• Title, Summary, Keyword: Refractory

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Arthroscopy in the Resistant Frozen Shoulder

  • Lee Yong Geol;Im Chang Bu
    • The Academic Congress of Korean Shoulder and Elbow Society
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 1995
  • . arthroscopic release in treatment of refractory PS increased ROM pain relief . further evaluation with long terms follow up and more critical scientific study to clarify knowledge about the refractory frozen shoulder would be requested

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Study on Recycling of Refractory Materials from High-Temperature Melting Furnace by Color Sorting Technology (색상선별(色相選別) 기술(技術)을 이용(利用)한 고온(高溫) 용융노(熔融爐) 이화재(而火材) 재활용(再活用)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Seo, Kang-Il;Lee, Deok-Hee;Choi, Woo-Zin;Jang, Jung-Hoon;Park, Eun-Kyu;Oh, Young-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.28-36
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    • 2011
  • More than 50% of refractory materials generated from high-temperature melting furnace was not carbonized and could be recycled by adopting proper separation process. In the present work, the separation of refractory materials has studied by adopting color sorting technology to promote the recycling of waste refractory. Purity of the refractory materials was obtained with at 97.2%, color temperature of sorter light source 6,500K, which gives less interference of surrounding light source. Purity and separation efficiency were improved as size is setting bigger and lower conveyer belt speed. It is revealed that optimum conditions were color temperature 6,500K, conveyer belt speed 1,000 mm/sec, particle size -20 mm, etc. To improve purity and separation efficiency on below 10mm size, the resolution of should be fixed camera and it narrow recognition range. As a result of the study, color sorting technology could be used for separation of waste refractory materials and will contribute to promote the waste recycling.

Treatment Outcomes of Venlafaxine and Duloxetine in Refractory Burning Mouth Syndrome Patients

  • Kim, Moon-Jong;Kho, Hong-Seop
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.83-91
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Venlafaxine and duloxetine have been shown to be effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain disorders. However, knowledge about the efficacy of venlafaxine and duloxetine on burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is still insufficient. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of venlafaxine and duloxetine on refractory BMS patients. Methods: Twelve refractory BMS patients who were prescribed venlafaxine or duloxetine were included in this study. These patients did not respond to previous administration of clonazepam, alpha-lipoic acid, gabapentin, and nortriptyline. All participants were the primary type of BMS patients who had no local and systemic factors related to the oral burning sensation. The intensities of oral symptoms following venlafaxine or duloxetine administration were compared with those before administration and at baseline. Results: Venlafaxine and duloxetine were prescribed to four and nine patients, respectively. One patient was prescribed both medications in turn. Among them, only two patients showed improvement of oral symptoms without side effects. In the other ten patients, symptoms failed to improve. Six of them reported that the drug was ineffective, and four of them stopped taking the medications on their own due to intolerable side effects, such as insomnia, constipation, drowsiness, dizziness, and xerostomia. Conclusions: Venlafaxine and duloxetine may only relieve oral symptoms in a minority of refractory BMS patients. Further large-scale studies are needed to determine the potential clinical factors that could predict the efficacy of venlafaxine and duloxetine.

Reaction Mechanism and Kinetics of Degradation for Refractory Organic Pollutants in Water by Ultrasonic Irradiation

  • Sohn, Jong-Ryeul;Moon, Kyung-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was performed to investigate the characteristics of sonolytic reaction as the basic data for development of the ultrasonic AOP(Advanced Oxidation Process) process from which the refractory organic compounds in aqueous solution which are not readily removed by the existing conventional wastewater treatment processes can be destructed and removed. Trichloroethylene (TCE), benzene, and 2,4-dichlorophenol(DCP) were used as the samples, and their destruction efficiency were measured in terms of experimental parameters of the initial solution concentration, initial solution pH, reaction temperature, acoustic frequencies and intensities. Results showed that the destruction efficiencies of all of the sample materials were above 80% within 120 minutes of sonolytic reaction in all reaction condition. The reaction order of these three compounds was verified as Pseudo first order. From the fore-mentioned results, it can be concluded that the refractory organic compounds could be removed by the ultrasonic irradiation with radicals, such as H$.$and OH$.$causing the high increase of pressure and temperature. Finally, it appears that the new AOP technology using ultrasonic irradiation can be applied to the treatment of refractory substances which are difficult to be decomposed by the conventional methods.

