• Title, Summary, Keyword: Resistin

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Effects of Adipokine Retnla on the Regulation of High-Density Lipoprotein Metabolism

  • Lee, Mi-Ran
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.139-145
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, we propose to evaluate the effect of Resistin-like molecule alpha (Retnla) on the expression of transporters involved in modulating concentrations of peripheral cholesterol and plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. High levels of blood cholesterol are a well-recognized risk factor for atherosclerosis and are eliminated via the process of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We recently showed that Retnla ameliorates hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis by increasing biliary cholesterol secretion, the final step of the process, in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. However, the role of Retnla in HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux, initial step of RCT pathway, is not yet clear. To identify cholesterol transport genes regulated by Retnla, we performed an extensive microarray-based gene expression screen using livers from Retnla-overexpressing (Tg) mice and control animals. The most significant change in Retnla-Tg mice was an upregulation of ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 4 (Abcg4) transport and was validated using quantitative RT-PCR. The validated gene was also induced by treatment of purified Retnla protein in RAW 264.7 cells incubated with acetylated low-density lipoprotein and Hepa1c1c7 cells. Taken together, these results indicates that Retnla might also accelerate initial step of RCT pathway, suggesting therapeutic value of Retnla in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

Attenuation of Anemia by Relmα in LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response

  • Lee, Mi-Ran
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2018
  • In this paper, we propose to evaluate the effect of resistin-like molecule alpha ($Relm{\alpha}$) on the progression of anemia of inflammation. Anemia of inflammation is a common feature of inflammatory disorders, including chronic kidney disease, infections, and rheumatoid arthritis. $Relm{\alpha}$ is highly up-regulated in various inflammatory states, especially those involving asthma, intestinal inflammation, and parasitic diseases, and regulates the pathogenesis of those diseases. However, the role of $Relm{\alpha}$ in anemia of inflammation is unknown. To explore the roles of $Relm{\alpha}$ in anemia of inflammation in vivo, we generated mouse model of the disease by injecting 0.25 mg/kg lipopolysaccharides (LPS) intraperitoneally into $Relm{\alpha}-deficient$ and wild-type (WT) mice daily for 10 days. Research data was expressed as differences between LPS-treated $Relm{\alpha}-deficient$ and WT mice by a two-tailed non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test using GraphPad Instat program. The results of the study are as follows: LPS-treated $Relm{\alpha}-deficient$ mice had significantly (p<0.05) lower hemoglobin contents, hematocrit levels and red blood cell indices including mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin than WT controls. This decrease was accompanied by significant (p<0.05) increase in total white blood cell and monocyte counts in the blood. However, there was no significant difference in mRNA levels of hepatic hepcidin and renal erythropoietin between the two animal groups. Taken together, these results indicates that $Relm{\alpha}$ deficiency exacerbates the anemia by increasing inflammation, suggesting therapeutic value of $Relm{\alpha}$ in the treatment of anemia of inflammation.

Adiponectin induced AMP-activated protein kinase impairment mediates insulin resistance in Bama mini-pig fed high-fat and high-sucrose diet

  • Niu, Miaomiao;Xiang, Lei;Liu, Yaqian;Zhao, Yuqiong;Yuan, Jifang;Dai, Xin;Chen, Hua
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1190-1197
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Adipose tissue is no longer considered as an inert storage organ for lipid, but instead is thought to play an active role in regulating insulin effects via secretion adipokines. However, conflicting reports have emerged regarding the effects of adipokines. In this study, we investigated the role of adipokines in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese Bama mini-pigs. Methods: An obesity model was established in Bama mini-pigs, by feeding with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 30 weeks. Plasma glucose and blood biochemistry levels were measured, and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed. Adipokines, including adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin and tumor necrosis factor alpha ($TNF-{\alpha}$), and glucose-induced insulin secretion were also examined by radioimmunoassay. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, which is a useful insulin resistance marker, was examined by immunoblotting. Additionally, associations of AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adipokines and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were assessed by Pearce's correlation analysis. Results: Obese pigs showed hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05) and IL-6 amounts dramatically increased (p<0.05) in obese pigs both in serum and adipose tissue, corroborating data from obese mice and humans. However, circulating resistin and $TNF-{\alpha}$ showed no difference, while the values of $TNF-{\alpha}$ in adipose tissue were significantly higher in obese pigs, also in agreement with data from obese humans but not rodent models. Moreover, strong associations of skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adiponectin and HOMA-IR index were obtained. Conclusion: AMPK impairment induced by adiponectin decrease mediates insulin resistance in high-fat and high-sucrose diet induction. In addition, Bama mini-pig has the possibility of a conformable model for human metabolic diseases.

Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Childhood (소아에서의 비만과 인슐린 저항성)

  • Choi, Kwang Hae
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.73-76
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    • 2012
  • More and more children are becoming obese and overweight due to several factors that include a high energy density in the diet (a high fat intake) and low energy expenditure. Consequently childhood obesity is becoming a significant health problem. Fat tissue releases many cytokines such as resistin, tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, leptin, interleukin-6. These adipocytokines induce obesity-related insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a key component of obesity-related metabolic problems such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, acanthosis nigricans and polycystic ovarian syndrome. This review article focused on insulin resistance and its related metabolic diseases.

