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Feasibility of Quadruple Arterial Phase of Motion Insensitive Radial Volumetric Imaging Breath-Hold Examination with k-Space Weighted Image Contrast in the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease (만성 간질환 환자의 간세포암의 발견에 있어 움직임에 덜 민감한 k 공간강조영상대조도의 호흡정지 Radial 체적 영상을 이용한 사중 동맥기 간 자기공명영상의 시행 가능성 분석)

  • Lee, Min Ah;Kim, Bong Soo;Lee, Jeong Sub;Kim, Seung Hyoung;Choi, Guk Myung;Lee, Ho Kyu;Lee, Kyung Ryeol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.79 no.4
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To evaluate the detection performance of hepatocellular carcinoma and image quality in patients with chronic liver disease with quadruple arterial MR imaging using radial volumetric imaging breath-hold examination (VIBE) with k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC). Materials and Methods: Forty-four patients underwent liver MR examinations with quadruple arterial imaging using radial VIBE-KWIC sequence (full-frame and four sub-frame images). Diagnostic performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristics (ROC) for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. The image quality and severity of artifact were scored by using the five-point scale. Results: The area under the ROC curve (Az) value of Hepatocelluar Carcinoma (HCC) detectability was the highest on third sub-frame images, followed by full-frame images. The Az values of third sub-frame and full-frame about the detection of HCC were statistically significantly different from the Az value of first sub-frame images. The full-frame and four sub-frame images showed acceptable image quality and low degree artifact with rating of higher than grade 3. Conclusion: Quadruple arterial MRI using radial VIBE-KWIC is a feasible method for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease without deterioration of image quality. The third sub-frame and full-frame image are superior to other sub-frame images in detecting hepatocellular carcinoma.

Semi-automated Tractography Analysis using a Allen Mouse Brain Atlas : Comparing DTI Acquisition between NEX and SNR (알렌 마우스 브레인 아틀라스를 이용한 반자동 신경섬유지도 분석 : 여기수와 신호대잡음비간의 DTI 획득 비교)

  • Im, Sang-Jin;Baek, Hyeon-Man
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.157-168
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    • 2020
  • Advancements in segmentation methodology has made automatic segmentation of brain structures using structural images accurate and consistent. One method of automatic segmentation, which involves registering atlas information from template space to subject space, requires a high quality atlas with accurate boundaries for consistent segmentation. The Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, which has been widely accepted as a high quality reference of the mouse brain, has been used in various segmentations and can provide accurate coordinates and boundaries of mouse brain structures for tractography. Through probabilistic tractography, diffusion tensor images can be used to map comprehensive neuronal network of white matter pathways of the brain. Comparisons between neural networks of mouse and human brains showed that various clinical tests on mouse models were able to simulate disease pathology of human brains, increasing the importance of clinical mouse brain studies. However, differences between brain size of human and mouse brain has made it difficult to achieve the necessary image quality for analysis and the conditions for sufficient image quality such as a long scan time makes using live samples unrealistic. In order to secure a mouse brain image with a sufficient scan time, an Ex-vivo experiment of a mouse brain was conducted for this study. Using FSL, a tool for analyzing tensor images, we proposed a semi-automated segmentation and tractography analysis pipeline of the mouse brain and applied it to various mouse models. Also, in order to determine the useful signal-to-noise ratio of the diffusion tensor image acquired for the tractography analysis, images with various excitation numbers were compared.

Inhibitory Effect of Scopoletin Isolated from Sorbus commixta on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation in Human Vascular Endothelial EA.hy926 Cells through NF-κB Signaling Pathway Suppression (마가목 수피에서 분리한 scopoletin의 EA.hy926 혈관내피세포에서 NF-κB 신호전달을 통한 TNF-α로 유도된 혈관염증 저해 효과)

  • Kang, Hye Ryung;Kim, Hyo Jung;Kim, Bomi;Kim, Sun-Gun;So, Jai-Hyun;Cho, Soo Jeong;Kwon, Hyun Sook
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.343-351
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    • 2020
  • Sorbus commixta Hedl. has traditionally been used as a remedy for cough, asthma, and other bronchial disorders. In this study, three major triterpenoids-lupeol, β-sitosterol, and ursolic acid and a coumarin, scopoletin, were isolated from a CHCl3-soluble fragment of the bark of S. commixta. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses, including mass spectrometry (MS), 1D-, and 2D- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), as well as by comparing the data with data reported in the literature. Scopoletin was isolated from this plant for the first time. It is a nutraceutical compound contained in many plants that has been reported to exert diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the inhibitory effect of scopoletin on TNF-α-induced vascular endothelial inflammation. Unlike the marginal impact of other compounds against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and vascular endothelial inflammation, scopoletin showed remarkable activity on LDL oxidation (IC50 = 10.2 μM) and exerted vascular anti-inflammatory effects in EA.hy926 human endothelial cells activated by TNF-α. It suppressed the expression of adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and blocked the adhesion between THP-1 monocytes and EA. hy926 endothelial cells. It also inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Moreover, IκBα phosphorylation, which was increased by TNF-α treatment, was reduced after treatment with scopoletin. Thus, scopoletin inhibited TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation in endothelial cells by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that owing to its anti-inflammatory activity in the vascular endothelium, scopoletin has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis development.

