• Title, Summary, Keyword: Repeated measure

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Automatic Music Summarization Using Similarity Measure Based on Multi-Level Vector Quantization (다중레벨 벡터양자화 기반의 유사도를 이용한 자동 음악요약)

  • Kim, Sung-Tak;Kim, Sang-Ho;Kim, Hoi-Rin
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.26 no.2E
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    • pp.39-43
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    • 2007
  • Music summarization refers to a technique which automatically extracts the most important and representative segments in music content. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a technique which provides the repeated part in music content as music summary. For extracting a repeated segment in music content, the proposed algorithm uses the weighted sum of similarity measures based on multi-level vector quantization for fixed-length summary or optimal-length summary. For similarity measures, count-based similarity measure and distance-based similarity measure are proposed. The number of the same codeword and the Mahalanobis distance of features which have same codeword at the same position in segments are used for count-based and distance-based similarity measure, respectively. Fixed-length music summary is evaluated by measuring the overlapping ratio between hand-made repeated parts and automatically generated ones. Optimal-length music summary is evaluated by calculating how much automatically generated music summary includes repeated parts of the music content. From experiments we observed that optimal-length summary could capture the repeated parts in music content more effectively in terms of summary length than fixed-length summary.

A Comparison of Noise Level by Noise Measuring Methods (소음측정방법에 따른 평가소음도 비교)

  • Shim, Chur Goo;Roh, Jae hoon;Park, Jung Gyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.128-136
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the difference of noise level according to noise measuring methods in the noisy working environments. Sound pressure level(SPL), equivalence sound level(Leq) and personal noise exposure dose(Dose) in the fifty-nine unit workplaces of the twenty-eight industries were measured and relating factors which were affected noise level were investigated. The results were as follows ; 1. The noise levels were $88.70{\pm}5.68dB(A)$ by SPL, $89.07{\pm}5.41dB(A)$ by Leq and $89.07{\pm}5.69$ by Dose. The differences of noise levels by three measuring methods were statistically significant(P<0.001) by repeated measure ANOV A. 2. Comparing with noise levels by general classes of noise exposure, noise levels of continuous noise were $89.14{\pm}5.19dB(A)$ by SPL, $89.45{\pm}4.65dB(A)$ by Leq and $90.04{\pm}5.09$ by Dose. Noise levels of intermittent noise were $87.90{\pm}6.52dB(A)$ by SPL, $88.40{\pm}6.63dB(A)$ by Leq and $90.10{\pm}6.80$ by Dose. The differences noise level of noise measuring methods by general classese of noise exposure were statistically not significant by repeated measure ANOV A. 3. Interaction between general classese of noise exposure and noise measuring methods for noise level was not statistically significant by repeated measure ANOVA. And the noise level by noise measuring methods were statistically significant by repeated measure ANOV A(P<.001) 4. Comparing with noise levels by unit workplace size, noise levels of large unit workplace were $90.73{\pm}5.87dB(A)$ by SPL, $91.32{\pm}5.50dB(A)$ by Leq and $91.82{\pm}6.06$ by Dose and noise levels of middle unit workplace were $88.31{\pm}5.26dB(A)$ by SPL, $88.41{\pm}4.83dB(A)$ by Leq and $89.69{\pm}5.05$ by Dose. And noise levels of small unit workplace were $94.89{\pm}4.10dB(A)$ by SPL, $85.35{\pm}4.11dB(A)$ by Leq and $86.87{\pm}4.98$ by Dose. The noise level differences of noise measuring methods by unit workplace size were statistically significant by repeated measure ANOV A(P<.05). 5. The noise level by noise measuring methods were statistically significant by repeated measure ANOV A(P<.001). But Interaction between workplace size and noise level measuring methods for noise level was not statistically significant by repeated measure ANOVA. According to the above results, there was a difference of the noise level among the three measuring methods. Therefore we must use the personal noise exposure dose using by noise dose meter, possible, to prvent occupational hearing loss in noisy working environment.

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A Study of Choice for Analysis Method on Repeated Measures Clinical Data

  • Song, Jung
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.60-65
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    • 2013
  • Data from repeated measurements are accomplished through repeatedly processing the same subject under different conditions and different points of view. The power of testing enhances the choice of pertinent analysis methods that agrees with the characteristics of data concerned and the situation involved. Along with the clinical example, this paper compares the analysis of the variance on ex-post tests, gain score analysis, analysis by mixed design and analysis of covariance employable for repeating measure. Comparing the analysis of variance on ex post test, and gain score analysis on correlations, leads to the fact that the latter enhances the power of the test and diminishes the variance of error terms. The concluded probability, identified that the gain score analysis and the mixed design on interaction between "between subjects factor" and "within subjects factor", are identical. The analysis of covariance, demonstrated better power of the test and smaller error terms than the gain score analysis. Research on four analysis method found that the analysis of covariance is the most appropriate in clinical data than two repeated test with high correlation and ex ante affects ex post.