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Recent Advances in Regulating Energy Homeostasis and Obesity (에너지 항상성 조절 및 비만의 병태생리에 관한 최신지견)

  • Park, Mi Jung
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.126-137
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    • 2005
  • New insights in the complex metabolic pathways and its control mechanism for energy homeostasis have refined our understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity. It is now recognized that there are several additional regulatory mechanism such as peripheral signals including leptin, ghrelin, GLP-1 and PYY and cellular signals including uncoupling proteins and ${\beta}$ Adrenergic receptors, which contribute to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, respectively. In addition, the function of adipocyte as an endocrine organ in energy homeostasis has been recently emphasized. Recent findings suggest that elevated levels of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin and TNF-${\alpha}$, in addition to increased free fatty acid level could be related to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in obesity. For effective treatments and prevention of obesity, further studies on the circuits of neural and endocrine interactions in the regulation of energy homeostasis are needed.

Obesity, Inflammation and Diet

  • Lee, Hansongyi;Lee, In Seok;Choue, Ryowon
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.143-152
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    • 2013
  • Obesity is a state in which there is an over-accumulation of subcutaneous and/or abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and mainly devoted to storing energy; it is emerging as an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin), as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, interleukin [IL]-4, IL-6, and others). Adipose tissue is also implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Obesity is thus an underlying condition for inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Diet or dietary patterns play critical roles in obesity and other pathophysiological conditions. A healthy diet and some nutrients are generally considered beneficial; however, some dietary nutrients are still considered controversial. In this article, dietary factors that influence inflammation associated with obesity are discussed.

Comparison of the Effects of Cyclodextrin-Naringin Inclusion Complex with Naringin on Lipid Metabolism in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet (고지방식이를 섭취한 마우스에서 나린진과 나린진-사이클로텍스트린 포접화합물의 지질대사에 대한 영향 비교)

  • Jeon, Seon-Min;Choi, Myung-Sook
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2010
  • Naringin has antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic properties, however, phenolic compounds including naringin are unstable in the presence of light, heat and oxygen. Beta-cyclodextrin ($\beta$-CD) is a cyclic heptamer composed of seven glucose units that enhances the stability and solubility of molecules through the formation of inclusion complexes. This study was conducted out to compare the effects of CD-naringin (CD-N) inclusion complexes with naringin on lipid metabolism in high fat-fed animals. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either CD-N (0.048%, w/w) or naringin (N, 0.02%, w/w) in a 20% high-fat (HFC, 15% lard, 5% corn oil, w/w) diet for 10 weeks. Orlistat (Xenical, 0.01%, w/w) was used as a positive control (PC). There were no differences in body weight, food intake, liver and heart weights, plasma triglyceride(TG), leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 concentrations, and hepatic $\beta$-oxidation, carnitine palmitoyl transferase(CPT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme activities between the HFC and CD-N groups or between the HFC and N groups. However, both CD-naringin and naringin supplementation les to a significant reduction in the epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue weights, plasma free fatty acid, insulin and blood glucose concentrations, hepatic cholesterol and TG contents and hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS), phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP) and HMG-CoA reductase activities compared to the HFC group. The plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in CD-N and N groups than in HF and PC groups. These results indicate that both CD-naringin and naringin supplementation effectively improved plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism without differences between CD-N and naringin groups.

The Effects of 12-Weeks Intensive Intervention Program on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Adipocytokines and Nutrients Intakes in Industrial Male Workers (12주 중재프로그램이 직장인의 심혈관질환 위험요인, 아디포사이토카인과 영양소 섭취에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Ki-Eun;Park, Ill-Keun;Jo, Yeon-Sang;Chang, Yun-Kyun;Paek, Yun-Mi;Choi, Tae-In
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.292-302
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    • 2011
  • Adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin) are known to play a major role in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and intervention program is effective in reducing CVD risk factors. However, intervention program to improve the CVD risk factors including adipocytokines has been less studied. This study investigated the effects of 12-weeks worksite intervention program on cardiovascular risk factors, adipocytokines and nutrients intakes in industrial workers. 157 industrial male workers (32 metabolic syndrome (MS) subjects, 125 healthy subjects using age-matched stratified random sampling) received 5 face-to-face counseling based on their health profiles. Anthropometry, biochemical parameters and nutrients intakes were measured. The diagnosis of MS was adapted from modified NCEP-ATP III criteria (2001) and Asia-Pacific definition criteria (2000) for waist circumference (WC). After the intervention program, WC, BMI, SBP, insulin, leptin and intakes of total energy and fiber were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), while adiponectin was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in MS subjects. The WC, BMI, SBP, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol, HbA1c, leptin and intakes of total energy, protein and fat were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and adiponectin was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in normal subjects. Multiple linear regression revealed that adiponectin was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01). Leptin was positively correlated with WC (p < 0.01), and resistin was positively correlated with HbA1c (p < 0.05) and intakes of total energy (p < 0.05), and negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). The results of the 12 weeks intervention showed a positive impact on adipocytokines and nutrients intakes of industrial workers to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is needed to verify a tailored long-term worksite intervention program including adipocytokines as a protective factor for the CVD.