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Clinical Case Report of PPI-refractory Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) with Korean Medicine Treatment - A Focus on Evaluation of the Abdominal Examination (한의 복합치료로 호전된 불응성 위식도역류질환 (PPI-refractory GERD) 환자 1례 - 복진소견 평가를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Jae-hong;Cho, Soo-ho;Ko, Seok-jae;Park, Jae-woo
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.727-735
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    • 2017
  • This case report describes a 60-year-old man who had reflux symptoms despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Korean traditional medicine, including a herbal prescription, acupuncture, and moxibustion was administered to the patient during his 19 days of hospitalization. The visual analogue scale (VAS), gastrointestinal scale (GIS), and gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS) scores were assessed on the dates of admission and discharge. An abdominal examination, which is one of the Korean medicine diagnostic tools, was performed every day to evaluate the treatment progress. During the treatment, the improvement of symptoms was clinically correlated with abdominal examination outcomes. We suggest that administration of traditional Korean Medicine on PPI-refractory GERD patients could be effective and we recommend utilization of the abdominal examination as an assessment tool for Korean Medicine treatment.

A Study about the Separation of the materials Used in Refractory Cast Dies For Making All Ceramic Crowns (전부 주조관 제작을 위한 내화모형재 분리에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Moo-Hak;Kim, Yeoun-Soo;Choi, Un-Jea
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Dental Technology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.123-130
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    • 1999
  • I attempted to suggest a better method to separate a refractory cast in order to solve the problems caused by bonding between refractory casts and ceramics in the firing-processing of all ceramic crowns as a part of dental prosthodontics. I emphasize the advantages and effectiveness of easy separation after firing by using the separating materials about the refractory cast dies. 1. We must not usse HF(55%) that is used as the chemical separating methods. 2. We decrease such methods as grinding, blasting, bur, and point 3. We can save time, costs and manual labors by using this methods. 4. This method regulates the expansion and constriction of heat because of the chemical reaction of the separating materials. 5. This method contribute to the breaking down without modification by minimizing the chemical and mechanical damages of the marginal and interior parts.

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Gemcitabine for the Treatment of Patients with Osteosarcoma

  • Wei, Mei-Yang;Zhuang, Yan-Feng;Wang, Wan-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7159-7162
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    • 2014
  • Background: Patients with recurrent or refractory osteosarcoma are considered to have a very poor prognosis, and new regimens are needed to improve the prognosis in this setting. Gemcitabine, a nucleoside antimetabolite, is an analog of deoxycytidine which mainly inhibits DNA synthesis through interfering with DNA chain elongation and depleting deoxynucleotide stores, resulting in gemcitabine-induced cell death. Here we performed a systemic analysis to evaluate gemcitabine based chemotherapy as salvage treatment for patients with recurrent or refractory osteosarcoma. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the impact of gemcitabine based regimens on response and safety for patients with osteosarcoma were identified by using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rates (RRs) of treatment were calculated. Results: In gemcitabine based regimens, 4 clinical studies which included 66 patients with recurrent or refractory osteosarcoma were considered eligible for inclusion. Systemic analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 12.1% (8/66) in gemcitabine based regimens. Major adverse effects were hematologic toxicity, including grade 3 or 4 anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia in gemcitabine based treatment. No treatment related death occurred in gemcitabine based treatment. Conclusion: This systemic analysis suggests that gemcitabine based regimens are associated with mild activity with good tolerability in treating patients with recurrent or refractory osteosarcoma.

