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The Study On Quality Control of Magnetic Resonance Imaging System (자기공명영상장치의 정도관리에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Cheon-Soo;Lim, Cheong-Hwan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2009
  • The quality control is needed to ensure the accuracy of medical information and achieved by evaluating the performance of and maintaining the system and practicing various measurements and evaluations. The Korean Institute for Accreditation of Medical Image, therefore, have held educational program for quality control of special medical equipments. The major of programs participants, however, are radiology specialists with only small number of radiological technologists from some hospitals, furthermore, the follow-up education and the share of information between participants and non-participants are insufficient in general, thus, the knowledge level of radiological technologists, regardless of their participation, is relatively low. This study carried out the questionnaire research for the 500 radiological technologists registered in Korean Society of MRI Technology, on the basis of 2008, and performed analysis for five months from May to Oct., 2008. The questionnaires were delivered by post to each radiological technologists and the response rate was 36%(n=180). The results of this revealed that the 86.7% of respondents felt the necessity of inspection on quality management, while only the 27.8% completed the educational program for manager of special medical equipment. and only the half(53.9%) had the knowledge about inspection on quality management. The completion of educational program had no correlations with sex, age, size of occupying hospital, the number of radiological technologists in occupying site and MRI laboratory, career year of general radiologist and in MRI laboratory, and the presence of biomedical engineering department in occupying hospital. The 78.0% of participants at the educational program for quality management held by the Korean Institute for Accreditation of Medical Image had the knowledge about inspection on quality management(p<.05) whereas the 43.9% of the hospitals held such program and the 54.4% of radiological technologists from those hospitals had related knowledge, which indicated that such programs held by hospitals had not effects on the knowledge level of radiological technologists. This indicates also that the contents, methods, and other conditional factors of educational programs are important for the outcome of them.

Susceptibility Weighted Image for Stem Cell Tracking in Rat Photothrombotic Infarction (흰쥐 광 혈전 뇌경색 모델에서 줄기세포 추적을 위한 자화강조영상)

  • Ha, Bon-Chul;Lim, Cheong-Hwan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.10 no.8
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 2010
  • To the detect of SPIO-labelled hMSC, in vitro study on various cell concentration and in vivo molecular magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) technique using T2, $T2^*$ and SWI are compared with pathology. Cell concentration was $1.56{\times}10^4$, $3.13{\times}10^4$, $6.25{\times}10^4$, $1.25{\times}10^5$, $2.5{\times}10^5$, $5{\times}10^5\;cells/m{\ell}$ and for control $5{\times}10^5\cells/m{\ell}$. MRI technique using T2, $T^2$ and SWI. Photothrombotic infarction was located 2.5mm from bregma right, posterior. Cell injected through the tail vein of rat for 8 rats. MRI performed pre injection and post injection of 1, 3, 7 and 14days and sacrifice for pathology. MRI analysed on quantitatively. In vitro result, SWI was highest CNR as compared with $T2^*WI$, T2WI and $2.5{\times}10^5\;cells/m{\ell}$ cell concentration. In vivo result among the T2WI, $T2^WI$, SWI, T2WI is highest CNR between normal and infarction. CNR in normal-SPIO and infarction-SPIO is high score in SWI. Therefore, T2WI is good distinguish between normal and infarction, SWI are well detect SPIO-labelled hMSC from normal and infarction. Nowaday, SWI are mostly used on hemorrhage, calcification etc. in clinically, but for the future, stem cell therapy is commonly application at all disease which is good observing tool for SPIO-labelled stem cells.

Usefulness of High-B-value Diffusion - Weighted MR Imaging for the Pre-operative Detection of Rectal Cancers (B-values 변환 자기공명영상: 국소 직장암 수술 전 검출을 위한 적합한 b-value 유용성)