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Interactive Effects of Usage-Situations and Personal Characteristics on Benefit Soughts of Clothing and Preference of Brand Type (상황과 소비자 특성의 추구 혜택자 선호 브랜드 유형에 대한 영향)

  • 홍희숙;고애란
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.738-752
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    • 1996
  • The purposes of this study were 1) to test the interactive effects of usage-situation (wedding receptions, home, and vacation) and personal characteristics (age, income, education, job or self-monitoring) on clothing benefits sought and 2) to identify brand type preference of consumer groups segmented by age, income, education, job or self-monitoring within a situation. The data were collected via a questionnaire from 601 housewives of ages 20's∼ 50's living in Seoul, Korea. The data were analyzed by factor analysis, repeated measure two-way ANOVA and Chi-square test. The results of this study were as follows. First, by repeated measure tow-way ANOVA, there were significant interactions of age and situation, and interactions of education and situation on Youth/Fashion benefits and Brand-value benefits. And interactive effects of education and situation on Self-expression benefits and Economic-value benefits were significant by repeated measure two-way A NOVA. Second, based on x2-test, brand type preference was significant difference between consumer groups segmented by age, education and job within a situation. And preferences of brand type were different among usage situations.

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The Impacts of the Recasting of Non-precious Metal Alloy for Porcelain Fused to Metal Crowns on Strength (도재소부금관용 비귀금속 합금의 반복주조가 강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Hee-Sun;Oh, Gyung-Jae
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2009
  • This study compared and analyzed changes to the mechanical characteristics to nonprecious metal alloy for porcelain fused to metal crowns when it's repetitively used without the addition of new alloy. Metal samples were made with the Verabond V nonprecious metal alloy. Those samples to measure tensile and yield strength were made in the standardized design(ISO 22674), those to measure bond strength in the $25mm{\times}3mm{\times}0.5mm$ format, and those to measure hardness in the $10mm{\times}10mm{\times}1mm$ format. A ceramic to measure bond strength was made at the center of the metal sample in the length of $8{\ss}{\AE}$ by using Noritaker Super Porcelain EX-3. Ten samples were prepared for one, three and five repetitions of casting each. The test results were as follows: 1. The more casting was repeated, the more significantly tensile strength dropped. 2. The more casting was repeated, the more significantly yield strength dropped. 3. Repetitive casting didn't cause significant changes to bond strength. 4. The Vickers hardness significantly fell with increasing repetitions of casting. There were no changes to bond strength observed with the increasing number of repeating casting. But tensile strength, yield strength, and Vickers hardness decreased. Those results indicate that repeated casting can affect durability and that careful attention should be paid by avoiding repetitive use or excessive increase of uses when no new alloy is added.

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Effect of Feeding with High γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Containing Giant Embryo Black Sticky Rice (Oryza sativa L.) on Alcohol Intake in C57BL/6 Mice (GABA 고함유 흑찰거대배아미의 투여가 C57BL/6형 생쥐의 알코올 섭취량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyeun-Kyeung;Kim, Sung-Gon;Lee, Jin-Sung;Lee, Sang-Shin;Jung, Woo-Young;Han, Sang-Ik;Kim, Byung-Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.698-702
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    • 2013
  • It is known that black sticky rice with giant embryo (BSRGB, Milyang 263) and giant embryo rice (GER) contains higher levels of GABA than rice. Therefore, feeding BSRGB, GER, or rice freely to C57BL/6 mice with two-hour alcohol intake for 16 days was investigated. For two-hour alcohol intake, a repeated measure ANOVA (three treatment groups repeated across 16 days; 8 two-day blocks) yielded a significant group by block interaction (df=16, F=3.109, p=0.004). The independent t-test showed that significant suppression of two-hour alcohol intake was observed when subjects were administered with BSRGB, compared with the rice alone across all the two-day blocks (p<0.05). The paired t-test revealed that a significant suppression of two-hour alcohol intake was observed starting 4 to 16 days after freely feeding with BSRGB compared to before feeding. However, there is no significant difference in the two-hour alcohol intake observed between the before and after administration of rice. A repeated measure ANOVA revealed no significant group by block interaction for 22-hour water intake and body weight. However, a repeated measure ANOVA revealed a significant grouping by block interaction for food intake. These results indicate a change of two-hour alcohol intake is presumably caused by GABA, which is found in higher levels in BSRGB than in rice.

