• Title, Summary, Keyword: Refractory

Search Result 919, Processing Time 0.038 seconds

Increased risk of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children with atopic sensitization and asthma

  • Shin, Jeong Eun;Cheon, Bo Ram;Shim, Jae Won;Kim, Deok Soo;Jung, Hae Lim;Park, Moon Soo;Shim, Jung Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
    • /
    • v.57 no.6
    • /
    • pp.271-277
    • /
    • 2014
  • Purpose: A nationwide outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MP) refractory to macrolide antibiotics occurred in Korea during 2011. Steroid therapy has been reported to be both efficacious and well tolerated in pediatric patients with refractory MP. We compared clinical features and laboratory characteristics between children with refractory MP requiring steroid treatment and those with macrolide-responsive MP and evaluated the risk factors associated with refractory MP. Methods: We investigated 203 children who were admitted to our institution with MP from June to November 2011. Refractory MP was defined by persistent fever over $38.3^{\circ}C$ with progressive pulmonary consolidation or pleural effusion despite administration of appropriate macrolide antibiotics for 5 days or longer after admission. Steroid therapy was initiated on the fifth day after admission for refractory cases. Results: There were 26 patients with refractory MP requiring steroid therapy. The mean duration of steroid therapy was 5.4 days and most of the patients were afebrile within 24 hours after initiation of steroid therapy. The prevalence of refractory MP was higher in patients with pleural effusion, lobar pneumonia affecting more than 2 lobes, higher levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase, increased oxygen requirements, and longer duration of hospitalization. Atopic sensitization and history of asthma were also associated with refractory MP after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion: Children with refractory MP had more severe pneumonia. Atopic sensitization and history of asthma may be risk factors for refractory MP requiring steroid therapy in Korean children.

Thermal Stress Analysis of STS VOD Ladle according to the reinforcement of back filler (Back Filler의 보강에 따른 STS VOD 래들의 열응력 해석)

  • Lee, S.W.;Ham, K.C.;Bae, S.I.;Song, J.I.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.310-315
    • /
    • 2000
  • We analyzed thermal stress of the STS VOD ladle by the variation of material property of refractory, and determined the location of back filler using FE analysis. Thermal distribution of refractory of ladle between hot face and back face were decreased by the increasing the thermal conductivity, and thermal stress of refractory were decreased about 2 to 4 times with the decreasing the young's modulus coefficients. Back filler, which is constructed to absorb the thermal expansion of dolomite refractory, has relatively low thermal conductivity. Inner side of refractory of ladle maintained high temperature, but temperature of outer side of ladle decreased low. Consequently, inner expansion and outer contraction were appeared. and thermal stress were increased, so thermal stress by the construction of back filler were increased.

  • PDF

Wear Mechanism of MgO-C Refractory with Thermite Reaction Products of MgO and Al (MgO와 Al의 테르밋 반응생성물이 첨가된 MgO-C계 내화재료의 용손 기구)

  • 최태현;전병세
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
    • /
    • v.33 no.7
    • /
    • pp.832-838
    • /
    • 1996
  • Thermite reaction products of MgO and Al were added to MgO-C refractory to improve the properties of corrosion against the attack of slag, oxidation and mechanical spalling. Corrosion rate of MgO-C-MgAl2O4 spinel refractory at the ratio of 3.3(CaO/SiO2) slag was smaller than that of MgO-C and MgO-C-Al refractory. The excellent corrosion resistance of the MgO-C-MgAl2O4 spinel refractory against the slag attack was appeared by Al and MgAl2O4 spinel with high melting point and corrosion resistance and the high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion of AIN. Hot M.O.R at 140$0^{\circ}C$ and the resistance of oxidation weight loss at 90$0^{\circ}C$ were 210kg/cm2 and -12% respectively.

  • PDF

Effects of Slag Composition on the Microphase Change of a Chromia Refractory under Gasification Conditions (가스화 조건에서 슬래그 성분이 크롬계 내화재 미세구조 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Myong-Sook;Kim, Han-Bom;Park, Woo-Sung
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.441-444
    • /
    • 2007
  • The inside wall of a coal gasifier is lined with refractory, and the corrosion of the refractory by coal sag is an important parameter affecting the refractory lifetime and the replacement period. This paper examines the changes in microstructure of a chromia refractory due to chemical reactions with penetrating slag as a function of slag composition. The effects of CaO and $Fe_2O_3$ concentrations were studied using Datong and KIDECO slag. Static corrosion experiments were carried out, the percent slag penetration and changes in the microstructure were determined by SEM/EDX analyses. FactSage equilibrium calculations were carried out to determine the equilibrium products and the predictions were compared with experimental observations.