  • Lee, Jae-Seung;Goo, Eun-Hoe;Lee, Sun-Yeob;Park, Cheol-Soo;Choi, Ji-Won
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.12
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    • pp.683-690
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of high-b-values diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the preoperative detection of focal rectum cancers. 60patients with diffusion weighted imaging were evaluated for the presence of rectal cancers. Forty were male and twenty were female, and their ages ranged from 38 to 71 (mean, 56) years. Used equipment was 1.5Tesla MRI((GE, General Electric Medical System, Excite HD). Examination protocols were used the fast spin echo T2, T1 weighted imaging. All examination protocols were performed by the same location with diffusion weighted imaging for accuracy detection. The b-values used in DWI were 250, 500, 750, 1000. 1500, 2000$(s/mm^2)$. The rectum, bladder to tumor contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of MR images were quantitativlely analyzed using GE software Functool tool, four experienced radiologists and three radiotechnologists qualitatively evaluated image quality in terms of image artifacts, lesion conspicuity and rectal wall. These data were analysed by using ANOVA and Freedman test with each b-value(p<0.05). Contrast to noise ratio of rectum, bladder and tumor in b-value 1000 were 27.21, 24.44, respectively(p<0.05) and aADC value was $0.73\times10^{-3}$. As a qualitative analysis, the conspicuity and discrimination from the rectal wall of lesions were high results as $4.0\pm0.14$, $4.4\pm0.16$ on b-value 1000(p<0.05), image artifacts were high results as $4.8\pm0.25$ on b-value 2000(p<0.05). In conclusion, DWI was provided useful information with depicting the pre-operative detection of rectal cancers, High-b-value 1000 image was the most excellent DWI value.

Verification of Indicator Rotation Correction Function of a Treatment Planning Program for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (방사선수술치료계획 프로그램의 지시자 회전 오차 교정 기능 점검)

  • Chung, Hyun-Tai;Lee, Re-Na
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2008
  • Objective: This study analyzed errors due to rotation or tilt of the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging indicator during image acquisition for a stereotactic radiosurgery. The error correction procedure of a commercially available stereotactic neurosurgery treatment planning program has been verified. Materials and Methods: Software virtual phantoms were built with stereotactic images generated by a commercial programming language, Interactive Data Language (version 5.5). The thickness of an image slice was 0.5 mm, pixel size was $0.5{\times}0.5mm$, field of view was 256 mm, and image resolution was $512{\times}512$. The images were generated under the DICOM 3.0 standard in order to be used with Leksell GammaPlan$^{(R)}$. For the verification of the rotation error correction function of Leksell GammaPlan$^{(R)}$, 45 measurement points were arranged in five axial planes. On each axial plane, there were nine measurement points along a square of length 100 mm. The center of the square was located on the z-axis and a measurement point was on the z-axis, too. Five axial planes were placed at z=-50.0, -30.0, 0.0, 30.0, 50.0 mm, respectively. The virtual phantom was rotated by $3^{\circ}$ around one of x, y, and z-axis. It was also rotated by $3^{\circ}$ around two axes of x, y, and z-axis, and rotated by $3^{\circ}$ along all three axes. The errors in the position of rotated measurement points were measured with Leksell GammaPlan$^{(R)}$ and the correction function was verified. Results: The image registration errors of the virtual phantom images was $0.1{\pm}0.1mm$ and it was within the requirement of stereotactic images. The maximum theoretical errors in position of measurement points were 2.6 mm for a rotation around one axis, 3.7 mm for a rotation around two axes, and 4.5 mm for a rotation around three axes. The measured errors in position was $0.1{\pm}0.1mm$ for a rotation around single axis, $0.2{\pm}0.2mm$ for double and triple axes. These small errors verified that the rotation error correction function of Leksell GammaPlan$^{(R)}$ is working fine. Conclusion: A virtual phantom was built to verify software functions of stereotactic neurosurgery treatment planning program. The error correction function of a commercial treatment planning program worked within nominal error range. The virtual phantom of this study can be applied in many other fields to verify various functions of treatment planning programs.

Relationship between disk displacement of temporomandibular joint and dentofacial asymmetry (측두하악관절 원판 변위와 치열 및 안면부 비대칭의 관계에 대한 연구)

  • Nahm, Kyoung-Soo;Kim, Tae-Woo
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.211-222
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between disk displacement of the Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) and dentofacial asymmetry In orthodontic patients. The subjects consisted of 60 female orthodontic patients between the ages of 18 and 38 years (mean age 23.3 years) who had visited the Department of Orthodontics at Seoul National University Dental Hospital from January 2000 to April 2002. On the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their bilateral TMJs, the subjects were divided Into four groups'. bilateral normal group (twenty-one persons); disk displacement of right TMJ group (six persons); disk displacement of left TMJ group (nine persons); and disk displacement of both TMJs group (twenty-four persons) Postero-anterior (PA) cephalograms and diagnostic models which had been taken before orthodontic treatment were measured. In the linear measurements, a line connecting the right and left Latero-Orbitale (Lo) represented the horizontal reference line (H). The vertical reference line (V) was constructed as a line bisecting and running perpendicular to H. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test whether the mean values of measurements between groups were significantly different. In addition, Bonferronil's multiple comparison test was performed at a level of 0.05. The results were as follows; 1 In the diagnostic model analysis, the overjet, nght molar relationship, and left molar relationship were significantly different among the four groups. 2. In the PA cephalometric analysis, differences in the right and left vertical position of the lower first molar and Ag were significantly dissimilar among the four groups. 3. If the disk displacement of TMJ was present on one side, the ipsilateral ramus was shorter, resulting in asymmetry in the vertical position of Ag. This study indicated that dentofacial asymmetry might be related to the disk displacement of TMJ.

