• Title, Summary, Keyword: Retail Distributor

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Emotional Leadership, Leader Legitimacy, and Work Engagement in Retail Distribution Industry

  • HA, Seonmi;YOUN, SaJean;MOON, Jaeseung
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The study examines how emotional leadership affects employee attitude towards work engagement. Leader legitimacy perception is chosen as the mediating variable to understand the effect of emotional leadership on employee work engagement. Research design, data and methodology: The research model is based on theory and empirical research findings in order to examine the mediating effect of leader legitimacy perception on the relationship between the manager's emotional leadership and employee work engagement. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among 188 employees of domestic retail distributors. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and survey data confirmed the construct, and the hypothesis was tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: a) Emotional leadership has positive influence on leader legitimacy; b) Leader legitimacy is positively related to work engagement; c) Leader legitimacy mediates a positive relationship between emotional leadership and work engagement. However, there is no direct effect on work engagement (of employees) from emotional leadership standpoint. Conclusion: Based on the empirical results, implications and future research directions are discussed.

Data Envelopment Analysis of Managerial Efficiency of China, Korea and Other Global Retail Distributors (자료포락분석을 이용한 중국·한국·글로벌 소매유통업체 경영효율성 분석)

  • Wang, Peng;Kim, Moon-Hong
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.91-101
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    • 2018
  • Purpose - This study compares the management efficiency of retailers in China, Korea and other global countries. China's retail industry is experiencing a recession. In order to strengthen the competitiveness of retailers, it is necessary to manage the efficiency. Therefore, we analyzed the management efficiency of Chinese retailers as well as Korea and global retailers who are competing with Chinese retailers. Research design, data, and methodology - The DEA(Data Envelopment Analysis) carried out for evaluating the relative efficiency of multiple DMUs (decision making units) with homogeneity. Data were collected from the American Retail Trade Association (2017). In those distributors' data, 5 of China and 5 of Korea and 10 of other global countries' analyzed. CCR and BCC analysis were performed to determine the cause of the inefficiency of DMUs by measuring the technical efficiency, pure technology efficiency and scale efficiency. