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A Study on University Students' Eating-out Behavior and Attitude to Coupons and Alliance Cards (대학생들의 외식 소비 행태 및 쿠폰과 제휴 카드에 대한 태도 조사)

  • Lee, Jong-Ho;Jung, Hyun-Young
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.186-200
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate university students' eating out behavior and attitude to coupons and alliance cards in the food service industry. Self administered questionnaires were collected from 435 students. Statistical data analysis was completed using a SPSS v. 12.0 program. The results were summarized as follows: The average age was 21.24. Korean-style food was the most favorite dish when they ate out. Major sources of restaurant information were friends and acquaintances. The factors of choosing restaurants came 'taste', 'hygienic', 'price' and 'service' in that order. Comparing coupons with alliance cards, they used coupons less frequently than alliance cards. The behavior of using coupons and alliance cards indicated that university students regarded alliance cards as more economically helpful than coupons.

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THE RELIABILITY PREDICTION OF PCB CARDS OF POWER CABINET OF CONTROL ROD CONTROL SYSTEM (제어봉 제어 시스템의 전력함 PCB 카드에 대한 신뢰성 예측)

  • Won, Jung-Hae;Suk, Sur-Jung;Kyun, Yook-Sim;Han, Nam-Jung
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.2028-2030
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    • 2003
  • This paper describes the results of reliability prediction analysis of control rod control system, which is being developed as part of KNICS project. The results of reliability prediction indicate MTBF(Mean Time Between Failure) of cards for control rod control system. A purpose of reliability prediction is to evaluate MTBF of cards, identify the design drawbacks of cards, and propose design improvement to a designer to help design the more reliable control rod control system. This reliability prediction analysis used the the part count and part stress method in the basis of MIL-HDBK-217F.

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Development of a Standard to Assess Classifying Inquiry Skills by Observation (관찰에 의한 분류하기 탐구 능력 평가 준거 개발)

  • Ju, Jung-Eun;Cha, Hee-Young
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.407-417
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this research is to develop standards with which we can design an instrument to assess classifying inquiry skills by observing students' behavior and reported outcome which is not the paper and pencil test. This research is focused on developing a standard for analysis of classifying ability among research functions. To identify classifying inquiry skills, standards from classifying behaviors were comparing ways with other cards and using information included in the cards; Standards selected from the final reports were the appropriateness, inconsistency and hierarchy of the classification outcome. The standards were initially selected during the class with picture cards printed various birds appearances on the front side and their traits on the back which was specially designed among sixth graders. The picture cards prepared with plant leaves and stems had designed to identify whether standards was effective to assess student's classifying ability. The standards was an effective tool to assess student's classifying inquiry skills.

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Going beyond Border? Intention to Use International Bank Cards in Vietnam

  • PHAN, Dzung Tran Trung;NGUYEN, Thanh Thi Ha;BUI, Tuan Anh
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.315-325
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    • 2019
  • The paper aims to explore the factors affecting potential users of international bank cards in Vietnam. With milestones treaties being signed CPTPP and EVFTA, Vietnam is now exposing itself to the international open environment. Bank card market is at the core of this wind of change, and that is the reason for us to research the intention to use international bank cards. Given that the decision to choose international bank cards could either be the switch from domestic cards or adopting a brand new card, we develop some specific constructs to reflect that consideration, specifically PE and PD, asides from traditional constructs used in TPB and TAM frameworks. The analysis work is conducted using PLS-SEM approach. Our findings reveals that most of our proposed hypotheses are supported, in which SN plays the most important direct role to INT, while total effect of PU on INT is similar to that of SN. The newly introduced PD negatively and significantly impacts INT, and PE also has a positive impact on INT. The findings suggest that overall, it is important for bank card issuers to have a balance approach to the market, with focus on increasing usefulness and reducing potential disadvantages of international bank cards.