Electrodeposition of Some Selective Metals Belonging to Light, Refractory and Noble Metals from Ionic Liquid Electrolytes

  • Dilasari, Bonita;Kwon, Kyung-Jung;Lee, Churl-Kyoung;Kim, Han-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.135-148
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    • 2012
  • Ionic liquids are steadily attracting interests throughout a recent decade and their application is expanding into various fields including electrochemistry due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical potential window and so on. These features make ionic liquids become an alternative solution for electrodeposition of metals that cannot be electroplated in aqueous electrolytes. In this review, we classify investigated metals into three categories, which are light (Li, Mg), refractory (Ti, Ta) and noble (Pd, Pt, Au) metals, rather than covering the exhaustive list of metals and try to update the recent development in this area. In electrodeposition of light metals, granular fine Li particles were successfully obtained while the passivation of electrodeposited Mg layers is an obstacle to reversible deposition-dissolution process of Mg. In the case of refractory metals, the quality of Ta and Ti deposit particles was effectively improved with addition of LiF and pyrrole, respectively. In noble metal category, EMIM TFSA ionic liquid as an electrolyte for Au electrodeposition was proven to be effective and BMP TFSA ionic liquid developed a smooth Pd deposit. Pt nanoparticle production from ionic liquid droplet in aqueous solution can be cost-effective and display an excellent electrocatalytic activity.

Decompressive Hemicraniectomy and Duroplasty in Toddlers and Preschool Children with Refractory Intracranial Hypertension after Unilateral Hemispheric Stroke

  • Lee, Sang-Kook;Kim, Sang-Dae;Kim, Se-Hoon;Lim, Dong-Jun;Park, Jung-Yul
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.86-90
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    • 2012
  • Objective : Life-threatening hemispheric stroke is associated with a high mortality and morbidity. Decompressive hemicraniectomy has been regarded as an effective treatment option for refractory intracranial hypertension. Here, we reported the clinical course of 5 children with decompressive craniectomy and duroplasty after non-traumatic refractory intracranial hypertension. Methods : Four toddlers and one preschool-girl were included in this study; there were 3 boys and 2 girls with a mean age of 34.6 months (range 17-80). Decompressive craniectomy including duroplasty was performed in cases of dilatation of pupil size after intensified standard medical therapy had proven insufficient. All children had a Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale score <8 at pre-operation state. The mean time-point of craniectomy after stroke attack was 12 hours (range 4-19). Results : During the long-term follow-up period (mean 47.6 months), no children died. One year later, when we checked their Glasgow Outcome Scale scores, only one toddler received a score of 4 (moderate disability). But the others had good recoveries although they had minor physical or mental deficits. According to the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale, 4 children received a score of 2 (mild disability). Conclusion : Despite our small cases, we suggest that decompressive hemicraniectomy and duroplasty is an acceptable and life-saving treatment for refractory intracranial hypertension after unilateral hemispheric stroke in toddlers and preschool children.

Effectiveness of Intra-anal Biofeedback and Electrical Stimulation in the Treatment of Children With Refractory Monosymptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis: A Comparative Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Abd El-Moghny, Seham Mohammed;El-Din, Manal Salah;El Shemy, Samah Attia
    • International Neurourology Journal
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.295-304
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To compare the effects of intra-anal biofeedback (BF) and intra-anal electrical stimulation (ES) on pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) activity, nocturnal bladder capacity, and frequency of wet night episodes in children with refractory primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE). Methods: Ninety children of both sexes aged 8-12 years with refractory PMNE participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to 3 groups of equal number: control group (CON) that underwent behavioral therapy and PFM training, and 2 study groups (BF and ES) that underwent the same program in addition to intra-anal BF training and intra-anal ES, respectively. PFMs activity was assessed using electromyography, nocturnal bladder capacity was evaluated by measuring the first morning voided volume, and a nocturnal enuresis diary was used for documenting wet night episodes before treatment and after 3 months of treatment. Results: After training, all groups showed statistically significant improvements in all measured outcomes compared to their pretreatment findings. The ES group showed significantly greater improvements in all measured outcomes than the CON and BF groups. Conclusions: Both intra-anal BF training and ES combined with behavioral therapy and PFMs training were effective in the treatment of PMNE, with intra-anal ES being superior to BF training.