• Title, Summary, Keyword: Renal function

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Effect of the Extracorporeal Circulation on Renal Function in Adult Open Heart Patients (개심술시 체외순환이 신장기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Won;Seo, Gyeong-Pil
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.718-731
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    • 1985
  • Renal dysfunction is a common complication of open-heart surgery: a form of controlled hemorrhagic shock, and successful perioperative management of renal dysfunction depends on recognition of the risk factors and optimal management of factors influencing renal function, including cardiopulmonary bypass, and early detection of renal failure. Changes in renal functional parameters including Ccr, Cosm, CH2O, FENa, and RFI were observed prospectively in forty five patients operated on at Dept. of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, S.N.U.H., from April to June, 1985. They were 23 males and 22 females with 35 acquired and 10 congenital heart diseases and the mean age and body surface area of them were 38.010.3 years [22-63] and 1.5518 M2[1.151.92] respectively. Followings are the conclusion. 1. The Ccr, representative of renal function, is significantly improved from 90.231.3 ml/min/M2 preoperatively to 101.536.4 ml/min/M2 postoperative and day [P<0.05], and all patients were classified as postoperative renal functional class I of Abel, which representing adequate renal protection during our cardiopulmonary bypass. 2. The Cosm is significantly elevated at immediate postperfusion time and remained high at postoperative one day representing osmotic diuresis at that time, but CH2O shows no significant changes at immediate postperfusion period and is decreased significantly at postoperative one day, representing recovery of renal concentrating ability at that time with decreasing urine flow. 3. The absolute value and changing tendency in FENa and RFI during perioperative period shows no diagnostic reliability on these parameters, but those of CH2O appear to reveal future renal function more accurately than Ccr 4. The depth of hypothermia may be protective upon renal function against the ill effects of prolonged nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. 5. The depth of the hypothermia, pump time of more than 150 minutes, poor cardiac function, and intraoperative events such as embolism appear to be related with immediate postperfusion renal function. 6. Hemoglobinuria and hemolysis, poor preoperative renal function, history of cardiac surgery, and massive transfusion associated with bleeding appear not to be related with renal dysfunction.

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Relationship of Renal Echogenicity with Renal Pathology and Function

  • Lee, Jin Hee;Cho, Myung Hyun;Chung, Sung Ill;Lim, So Dug;Kim, Kyo Sun
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Renal ultrasonography has been widely used in children with renal disease. However, the relationship of renal echogenicity with renal pathology and function in children is not well known. Method: Ultrasound examination was performed in 75 patients undergoing renal biopsy for suspected renal disease in Konkuk University Medical Center from August 2005 to November 2015. We compared renal echogenicity to pathologic findings and renal function. Renal echogenicity was scored as 0 to 2 by comparing adjacent liver echogenicity. Three histologic characteristics were evaluated: glomerular changes, interstitial infiltration or fibrosis, and tubular atrophy. These were graded as 0 to 3, according to increasing severity. Laboratory results included urine albumin excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: Among pathologic findings, renal echogenicity revealed a positive correlation with interstitial infiltration or fibrosis (r=0.259, P=0.025), and with tubular atrophy (r=0.268, P=0.02). Renal echogenicity and glomerular changes were not correlated. Renal echogenicity showed a positive correlation with microalbuminuria (r=0.283, P=0.014), but a negative correlation with eGFR (r=-0.352, P=0.002). Conclusion: Increased renal echogenicity suggested severe interstitial infiltration or fibrosis and tubular atrophy among the pathologic findings. Moreover, increased echogenicity is correlated with increased urine albumin excretion and decreased eGFR. Echogenicity on ultrasonography is useful for determining the status of renal pathology and function.

The Influence of guanethidine on the renal function of the rabbit (Guanethidine이 가토의 신장기능에 미치는 영향)

  • 고석태;김성원
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 1973
  • The influence of guanethidine on the renal function was investigated in the rabbit. Guanethidine, 1-10mg/kg, i.v., produced no marked change in the renal function, while second and successive doses of guanethidine elicited a significant increase in urine flow and electrolyte excretion as well as renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate. It was suggested that the diuretic action was brought about by improvement of hemodynamic state in the kidney ; increased filtration as a result of increased renal perfusion. Atropine alone did not significantly influence the renal function but pretreatment of animals with atropine, 4 mg/kg i.v., completely abolished the diuretic action of guanethidine. It is suggested that guanethidine influences the renal function by activating parasympathetic nervous system or some cholinergic mechanism in the kidney.