Immunomodulatory Effects of β-sitosterol and Daucosterol Isolated from Dioscorea batatas on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 and TK-1 Cells (산약에서 분리한 β-sitosterol과 daucosterol의 RAW 264.7 세포와 TK-1 세포에서의 면역 활성 조절 효능)

  • Park, Min-Kyung;Cho, Sehee;Ahn, Tae-Kyu;Kim, Do-Hyun;Kim, So-Yeon;Lee, Jin-Wook;Kim, Jee-In;Seo, Eul-Won;Son, Kun-Ho;Lim, Jae-Hwan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.359-369
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    • 2020
  • Although many studies on immune modulatory materials have used RAW 264.7 cells, few have used T cell-derived TK-1 cell lines. Moreover, although some studies have investigated the efficacy of plant-derived β-sitosterol, few have examined the immunomodulatory activity of its analogue, daucosterol. In this study, β-sitosterol and daucosterol were isolated from D. batatas and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To evaluate the immune-enhancing or inhibitory effects of the isolated phytosterols, the expression levels of the inflammatory response genes COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, and iNOS were analyzed by RT-PCR. The relative expression levels of TNF-α and iNOS in RAW 264.7 cells were increased more than threefold with β-sitosterol treatment comparing to those of untreated control. In the case of TK-1 cells, the expression level of TNF-α was decreased and the expression level of iNOS was increased in a β-sitosterol concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 increased by approximately 0.7-1.2 times in RAW 264.7 cells treated with daucosterol compared to those of untreated control, but iNOS expression decreased by 0.8-0.18 times. In the case of daucosterol-treated TK-1 cells, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and iNOS were markedly reduced from those of TK-1 cells treated only with lipopolysaccaride. As a conclusion, β-sitosterol treatment increased TNF-α and iNOS expression levels in RAW 264.7 cells, thus exerting an immune- boosting effect. However, in TK-1 cells, iNOS expression increased while TNF-α expression decreased, indicating an immunosuppressive activity of β-sitosterol. Daucosterol appears to exert an immunosuppressive effect in both macrophages and T cell lines by inhibiting iNOS expression in RAW 264.7 cells and greatly inhibiting the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and iNOS in TK-1 cells.

Studies on the Applications of PSL, TL and ESR Methods for the Detection of Dried Fruits and Mushrooms (PSL, TL 및 ESR 분석에 의한 건조과일류 및 버섯류에 대한 검지 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Kyu-Heon;Son, Jin-Hyok;Kang, Yoon-Jung;Park, Hye-Young;Hwang, Cho-Rong;Kim, Jae-I;Lee, Kang-Bong;Jo, Tae-Yong;Eom, Mi-Ok;Park, Sue-Nie;Seong, Rack Seon;Jang, Young-Mi;Lee, Jae-Hwang;Park, Yong-Chjun;Lee, Hwa-Jung;Lee, Sang-Jae;Han, Sang-Bae
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we investigated the applicability of the photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods for various foods. The analysed samples consist of 11 items including dried fruits (6 items) and mushrooms (5 items). To compare between non-irradiated and irradiated food, all samples were irradiated with $^{60}Co$ gamma-ray source. In PSL study, the photon counts of all the unirradiated sample were identified negative (lower than 700). The photon counts irradiated (1, 5, 10 kGy) dried date-palm, dried jujube and mushrooms (Auricularia auricula, Phellinus linteus and Sarcodon aspratus) showed positive (higher than 5,000) and the results for the other samples were negative or intermediate (>700 and >5,000). In TL analysis most of items can be applicable to detect irradiated foods because of showing TL ratio above 0.1. The glow curves by TL method were estimated in the range of $150{\sim}250^{\circ}C$ in irradiated samples. In ESR measurements, the intensity of ESR signal (single-line) increased as the dose of irradiation increased. In particular, the specific ESR signals of irradiation-induced radical were detected in dried papaya, dried date-palm, dried banana, dried pineapple and S. aspratus. According to the results, PSL, TL and ESR methods were successfully applied to detect the irradiated foods. It is concluded that PSL, TL and ESR methods are suitable for detection of irradiated samples and a combined method is recommendable for enhancing the reliability of detection results.