  • PDF

Runoff Characteristics of Refractory Organic Matters from Kyongan River Watershed during Rainfall Event and Dry Season (경안천 유역의 강우 시, 비 강우 시 난분해성 유기물질 유출 특성)

  • Kim, Taewon;Gil, Kyungik
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
    • /
    • v.27 no.4
    • /
    • pp.397-404
    • /
    • 2011
  • This research investigates the runoff characteristics of refractory organic matters from Kyongan river watershed. Samples were taken 27 times during dry season, 4 times during rain events and analyzed into flow rate, Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), Particulate Organic Carbon (POC), Refractory Dissolved Organic Carbon (R-DOC), Refractory Particulate Organic Carbon (R-POC). R-DOC during dry season was the lowest in winter and showed a rising tendency in spring and R-POC changes less than R-DOC. The mass loading of Refractory Total Organic Carbon (R-TOC) in summer takes approximately 80% of 1 year mass loading. During rainy season, EMC of R-DOC was similar to R-DOC in dry season. But maximum EMC of R-POC was 12 times higher than that of R-POC in dry season. Results of the survey show that enhanced management of R-DOC in dry season and R-POC in rainy season is needed.

Gemcitabine in Treating Patients with Refractory or Relapsed Multiple Myeloma

  • Zheng, Hua;Yang, Fan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.21
    • /
    • pp.9291-9293
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background: Patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma are considered to have a very poor prognosis, and new regimens are needed to improve the outcome. Gemcitabine, a nucleoside antimetabolite, is an analog of deoxycytidine which mainly inhibits DNA synthesis through interfering with DNA chain elongation and depleting deoxynucleotide stores, resulting in gemcitabine-induced cell death. Here we performed a systemic analysis to evaluate gemcitabine based chemotherapy as salvage treatment for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the impact of gemcitabine based regimens on response and safety for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were identified by using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rate (RR) of treatment were calculated. Results: In gemcitabine based regimens, 3 clinical studies which including 57 patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were considered eligible for inclusion. Systemic analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 15.7% (9/57) in gemcitabine based regimens. Major adverse effects were hematologic toxicity, including grade 3 or 4 anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia i. No treatment related death occurred with gemcitabine based treatment. Conclusion: This systemic analysis suggests that gemcitabine based regimens are associated with mild activity with good tolerability in treating patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma.

Spinal Cord Stimulation for Refractory Angina Pectoris - A Case Report -

  • Lee, Seong-Heon;Jeong, Hye-Jin;Jeong, Sin-Ho;Lee, Hyung-Gon;Choi, Jeong-Il;Yoon, Myung-Ha;Kim, Woong-Mo
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.121-125
    • /
    • 2012
  • Refractory angina pectoris is defined as angina refractory to optimal medical treatment and standard coronary revascularization procedures. Despite recent therapeutic advances, patients with refractory angina pectoris are not adequately treated. Spinal cord stimulation is a minimally invasive and reversible technique which utilizes electrical neuromodulation by means of an electrode implanted in the epidural space. It has been reported to be an effective and safe treatment for refractory angina pectoris. We report a case of spinal cord stimulation which has effectively relieved chest pain due to coronary artery disease in a 40-year-old man. This is the first report of spinal cord stimulation for treatment of refractory angina pectoris in South Korea.

Future Outlook of Refractories for Iron and Steelmaking

  • Emi, Toshihiko
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
    • /
    • v.40 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1141-1149
    • /
    • 2003
  • Refractory industry in technologically advanced countries has long been on gradual decline due to leveled-off steel production and decreasing unit consumption of refractories for steel. Notable technological achievements by refractory industry that contributed significantly to steel production are briefly reviewed covering from blast furnace, basic oxygen furnace to continuous casting. Future possibility to revitalize the refractory industry is discussed on the basis of the review, taking into account opportunities available in environment and energy related sector of industries.

The Use of Monolithic Refractories and Microwave Drying for RH Steelmaking Vessels

  • Kayama, Tsuneo;Hanagiri, Seiji;Sukenari, Shiro
    • The Korean Journal of Ceramics
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.143-149
    • /
    • 2000
  • Monolithic refractory technology has been developed for RH vessels, with the purpose of reducing the total refractory cost. The technology includes the use of an improved monolithic refractory and microwave drying. The improved monolithic refractory was an alumina-spinel composition, of the type used in steel ladles, to which fine alumina was added to increase the density and corrosion resistance. The microwave drying method, previously developed and used to dry the monolithic lining in steel ladles, was modified for use in drying the dense, 500mm thick lining in RH vessels. This work has resulted in significant cost savings.

  • PDF

Runoff Characteristics of Refractory Organic Matters from South-Han River Watershed during Rainfall Event and Dry Season (남한강 지역의 건기 시, 강우 시, 난분해성 유기물질 유출 특성)

  • Gil, Kyungik;Kim, Taewon;Jung, Myung-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
    • /
    • v.27 no.3
    • /
    • pp.306-313
    • /
    • 2011
  • In this paper, runoff characteristics of South-Han river watershed in terms of refractory organic matters were investigated. The concentrations of DOC, POC, R-DOC, R-POC in runoff and flow rates were determined by monitoring 27 times in dry season and 4 times in rainy season. The concentrations of the dissolved refractory organic matter, R-DOC was the lowest in fall and similar in the other dry seasons. The particulate refractory organic matter, R-POC showed less fluctuation than R-DOC. In summer, mass loading was the highest than other dry seasons. The concentrations of R-DOC, R-POC were showed to be affected by runoff volume. The mass loading grows higher as runoff volume gets higher.