The Effects of Reward Card Types and Regulatory Focus on Transaction Coupling and Sunk Cost Perception (적립카드 유형과 조절적 초점이 소비자의 거래커플링과 매몰비용 지각에 미치는 효과)

  • Choe, Seon-Gyeong;Kahn, Hyungsik
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.103-121
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    • 2013
  • Since American Airlines's mileage program emerged in market, loyalty programs have gained popularity. Many companies have generated many kinds of reward cards in order to induce precious consumers. As a result, reward cards are very important in consumer goods market and become diversified. In spite of its importance, little is known about how these cards influence consumer's perception. The prior research has not focused on reward card types and psychological variables. Accordingly this research intends to investigate psychological variables such as transaction coupling and sunk cost perception. According to the theory of regulatory focus, promotion focus consumers would point to gain-nongain frame work, but prevention focus consumers would point to loss-nonloss frame work. The paper proved the effect of reward card types and regulatory focus on transaction coupling and sunk cost perception. Based on the results from 2(type of card : visible vs invisible) ${\times}$ 2(regulatory focus: promotion vs prevention) between-subjects factorial design experiments, we found that consumer's transaction coupling and sunk cost perception of visible reward card are better recognized than invisible reward card. In addition, the results show that there is a significant interaction effect between the type of reward card and regulatory focus. Specifically promotion focused consumers tend to reveal better perception than prevention focused consumers in use of invisible cards. However, prevention focused consumers tend to show better perception than promotion focused consumers in use of visible cards. These findings will contribute to significant academic development and practically useful help to marketing managers.

Credit-Card Use and Clothing Purchasing according to Lifestyles of College Students (대학생의 라이프스타일 유형에 따른 신용카드 사용과 의복구매)

  • Na, Young-Joo;Lee, Eun-Hee;Chang, Kyung-Ja
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.585-594
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    • 2004
  • This study aimed to classify the lifestyles of 1020 college students, and to analyze the effect of the lifestyles on the usages of credit card, price perception, purchasing satisfaction and the number of new clothing. The number of credit cards, total payment of credit cards and the attitude to credit card were different by the 7 clusters of college students, but the frequency of credit card use, the amount of cash service and arrear ages were not different. The perception to the apparel price, purchasing satisfaction, and the degree of clothing purchasing varied according to the lifestyle clusters. For example, 6th cluster being highest in the pursuit of appearance showed the highest amount of credit cards usage significantly and tendency of highest arrearage, and used credit cards mostly in clothing purchase.

A New Session Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards (스마트 카드를 이용한 새로운 세션 키 생성 방법)

  • Lee, Jongkook;Jongsoo Jang
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.518-520
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    • 2003
  • This paper proposes a new session key agreement scheme which is based on Station-to-station protocol, or STS shortly. We extend key agreement model of STS, to take into account smart cards. Besides, we modify STS to withstand message replaying attack. Security analysis shows our scheme is still secure.

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Comparative Analysis of ViSCa Platform-based Mobile Payment Service with other Cases (스마트카드 가상화(ViSCa) 플랫폼 기반 모바일 결제 서비스 제안 및 타 사례와의 비교분석)

  • Lee, June-Yeop;Lee, Kyoung-Jun
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.163-178
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    • 2014
  • Following research proposes "Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa)" which is a security system that aims to provide a multi-device platform for the deployment of services that require a strong security protocol, both for the access & authentication and execution of its applications and focuses on analyzing Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) platform-based mobile payment service by comparing with other similar cases. At the present day, the appearance of new ICT, the diffusion of new user devices (such as smartphones, tablet PC, and so on) and the growth of internet penetration rate are creating many world-shaking services yet in the most of these applications' private information has to be shared, which means that security breaches and illegal access to that information are real threats that have to be solved. Also mobile payment service is, one of the innovative services, has same issues which are real threats for users because mobile payment service sometimes requires user identification, an authentication procedure and confidential data sharing. Thus, an extra layer of security is needed in their communication and execution protocols. The Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa), concept is a holistic approach and centralized management for a security system that pursues to provide a ubiquitous multi-device platform for the arrangement of mobile payment services that demand a powerful security protocol, both for the access & authentication and execution of its applications. In this sense, Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) offers full interoperability and full access from any user device without any loss of security. The concept prevents possible attacks by third parties, guaranteeing the confidentiality of personal data, bank accounts or private financial information. The Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) concept is split in two different phases: the execution of the user authentication protocol on the user device and the cloud architecture that executes the secure application. Thus, the secure service access is guaranteed at anytime, anywhere and through any device supporting previously required security mechanisms. The security level is improved by using virtualization technology in the cloud. This virtualization technology is used terminal virtualization to virtualize smart card hardware and thrive to manage virtualized smart cards as a whole, through mobile cloud technology in Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) platform-based mobile payment service. This entire process is referred to as Smart Card as a Service (SCaaS). Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) platform-based mobile payment service virtualizes smart card, which is used as payment mean, and loads it in to the mobile cloud. Authentication takes place through application and helps log on to mobile cloud and chooses one of virtualized smart card as a payment method. To decide the scope of the research, which is comparing Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) platform-based mobile payment service with other similar cases, we categorized the prior researches' mobile payment service groups into distinct feature and service type. Both groups store credit card's data in the mobile device and settle the payment process at the offline market. By the location where the electronic financial transaction information (data) is stored, the groups can be categorized into two main service types. First is "App Method" which loads the data in the server connected to the application. Second "Mobile Card Method" stores its data in the Integrated Circuit (IC) chip, which holds financial transaction data, which is inbuilt in the mobile device secure element (SE). Through prior researches on accept factors of mobile payment service and its market environment, we came up with six key factors of comparative analysis which are economic, generality, security, convenience(ease of use), applicability and efficiency. Within the chosen group, we compared and analyzed the selected cases and Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) platform-based mobile payment service.