Studies on the Applications of TL and ESR Methods for the Detection of Spices, Berry Fruits and Pollen Extract Product (TL과 ESR 분석을 통한 일부 향신료, 장과류 및 화분가공추출물 검지 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Kyu-Heon;Son, Jin-Hyok;Kang, Yoon-Jung;Park, Hye-Young;Kwak, Ji-Young;Lee, Jae-Hwang;Park, Yong-Chjun;Jo, Tae-Yong;Lee, Hwa-Jung;Lee, Sang-Jae;Han, Sang-Bae
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2013
  • This study examined radiation detection characteristics of spices (cumin, caper and turmeric), other small fruits (hut-gae berry and boxthorn), and pollen extract product. Each samples were irradiated at dose of 1, 5, and 10 kGy and analyzed by the thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods. To compare between non-irradiated and irradiated food, all samples were irradiated with $^{60}Co$ gamma-ray source. In TL analysis, most of samples could be applied to detect irradiated foods because of showing TL ratio above 0.1. The glow curves examined by TL method were estimated in the range of $150{\sim}250^{\circ}C$ in irradiated samples. In ESR measurements, the intensity of ESR signal (single-line) increased as the increase of irradiation dose. In particular, the specific ESR signals of irradiation-induced radical were detected in hut-gae berry and pollen extract product. As a results, it is considered that TL and ESR methods can be used to detect both hut-gae berry and pollen extract product. But cumin, caper, turmeric and boxthorn irradiated with gamma ray could be detected only by TL method. It is concluded that TL and ESR methods are suitable for detection of irradiated samples and a combined method is recommendable for enhancing the reliability of detection results.

Factors Associated with Conversion from Conservative to Surgical Treatment in Single-Level Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Patients (보존적 치료 중인 단분절 요추관 협착증 환자에서 수술적 치료로 전환과 관련된 연관 인자)

  • Ahn, Young-Joon;Im, Se-Hyuk;Park, Byung-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.160-168
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    • 2018
  • Study Design: Retrospective study of prospectively-collected data. Objectives: To determine the factors associated with conversion from conservative to surgical treatment in single-level lumbar spinal stenosis patients. Summary of Literature Review: Various reports have presented clinical outcomes after the surgical and nonsurgical treatment of spinal stenosis. However, few reports have investigated factors predicting conversion to surgery during the course of conservative treatment. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 40 patients who visited our hospital from May 2010 to May 2015 and were traceable for at least 3 years after being advised to undergo surgery following 3 months of conservative treatment. Of these patients, 20 underwent surgery and 20 did not. We then investigated the factors associated with conversion to surgical treatment. Clinical assessments were conducted using a questionnaire, and the overall area of the spinal canal and the muscle area within the spinal canal were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The average area of the spinal canal was $81.40{\pm}53.61mm^2$ in the surgical group, compared to $127.75{\pm}82.55mm^2$ in the nonsurgical group (p=0.042). The muscle area in the spinal canal was $5.17{\pm}1.30cm^2$ in the surgical group, whereas it was $6.40{\pm}1.56cm^2$ in the nonsurgical group (p=0.010). The patients in the surgical group were more likely to have experienced repetitive strain and to have frequently visited health clubs (p=0.047, p=0.037, respectively). However, regular stretching was more common in the nonsurgical group (p=0.028). Conclusions: The factors associated with conversion to surgical treatment were a narrow spinal canal, a small muscle area within the spinal canal, visiting health clubs, repetitive sprain, and not stretching. A small muscle area within the spinal canal can be considered as a key factor related to surgical conversion.

The Therapeutic Effect of Postganglionic Nerve Block for Symptomatic Schmorl Nodule: A Retrospective Case Series (증후성 쉬모를 결절에 대한 신경절 이후 신경차단술의 치료 효과: 후향적 증례 분석)

  • Son, In Seok;Hwang, Suk Hyun;Lee, Suk Ha;Kang, Min Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2018
  • Study Design: Retrospective case series. Objectives: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical efficacy of postganglionic nerve block in symptomatic Schmorl nodules (SNs). Summary of Literature Review: SNs are common lesions that are often asymptomatic. In certain cases, SNs have been reported to cause severe axial back pain, thereby considerably impacting patients' quality of life. No consensus currently exists on the treatment of symptomatic SNs. Materials and Methods: From October 2015 to October 2017, a total of 21 patients with symptomatic SNs diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that did not respond to conservative treatment after 4 weeks were included in the study. All patients received postganglionic nerve block. We evaluated effective pain relief (improvement of back pain of more than 50% compared with before the intervention) and functional improvements, assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index scores obtained at 4 hours, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after the procedure. Results: Symptomatic SNs were more common at the L2-3 level, and the lower end plate was more commonly involved than the upper end plate. Eighteen of the 21 patients (85.7%) showed effective pain relief, and no deterioration was observed within the followup period. Throughout the follow-up period, the VAS remained significantly improved compared to before the procedure (p<0.05). Complications were not reported in any cases. Conclusions: Postganglionic nerve block for symptomatic SNs that do not respond to conservative treatment is a non-invasive modality for pain relief.

