and wrapping paper. The recycled fibers of white coated board, corrugated container and newsprint showed to be generally damaged. The whiteness of each recycled fiber were highly affected by pulp bleaching and ink-particle mixing conditions. The values of breaking length and burst index were lower than those for corrugating medium and liner board specified in KS. Although the anatomical characteristics of recycled fibers varied, their strengths appeared to be similar. This result may be explained by the use of non-deinked fiber.

New Concept of Stiffness Improvement in Paper and Board

  • Seo, Yung B.
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2002
  • A new concept of stock preparation for the increase of bending stiffness in paper and board was proposed. The "stiff" fibers, which were mechanically not treated or treated slightly to remove fiber curls, were combined with extensively refined fibers (ERF) to produce higher stiffness papers than those where the whole fibers were refined. The combination of "stiff" fibers and extensively refined fibers produced higher stiffness at the same tensile strength than the control furnish, in which all the fibers are refined together. In this concept, the fibers from recycled papers could be as much useful as the virgin fibers as long as they are stiff enough or they can produce highly bondable fiber fractions by extensive refining. Use of the concept in real paper mill needs considerations such as increase of refining energy, slower drainage, and added drying burden, but savings of wood fibers, utilization of more recycled fibers, and increase of physical properties may offset the negative concerns. The success of this concept implementation in mills, therefore, depends on the wood fiber market around the mills and the proper decision making for the papermakers about how to apply this concept. apply this concept.

Properties of Single-and Two-layered Handsheets Formed with Sw-UKP and OCC (침엽수 미표백 크라프트펄프와 재생고지를 이용한 단층지와 이층지의 물성 연구)

  • Park, Yong;Lee, Hak-Lae
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 1998
  • Exploitation of the papermaking technology to reduce the strength loss that accompanies when using recycled papers as raw materials for papermaking is one of the most important issues imposed upon today's paper industry. Multi-layer sheet forming technology has been suggested as a way that provides some answers to this issue. In this study strength properties of single- and two-layer handsheets formed with recycled fiber and unbleached softwood kraft pulp have been examined to quantify the benefits when using two-layer sheet forming technology rather than a conventional single layer sheet forming precess. Single- and two-layer handsheets were made from 50% of OCC and 50% of Sw-UKP and their strength properties were evaluated. Also the strength properties made from Sw-UKP and OCC sheets were determined. A multihead, which can be attached on the top of hand- sheet former, was used to form two-layer sheets. Maximum strength properties could be obtained in the freeness range of 500∼300mL CSF for Sw-UKP Most of the strength properties was reduced by 30∼35% when 50% OCC was blended with UKP. Decrease of strength properties, however, could be reduced by employing a two-layer sheet forming method. Creator strengths could be obtained when UKP was positioned at the top layer of two layered sheets indicating greater UKP fines retention due to the filtration effect of the OCC layer formed prior to UKP layer contributed the strength improvement. Two-layer sheet showed lower Scott internal bond strength than single layer sheet. By incorporating some of UKP fibers into OCC layer this reduction could be reduced.

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Effects of Recycling on the Adsorption of Cationic Polyacrylamide onto Fiber and Fines (리사이클링 횟수에 따른 장섬유와 미세섬유의 폴리아크릴아미드 흡착특성 및 종이의 물성 변화)

  • 주성범;이학래
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 1999
  • Adsorption of polymeric flocculants and dry strength agents onto the surface of papermaking fibers is critical for their effective utilization since the polymeric substances not adsorbed on fibers or fines keep recirculating in the papermaking system to cause various operational difficulties and loss of raw materials. Problems associated with the unadsorbed polymeric substances generate great attention because unprecedent interests in utilization of recycled papers and papermaking system closure. In this study, to understand the effects of recycling on the adsorption propensity of cationic polyacryamide (PAM) dry strength resin onto hardwood bleached kraft pulp fibers and fines a systematic approach was followed. Never dried bleached hardwood kraft pulp was recycled in two different ways. In mode one recycling experiment never dried pulp was beaten then recycled three times by employing simple drying and disintegrating steps. In mode two recycling experiment beating of the recycled pulp was carried out after each recycling step. Adsorption of cationic PAM on fibers and fines was evaluated employing Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis method. The influence of recycling on water retention value, carboxyl content, sheet density and tensile strength of the pulp was examined. As the number of recycling increased, water retention value of the fiber was reduced due to hornification and this in turn caused a decrease in adsorption of cationic PAM. On the other hand, the carboxyl content of the recycled fibers increased because of the oxidation of fibers occurred during drying, and this caused an increase in adsorption of cationic PAM. Because of these two opposing factors the adsorption of the cationic PAM on the recycled fibers decreased and then increased slightly at third recycling step. Increase of PAM adsorption, however, did not provide did not provide and strength improvement for the recycled pulp fibers indicating greater influence of the honification on interfiber bonding.

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A Study on the Removal of Fluorescent Whitening Agents from Recycled Fibers

  • Lee, Ji-Young;Lee, Hak-Lae;Youn, Hye-Jung;Lim, Hyung-Woo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.117-121
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    • 2006
  • Virgin bleached kraft pulp, CPO (computer printout) and white ledgers are main raw materials used in tissue mills. The utilization rate of recycled fibers and virgin pulp in South Korea tissue industry are 90% and 10%, respectively. To improve brightness of printing grades the use of 'fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs)' or 'optical brightening agents (OBAs)' has been increased. When recycling these papers for tissue production, it is unavoidable that FWAs contained in recycled papers flow into tissue production lines and remain in the products. And this draws great attention from the public. This study was carried out to develop a technology for the removal of fluorescent whitening agents from recycled fibers. Enzymatic removal of FWAs was evaluated as a method to remove FWAs from the recycled fiber. The ${\alpha}-amylase$ that degrades starched used for surface sizing of fine papers and contained substantial condition is needed to prevent the re-adsorption of FWAs on fibers. The temperature of pulp suspension was another important factor affecting on FWA removal. The higher the temperature, the greater the efficiency of removing FWAs was obtained. Optimum pH and temperature for the effective removal of FWAs were suggested to be pH 8.5 and $65^{\circ}C$, respectively. The enzymatic removal of FWAs showed a great synergistic effect when proper control in pH and temperature was made.

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