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Effects of Renal Arterial Trifluoperazine on the Renal Function in Conscious Rabbit (무마취가토 신동맥내 투여에 의한 Trifluoperazine의 신장기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Koh, Gou Y.;Cho, Kyung W.
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.25-33
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    • 1985
  • Renal arterial infusion of renotropic agents has been a very useful technique in the renal function studies. This type of experiments have usually been conducted in the large animals such as dogs and sheep. In these animals a catheter can be placed in the site without much disturbances of renal blood flow. Rabbits as an experimental model, however, caused a disturbances of renal blood flow by a catheterization of renal artery by its properties. Therefore we have developed a new technique that allows a simple and selective access to one side of renal arteries and the other as a control, without any disturbances of renal function. The distance between the both bifurcations of renal arteries on abdominal aorta is about 7 mm. To locate the tip of catheter on one side renal artery, ascending cannulation performed via femoral artery was done. We did an experiment with the technique to clarify the effect of calmodulin inhibitor on the renal function. One of the phenothiazine derivatives, trifluoperazine known as a powerful calmodulin inhibitor. Trifluoperazine, actual dose ranges of $2.76-5.20\;ug\;{\cdot}\;kg^{-1}\;{\cdot}\;min^{-1}$, increased urine volume and glomerular filtration rate significantly. Significant increases in urinary excretion of sodium, chloride and potassium were found. Fractional excretion of sodium and free water clearance increased significantly. These data suggest that this new technique is very useful in field of renal physiology and that striking effect of trifluoperazine on the renal function may be caused by increasing the renal hemodynamics, and by the inhibition of sodium, chloride and potassium reabsorption in the renal tubules.

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Renal Problems in Early Adult Patients with Turner Syndrome

  • Yu, Dong Uk;Ku, Jae Kyun;Chung, Woo Yeong
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.154-158
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the status of renal function and the presence of urinary abnormalities in early adult patients with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Sixty-three girls with TS, who are attending pediatric endocrine clinics in Busan Paik Hosp., were studied. Urine and blood chemistry tests were performed in every visiting times. Renal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at the initial diagnosis, and intravenous pyelography, DMSA renal scan and renal CT were also performed, if necessary. Results: Of the 63 patients, the karyotype showed 45,X in 32 (50.8%), mosaicism in 22 (34.9%) and structural aberration in 9 (14.3%). The renal function at the latest visit was shown as normal in all patients. Nephrotic syndrome had developed in one patient. Hematuria was observed in seven patients. Renal anomalies were observed in 20 of the 63 TS (31.7%). Of the 32 TS patients with 45,X karyotype, 13 (40.6%) had renal anomalies, while these were found in 7 (22.6%) of 31 TS patients with mosaicism/structural aberration. But there was no significant statistical difference between two karyotype groups. Conclusion: Based on this study, most of the patients with TS do not have any significant problems related to renal function until early adulthood, regardless of renal malformation or hematuria.

Effect of Glibenclamide, $K^+$ Channel Blocker, on Renal Function in Rabbit (토끼의 신장기능에 미치는 $K^+$ Channel 차단제인 Glibenclamide의 영향)

  • 고석태;나종학
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 2001
  • This study was investigated about the effect of glibenclamide (GLY) which is $K^{+}$ channel blocker on renal function in rabbit, GLY, when given into the vein, produced the diuretic action accompanied with the increases of amounts of N $a^{+}$ and $K^{+}$ excreted into urine ( $E_{Na}$ , $E^{K}$), and then osmolar and negative free water clearances ( $C_{osm}$, $T^{C}$$_{H2O}$), fraction excretory rates of filtered N $a^{+}$ and $K^{+}$ ( $F_{Na}$ , $F_{K}$) and ratios of $E_{K}$ against $E_{Na}$ were augmented. Filtration fraction (FF) were reduced because renal plasma flow (RPF) were not changed but glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were diminished. GLY administered into a renal artery exhibited significant reduction of urine volume along with the decreases of GFR and RPF in only experimented kidney whereas changes of renal function was not observed in control kidney. GLY given intracerebroventricularly exhibited diuretic action along with the increase of $E_{Na}$ , $E_{K}$ and $F_{Na}$ , $F_{K}$ by small dose which was not affect on renal function when it given into the vein. Above results suggest that GLY given into the vein in rabbit produce the diuretic action by inhibition of electrolytes reabsorption in renal tubules through central function. function.n. function.ion.