Caudal Epidural Injection with a Guidewire-Reinforced Epidural Catheter in Patients with Herniated Nucleosus Pulpose (추간판 탈출증 환자에서 길잡이철사가 삽입된 경막외카테터를 이용한 미추경막외조영술)

  • Ko, Justin Sangwook;Lee, Seok Jin;Hwang, Hee Youn;Sim, Woo Seok;Choi, Soo Joo;Kim, Jie Ae;Kim, Chung Su;Hahm, Tae Soo;Kim, Gaab Soo;Cho, Hyun Sung;Kim, Tae Hyeong
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 2006
  • Background: The epidural injection technique is a commonly used intervention in the management of chronic spinal pain, which has the advantage of delivering various drugs, such as local anesthetics or steroids, in higher concentrations to the inflamed nerve root. A guidewire-reinforced epidural catheter was introduced through a Tuohy needle during the caudal epidural procedure, with a catheter threaded into the affected nerve roots and the spread-pattern of contrast agents observed under fluoroscopy. Methods: Sixty-seven patients with low back pain, who showed evidence of a herniated nucleus pulposus on magnetic resonance imaging, were included. All patients received fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural injections, with the guidewire-reinforced epidural catheter introduced through a Tuohy needle and threaded either to the right or left side toward the target nerve roots. After confirming the catheter tip position at the affected nerve root, 2 ml increments of contrast agents (up to 6 ml) were injected, and their corresponding AP fluoroscopic views were obtained. Three radiologists reviewed all the radiographic findings and measured the proportion of the area of contrast spread at the side of target nerve roots. Results: Greater proportion of the area of contrast spread was observed at the side of the target nerve roots (P < 0.0001). At each level of contrast injection (2-⁣, 4- ⁣ and 6 ml), more than 70% of the spread of contrast dye was observed at the side of the target nerve roots in 85%, 70%, and 55% of cases, respectively. Conclusions: The combination of a caudal epidural injection and use of a guidewire-reinforced epidural catheter significantly enhances the target specificity, as revealed by the selective spread of contrast dye at the side of target nerves.

Usefulness of Ultrasonographic Examination by a Pediatrician in Children with Abdominal Pain (소아 복통에서 소아과 의사에 의한 초음파 검사의 유용성)

  • Park, Hyun-Seok;We, Ju-Hee;Park, Jae-Hong
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.141-147
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Ultrasonography (US) is widely used as a screening test in patients with abdominal pain (AP). We investigated the usefulness of US by a pediatrician in children with AP. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the medical records of children with AP who undertook US from December, 2008 to July, 2010. Results: A total of 628 patients (325 male, 303 female) were enrolled in this study. The mean age of patients was $8.08{\pm}4.61$ years. Duration of AP was acute in 427 and chronic in 201 patients. Localization of AP was diffuse (36.9%), periumbilical (24.4%), epigastric (21.0%), and right lower quadrant (8.1%). On the examination, there were no abnormal findings in 327 patients (52.1%). Abnormal ultrasonographic findings were mesenteric lymphadenitis (27.1%), intestinal mural thickening (10.0%), intussusception (3.0%), appendicitis (2.6%), choledochal cyst (1.6%), and pancreatitis (0.3%). We performed additional imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 39 patients who showed obscure findings on the US. In 33 patients (84.6%), the same results were obtained from CT or MRI. Two cases of appendicitis, one case of pancreatitis and one case of Henoch-Sh$\ddot{o}$nlein purpura were diagnosed by the CT examination. However, there were two cases of appendicitis diagnosed by US thathad no evidence of appendicitis on the CT. Diagnostic accuracy of initial US in children with abdominal pain was 99.4%. Conclusion: US by a pediatrician as a screening test in children with AP provides a rapid and accurate diagnostic indication and has non-invasive and radiation-free advantages.

