• Title, Summary, Keyword: Refractory

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Corrosion of Refractory in Glass Melts for Plasma Display Panel Substrate (Plasma Display Panel용 기판 유리용융체의 내화물 침식)

  • Kim, Ki-Dong;Jung, Hyun-Su;Kim, Hyo-Kwang
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.65-69
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    • 2007
  • For self-developed alkali-alkaline earth-silicate and commercial glass melts for plasma display panel substrate, the corrosion behavior of fused casting refractory consisting of $Al_2O_3-ZrO_2-SiO_2$ was examined at the temperature corresponding to $10^2\;dPa{\cdot}s$ of melt viscosity by static finger methode. The corroded refractory specimens showed a typical concave shape due to interfacial convection of melts at their flux line. However, the corrosion thickness by commercial glass melts was $6\sim10$ times comparing to that by the self?developed melts. From the view point of the glass composition and the role of alkaline earth in glass network, it was discussed the effect of alkali/alkaline earth diffusion and temperature on the refractory corrosion.

Pooled Analysis of Pomalidomide for Treating Patients with Multiple Myeloma

  • Sun, Jia-Jia;Zhang, Chi;Zhou, Jun;Yang, Hui-Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3163-3166
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    • 2015
  • Background: Patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma are considered to have a very poor prognosis, and new regimens are needed to improve this setting. Pomalidomide is a new immunomodulatory drug with high in vitro potency. Immunomodulatory drugs are hypothesized to act through multiple mechanisms. Here we performed a systemic analysis to evaluate pomalidomide-based chemotherapy (pomalidomide in combination with low-dose dexamethasone) as salvage treatment for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efffectiveness of pomalidomide based regimens on response and safety for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were identified using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rate (RR) of treatment were calculated. Results: For pomalidomide based regimens, 4 clinical studies which including 291 patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were considered eligible for inclusion. Systemic analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 41.2% (120/291). Major adverse effects were hematologic toxicity, including grade 1 or 2 anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia with pomalidomide based treatment. No treatment related death occurred. Conclusion: This pooled analysis suggests that pomalidomide in combination with low-dose dexamethasone is active with good tolerability in treating patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma.

Modeling refractory concrete lining of fluid catalytic cracking units of oil refineries

  • Silva, Ana B.C.G.;Andrade, Henrique C.C.;Fairbairn, Eduardo M.R.;Telles, Jose C.F.;Ribeiro, Fernando L.B.;Toledo-Filho, Romildo D.;Medeiros, Jorivaldo
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2020
  • This work presents a numerical modeling procedure to simulate the refractory concrete lining in fluid catalytic cracking units of oil refineries. The model includes the simulation of the anchors that reinforce the contact between the refractory concrete and the steel casing. For this purpose, the constitutive relations of an interface finite element are set to values that represent the homogenized behavior of the anchored interface. The parameters of this constitutive relation can be obtained by experimental tests. The model includes also multi-surface plasticity, in order to represent the behavior of the refractory concrete lining. Since the complexity of real case applications leads to high computational costs, the models presented here were implemented in a high-performance parallelized finite element platform. A case study representing a riser similar to the ones used by the refinery industry demonstrates the potential of the model.

Equivalent Elastic Modulus for Lined Pipe Analysis (Lined Pipe 해석을 위한 등가 탄성계수 계산)

  • 정진한;최재승;하대홍
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.547-550
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    • 2000
  • The steel pipe for fluid catalytic cracking(FCC) unit. petroleum refinery, is lined with refractory to protect the system from high-temperature of the internal flow. The property of the refractory has an effect upon the stress analysis of FCC unit. Because 1-D pipe element or 3-D shell element are usually used in commercial codes of stress analysis to evaluate the structural soundness, the equivalent elastic modulus considering steel and refractory should be applied. In the research, the theoretical method to obtain the value of the equivalent property is introduced and then the stress analysis is carried out with the part of FCC unit.

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Bacterial Community Composition of Activated Sludge Relative to Type and Efficiency of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

  • Ahn, In-Sook;Kim, Myeong-Woon;La, Hyun-Joon;Choi, Kyung-Min;Kwon, Joong-Cheon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2003
  • Two microbial communities of activated sludge in the same municipal wastewater, but treated with different systems, were studied and compared using molecular microbiological approaches. The bacterial 16S rDNA sequences from 124 clones were analyzed, however, the majority of them were not closely related to any known species, and found to belong to 8 different phylogenetic groups and 3 different unidentified groups. The relative frequencies of each group were similar between the two microbial communities. Fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) showed that the putative Nitrospira-related populations were more diverse and quantitatively higher in the KNR process system than in the other system using a conventional activated sludge process. The relationship between the bacterial community composition and the higher removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in the KNR process is discussed.