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Effects of Jeo Ryong-tang water Extract on Renal Function in Rabbit and Dog (저령탕전탕액(猪令湯煎湯液)이 가토(家兎) 및 개의 신장기능(腎臟機能)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Jo, Sang-Seop
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.213-221
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    • 1990
  • Effect of Jeo Ryong-Tang water Extract on Renal Function in Rabbit and Dog. In order to investigate the Pharmacological action of Jeo Ryoung-Tang on renal function, this study was performed in rabbit and dog, making use of it's water extract. Jeo Ryoung-Tang water extract (JRWE), when given into ear vein of rabbits, produced diuresis in a small dose, but antidiuresis in a large dose. Diuretic action of JRWE accompanied the increase of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF) and amounts of $Na^+$ in exdreated in urin, but fractional excretion of filtered $Na^+$ was not changed. JRWE, when injected into proleg's vein of dog, produced diuresis, At this time, changes of renal function were similar to that of diuresis in rabbit. JRWE, when infused into a renal artery of dog, exhibited the diuresis in both kidney. It is thought that JRWE, when given into vein of rabbit or dog, induces the diuresis, and the mechanism of it's diuresis is the increase of renal plasma flow through secondary action by some endogenous humoural substance.

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Effect of Ketanserin on Renal Function in Dogs (개의 신장기능에 미치는 Ketanserin의 영향)

  • 고석태;심기정;정경희
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.665-673
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    • 1999
  • This study was performed in order to investigate the effect of ketanserin, a specific antagonist of 5-HT2 receptor, on renal function in dogs. Ketanserin (50.0 and $150.0{\;}\mu\textrm{g}/kg$), when given intravenously, produced antidiuretic action accompanied with the decreased amounts of sodium and potassium excreted in urine (ENa, EK) and the increased reabsorption rates of sodium and potassium in renal tubules (RNa, RK). Ketanserin (50.0 and $50.0{\;}\mu\textrm{g}/kg$), when administered into a renal artery, elicited antidiuretic action in both experimental and control kidney, this time changes of renal function showed the same aspect as when given intravenously. Ketanserin (15.0 and $50.0{\;}\mu\textrm{g}/kg$) injected into the carotid artery exhibited also antidiuretic action and this antidiuretic action was not affected by renal denervation. Above results suggest that ketanserin elicits antidiuretic through central function, this central antidiuretic action is not mediated by renal nerves.

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Effect of renal ischemia on renal function and excretion of lysine, alanine in the rabbit (신장 허혈이 토끼 신기능과 lysine 및 alanine 배설에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Yun-jeong;Kim, Yong-keun;Kim, Joo-heon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.729-733
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to determine the effect of renal ischemia on renal function and excretion of amino acid in rabbit. The animal models of renal ischemia induced experimentally by clamping the renal artery for different lengths of time. These results were summarized as follows: 1. Ischemia for 30 or 60 min produced a polyuria which is accompanied by an increase in $Na^+$ excretion. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and p-aminohippurate plasma($C_{PAH}$) were not altered by 30 min of ischemia, indicating that transient ischemia results in a marked tubular dysfuction before a reduction in GFR or renal blood flow. 2. Reabsorption of glucose and amino acids such as alanine and lysine was markedly reduced after 30 min of ischemia, and the effect was more pronounced after 60 min of ischemia.

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Mechanisms of Russell's Viper Venom Toxicity on Renal Function; Reversal by Antivenom

  • Chaiyabutr, Narongsak;Napathorn, Sophon;Sitprija, Visith
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.17
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 2001
  • Envenoming by Russells viper causes a broad spectrum of renal impairment. Renal failure is an important complication in patients bitten by Russells viper. Experimental work in animals and in vitro has elucidated pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to life threatening complications and have suggested possibilities for therapeutic intervention. The evidence in experimental animals regarding mechanisms of venom action in relation to changes in either extrarenal or intrarenal factors is presented. The cardiovascular system and renal hemodynamics are affected by venom. Reductions of renal function including renal hemodynamics are associated directly with changes in general circulation during envenomation. Possible endogenous mechanisms for releasing the hormone inducing renal vasoconstriction after envenomation are evident. Hormonal factor such as the catecholamine, prostaglandin and renin angiotensin systems induce these changes. Direct nephrotoxicity of venom action is studied in the isolated per-fused kidney. Characteristic polarization of the cell membrane, changes of mitochondrial activity and Na-K ATPase in renal tubular cells are observed. Changes in renal function and the cardiovascular system are observed of ter envenomation and are reversed by the administration of Russells viper antivenom (purified equine immunoglobulin, $Fab_2$ fragment). The neutralizing effects are more efficient when the intravenous injection of antivenom is given within 30 min after the envenomation.

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