Consumer Attitudes toward the Sales Promotions of Retail Apparel Stores With Respect to Purchase Intention (의류 소매점의 판매촉진에 대한 소비자 태도와 구매의도)

  • Kyung, Moon-Soo;Hwang, Choon-Sup
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2015
  • Purpose - Among potential marketing strategies, the most efficient method to encourage purchase intention is through sales promotions. Sales promotions also serve to enhance customer satisfaction, which is closely related to the incidence of repurchases. Therefore, the success of retail stores greatly depends on the effectiveness of their promotional activities. The present study aimed to obtain the necessary information for apparel stores to establish more effective promotional activities. To this end, the study's specific research questions were to examine 1) consumer satisfaction with the recent sales promotions of retail apparel stores, 2) the levels of consumer preferences for different types of sales promotions (cash discounts, promotional gifts, prize drawings, discount coupons, stamp cards, or mileage cards), and 3) the differences in purchase intention according to preference levels for different types of sales promotions. Research design, data, and methodology - The research employed a descriptive survey method using a self-administered questionnaire. The sample consisted of 700 men (n=234) and women (n=466) ranging in age from their 20s to their 50s and residing in the Seoul area. Data were analyzed through methods including factor analysis as well as Cronbach's α coefficients, the t-test, ANOVA, and the Duncan test. Results - Differences among consumer preferences were identified for each type of sales promotion according to the purchase amount and the customer's age. In relation to purchase amounts below 500,000 won, participants in their 50s have lower preferences for price discounts than those in their 20s or 30s, whereas participants in their 40s or 50s have lower preferences for stamp cards and mileage cards than those in their 20s. When the purchase amount is greater than 500,000 won, housewives have higher preferences for promotional gifts than respondents with other occupations. However, no gender differences were found with regard to preference levels for the different types of sales promotions. Respondents generally exhibited mediocre satisfaction with the sales promotion events of retail apparel stores. They also expressed negative opinions about sales promotions when such promotions lead to high prices, as well as dissatisfaction with the poor quality of promotional gifts. It was also found that, regardless of the purchase amount, the groups with higher preferences for discount coupons and mileage cards displayed higher purchase intentions. Only when the purchase amount is greater than 200,000 won did the group with higher preferences for lottery system promotional gifts express higher purchase intentions. On the other hand, for all purchase amount sizes, there were no differences in purchase intentions according to preferences for cash discounts, promotional gifts, or stamp cards. Conclusions - The results revealed that greater effort must be devoted to enhancing consumers' satisfaction levels with the promotional activities performed by apparel retail stores. The results also showed that it is necessary to differentiate among sales promotion strategies according to preference levels for different types of sales promotions, purchase amounts, and target consumer ages.

Types of Anger Expression in Clinical Nurses: Q Methodology (임상간호사의 분노표현양상: Q 방법론 적용)

  • Kim, Myung Ae;Ko, Sung Hee;Park, Eun A;Park, Jeong Eon;Jung, Bok Hee;Kim, Sun Hee
    • Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.107-117
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify types and characteristics of anger expression in clinical nurses. Methods: Q methodology was used to analyze each individual participant's subjectivity on anger expression. A total of forty clinical nurses arranged 32 pre-selected Q statement cards on a 9 point scale, shaping the cards' pile into a normal distribution. Then the data from the arranged cards were analyzed using the QUANL PC Program. Results: Three types of anger expression were identified; 'reasonably overcoming', 'emotionally expressing', and 'internally mitigating' including both positive and negative aspects. Conclusion: Adequate strategies to resolve anger in clinical nurses needs to be developed according to anger expression types.