The Effects of Various Anti-Oxidation Additives in Silicon Carbide Refractory Saggars (탄화규소질 내화판에 있어서 내산화 첨가제의 영향)

  • 이준근
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.145-150
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    • 1980
  • This paper deals with the clay-bonded silicon carbide refractory saggars in terms of its oxidation resistance. Oxidation is one of the major causes of failure in silicon carbide refractory saggars during its services. Various anti-oxidation additives are coated on or added into silicon carbide refractories and their effects are studied while other conditions are equal. Several conclusions can be derived for optimum anti-oxidation additive as: 1. The additive should wet each silicon carbide grain completely during its firing. 2. The additive should have high viscosity at temperatures around $1, 350^{\circ}C$ where most silicon carbide refractory saggars are being used. 3. The additive should have ability to absorb or desorb oxygen depending on the local atmosphere inside of saggar during it service. 4. The addition should be kept as minimum as possible to prevent any "sweating" or "bloating" phenomena.ing" phenomena.mena.

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The Development of Microstructure in $Si_3N_4$-Bonded SiC Refractory ($Si_3N_4$ 결합 SiC 내화재료에 있어서 생성된 $Si_3N_4$의 미구조 변화)

  • 최덕균;이준근
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 1982
  • This paper deals with the $Si_3N_4$-bonded SiC refractory in terms of its microstructure development during nitridation. When mixture of SiC grains and fine Si power is fired under nitrogen atmosphere, an interlocking network of $Si_3N_4$ whiskers is formed by nitridation of Si. It is found that the strength of $Si_3N_4$-bonded SiC refractory is soley due to the physical nature of this interlocking whiskers. At the initial stage of nitridation, $Si_3N_4$ whisker forms in very thin and long shape and, with further nitridation, it becomes thicker with diameters up to 0.35$\mu\textrm{m}$. It is found that the mechanical strength of $Si_3N_4$-bonded SiC refractory depends on the degree of nitridation and the development of microstructure.

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Equivalent Mechanical Property for Stress Analysis on Lined Pipe (Lined Pipe의 응력해석을 위한 등가 물성치 계산)

  • Choe, Jae-Seung;Jeong, Jin-Han
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.445-451
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    • 2002
  • The refractory-lined pipe is used to protect the system from high-temperature of the internal flow. The property of the refractory has an effect upon the stress analysis for fluid catalytic cracking(FCC) unit piping design. The equivalent elastic modulus and density considering steel and refractory must be applied in the stress analysis of the system. In the research, the theoretical method to obtain the value of the equivalent property is introduced and then the parametric analysis is carried out to understand the characteristic of the material properties, and the stress analysis is performed with reactor, the part of FCC unit.

Management of Severe Fatigue Induced by Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in Radioiodine Refractory Thyroid Cancer (방사성요오드 불응성 갑상선암에서 티로신키나아제 억제제 투여로 유발된 중증 피로감의 관리)

  • Ahn, Byeong-Cheol
    • International journal of thyroidology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.75-77
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    • 2018
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitor is known to prolong progression free survival in radioiodine refractory thyroid cancer patients. Fatigue/asthenia/malaise is one of most common adverse events by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment, and management of the adverse event is important to keep the drug medication longer which is essential for the survival benefit. In the case report, a radioiodine refractory thyroid cancer patient receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor experienced severe fatigue, and a pathologic fracture of right humerus occurred by slipping down which was tightly linked with the adverse event of the drug. The pathologic fracture was surgically well managed and the adverse event was well controlled by supportive managements combined with dose reduction of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The drug administration to the patient was kept more than 1 year without progression of the disease.

Theoretical Analysis of Lined Pipe (Lined Pipe 이론 해석)

  • Jung, Jin-Han;Choi, Jae-Seung
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.964-968
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    • 2001
  • The refractory-lined pipe is used to protect the system from high-temperature of the internal flow. The property of the refractory has an effect upon the stress analysis for fluid catalyst cracking(FCC) unit piping design. The equivalent elastic modulus and density considering steel and refractory must be applied in the stress analysis of the system. In the research, the theoretical method to obtain the value of the equivalent property is introduced and then the parametric analysis is carried out to understand the characteristic of the material properties.

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