Diagnosis of C2 Spondylotic Radiculopathy by Physical Examination and Imaging Studies and Treatment by Microscopic Posterior Foraminotomy - A Case Report - (제 2경추증성 신경근증: 이학적 소견 및 영상촬영을 이용한 진단 및 현미경적 추간공 감압술을 통한 치료 - 증례 보고 -)

  • Jung, Yu-Hun;Lee, Young-Sang;Eun, Dong-Chan;Lee, Joon-Ha
    • Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.128-132
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    • 2018
  • Study Design: Case report. Objectives: We report the case of a patient with C2 spondylotic radiculopathy who was treated by microscopic posterior foraminotomy. Summary of Literature Review: C2 spondylotic radiculopathy is rare, but it can occur due to spondylosis, compression by a venous plexus or vertebral artery, or hypertrophy of the atlantoepistrophic ligament. Materials and Methods: A 64-year-old woman was hospitalized with severe occipital pain radiating toward the left cervical area and posterior to the left ear. It started 3 years previously, and became aggravated 3 months previously. Foraminal stenosis of C1-2 was observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and degenerative changes of the facet joint of C1-2 and osteophytes originating from the left atlantoaxial joint were shown on computed tomography (CT). Dynamic rotational CT showed narrowing of the left C1-2 neural foramen when it was rotated to the left. Selective C2 root block was done, but the pain was aggravated. Thus, we decompressed the C2 nerve root by microscopic posterior laminotomy of the C1 vertebra. After surgery, the patient's occipitocervical pain mostly resolved. By the 6-month follow up, pain had not recurred, and instability was not observed on plain radiographs. Results: C2 Spondylotic radiculopathy was diagnosed by physical examination and imaging studies and it was treated by a surgical approach. Conclusions: C2 spondylotic radiculopathy should be considered when a patient complains of occipitocervical pain triggered by cervical rotation and C1-2 foraminal stenosis is observed on MRI and CT.

Relationship between Lumbar Extensor Muscle Degeneration Classification and Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture (요추 신전근의 지방 변성 분류 점수와 골다공증성 척추 압박 골절의 관계)

  • Heo, Ju-Yeong;Park, Ji-Hoon;Kim, Min-Wook;Lee, Sang-Min;Lim, Sung-An;Choi, Hong-Suk;Choi, Yong-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.108-114
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    • 2018
  • Study Design: Retrospective study. Objectives: To investigate the reliability of the lumbar extensor muscle degeneration classification as an indicator of potential risk for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF). Summary of Literature Review: Fatty degeneration of lumbar extensor muscles has attracted increased interest in the literature as a risk factor for OVCF. Materials and Methods: Ninety-one patients with OVCF (group 1) and 60 patients without OVCF (group 2) were investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure and to analyze the muscle mass and fatty degeneration of the lumbar extensor muscle. The degree of fatty degeneration of the lumbar extensor muscle was classified into 4 stages: less than 10%, 10%-25%, 25%-50%, and more than 50%. Results: Fatty degeneration of the lumbar extensor muscle and the bone mineral density T-score were $29.66%{\pm}12.28%$ and $-3.56{\pm}1.13$ in group 1 and $24.04%{\pm}13.29%$ and $-2.27{\pm}1.46$ in group 2, which were statistically significant differences (p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that as the fatty degeneration of the lumbar extensor muscle increased, the risk of OVCF increased (odds ratio [OR]=1.21; p=0.01). The risk of OVCF increased as the lumbar extensor muscle degeneration classification scores increased (OR=13.53; p=0.02). Furthermore, as the muscle mass of the multifidus decreased, lumbar lordosis and sacral inclination decreased (${\beta}=0.33$; p=0.01 and ${\beta}=0.25$; p=0.04, respectively). However, no factor affected thoracic kyphosis. Conclusions: Fatty degeneration of the lumbar extensor muscle was correlated with OVCF. A lumbar extensor muscle degeneration classification higher than stage 3 should be considered a risk factor of OVCF.