Identifying the Effects of Repeated Tasks in an Apartment Construction Project Using Machine Learning Algorithm (기계적 학습의 알고리즘을 이용하여 아파트 공사에서 반복 공정의 효과 비교에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyunjoo
    • Journal of KIBIM
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2016
  • Learning effect is an observation that the more times a task is performed, the less time is required to produce the same amount of outcomes. The construction industry heavily relies on repeated tasks where the learning effect is an important measure to be used. However, most construction durations are calculated and applied in real projects without considering the learning effects in each of the repeated activities. This paper applied the learning effect to the repeated activities in a small sized apartment construction project. The result showed that there was about 10 percent of difference in duration (one approach of the total duration with learning effects in 41 days while the other without learning effect in 36.5 days). To make the comparison between the two approaches, a large number of BIM based computer simulations were generated and useful patterns were recognized using machine learning algorithm named Decision Tree (See5). Machine learning is a data-driven approach for pattern recognition based on observational evidence.

Analysis of Physiological Bio-information, Human Physical Activities and Load of Lumbar Spine during the Repeated Lifting Work (반복적인 들어올리기 작업시 작업자의 생체정보, 인체활동량 및 허리부하 분석)

  • Son, Hyun-Mok;SeonWoo, Hoon;Lim, Ki-Taek;Kim, Jang-Ho;Chung, Jong-Hoon
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.357-365
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    • 2010
  • Workers in the agricultural industry have been exposed to many work-related musculoskeletal disorders. So, our objectives in this study were to measure and analyze worker's physiological bio-information to reduce musculoskeletal disorders in relation to agricultural works. We investigated worker's bio-information of physiological signals during the repeated lifting work such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, physical activity, and heart rate variability. Moreover, we analyzed the workloads of lumbar spine during the repeated lifting work using the 3-axis acceleration and angular velocity sensors. The changes of body temperature was not significant, but the mean heart rate increased from 90/min to 116/min significantly during 30 min of repeated lifting work (p<0.05). The average worker's physical activity(energy consumption rate) was 206 kcal/70kg/h during the repeated lifting work. The workers' acute stress index was more than 80, which indicated a stressful work. Also, the maximum shear force on the disk (L5/S1) of a worker's lumbar spine in static state was 500N, and the maximum inertia moment was 139 $N{\cdot}m$ in dynamic state.

Imputation method for missing data based on clustering and measure of property (군집화 및 특성도를 이용한 결측치 대체 방법)

  • Kim, Sunghyun;Kim, Dongjae
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.29-40
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    • 2018
  • There are various reasons for missing values when collecting data. Missing values have some influence on the analysis and results; consequently, various methods of processing missing values have been studied to solve the problem. It is thought that the later point of view may be affected by the initial time point value in the repeated measurement data. However, in the existing method, there was no method for the imputation of missing values using this concept. Therefore, we proposed a new missing value imputation method in this study using clustering in initial time point of the repeated measurement data and the measure of property proposed by Kim and Kim (The Korean Communications in Statistics, 30, 463-473, 2017). We also applied the Monte Carlo simulations to compare the performance of the established method and suggested methods in repeated measurement data.

Development and Effects of a Simulation-Based Convergence Practicum Education Program for Nursing Seniors (간호대학생 대상 시뮬레이션 기반 융합실습교육프로그램 개발 및 효과)

  • An, Minjeong;Cho, Hang Nan;Dordunoo, Dzifa;Hwang, Yoon Young
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.9 no.10
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    • pp.16-27
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the effects of a simulation-based convergence practicum education program among senior nursing students. A repeated measure experimental design was used. A total of 77 senior nursing students were recruited from a university located in G city. Data was collected at baseline, program completion, and 2 month following completion of the practicum. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of the program. There were statistically significant improvements between baseline and program completion and between the baseline and 2 month follow-up. However, there was no significant differences between the program completion and 2 month follow-up. The study demonstrated that simulation-based convergence practicum education was an effective strategy to increase study outcomes and reduce clinical practice stress among senior nursing students. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of the program using randomized controlled trials.