The usefulness of diagnostic tests in children with language delay (언어 발달지연 환아에서 진단적 검사의 유용성)

  • Oh, Seung Taek;Lee, Eun Sil;Moon, Han Ku
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.289-294
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : To assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), karyotyping, brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP), electroencephalogram (EEG), tandem mass screening test, and newborn metabolic screening test in children with language delay for diagnosing underlying diseases. Methods : From January 2000 to June 2007, a retrospective chart review was performed for 122 children with language delay who visited the Child Neurology Clinic at Yeungnam University Hospital and who underwent neuropsychologic tests and other diagnostic evaluations for underlying diseases. They were grouped into phenomenological diagnostic categories, and test results were analyzed according to the underlying diseases. Results : Of 122 patients, 47 (38.5%) had mental retardation, 40 (32.8%) had developmental language disorders, 23 (18.9 %) had borderline IQ, and 12 (9.8%) had autism spectrum disorder. In 26 (21.3%) cases, the causes or relevant clinical findings to explain language delay were found. Eight (10.4%) of 77 MRIs, 6 (8.0%) of 75 EEGs, and 4 (5%) of 80 BAEPs showed abnormal results. Results directly attributed to diagnosing underlying diseases were 2 hearing defects in BAEPs and 1 bilateral perisylvian cortical dysplasia in MRIs. No abnormal results were found in karyotyping, tandem mass screening tests, and new-born screening tests. Conclusion : Commonly used tests to diagnose the cause of language delay are not very effective and should only be used selectively, according to patient characteristics. However, despite the low diagnostic yields from these tests, because many patients show abnormal results, these tests are useful when conducted in complete evaluation.

Lorenzo's Oil Treatment in X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X 염색체 연관 부신백질이영양증에서 Lorenzo Oil의 투여효과)

  • Kim, Hyo Jung;Kim, Eun Young;Woo, Young Jong;Kook, Hoon
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.11
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    • pp.1232-1238
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Though more than 15 years have passed after introduction of Lorenzo's oil therapy in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy(ALD), its efficacy is still fully not known. In patients who already have neurologic symptoms, most reports indicate that the neurologic disability continues to increase. We evaluated its efficacy in X-linked ALD patients. Methods : Four patients who were treated with Lorenzo's oil for at least 12 months were enrolled from 1996 to 2003. During treatment, changes of neurologic symptoms, brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) findings, and serum saturated very long-chain fatty acid(C26:0) were assessed. Results : Two patients with childhood cerebral ALD had progression of neurologic symptoms and MRI lesions during treatment. One asymptomatic patient developed childhood cerebral ALD after six year treatment of Lorenzo's oil. One "Addison only" patient remained neurologically intact after three years. During Lorenzo's oil therapy, serum C26:0 levels which had increased at diagnosis decreased in all four patients. Conclusion : Treatment with Lorenzo's oil did not prevent disease progression in childhood cerebral ALD patients who were already symptomatic. Long term follow up will be needed in asymptomatic ALD including "Addison only" to reveal the efficacy of Lorenzo's oil.

Comparison of Epileptic Seizures between Preterm and Term-born Epileptic Children with Periventricular Leukomalacia (뇌실 주위 백질연화증이 있는 간질 환아에서 조산 및 만삭 출산군 간의 간질 발작 유형의 비교)

  • Jeong, Hee Jeong;Lee, Eun Sil;Moon, Han Ku
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.11
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    • pp.1225-1231
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : This study compares the first epileptic seizures between preterm and term-born children with periventricular leukomalacia and epilepsy. Methods : From 108 cases having lesions of high signal intensity around the ventricles in T2 weighted imaging of a brain magnetic resonance study, we selected 37 cases that showed epileptic seizures two times or more and divided them into the group of preterm-born(27 cases) and term-born children(10 cases). A retrospective study was made by comparing the two groups with regard to age, type of the first epileptic seizures, EEG findings and responsiveness to anticonvulsants. Results : The age of the first epileptic seizure was $22.2{\pm}18.3$ months in the preterm-born group and $26.9{\pm}21.1$ months in the term-born group(P=0.505). As for the first epileptic seizure, 11 out of the 27 cases in the preterm-born group had infantile spasms. Out of the 10 cases in the term-born group, 7 had complex partial seizures. In the preterm group, hypsarrhythmias were found in 11 cases, focal epileptiform discharges in 6 cases. In term-born group, focal epileptiform discharges were found in 5 cases but no epileptiform discharge was found in 3 cases. Intractable epilepsies were diagnosed in 6 cases and all of them belonged to the preterm-born group. Conclusion : More severe epilepsies such as infantile spasm and intractable epilepsies seem to be more common in preterm-born epileptic children with PVL as well as more severely abnormal EEG finding compared to term-born epileptic children.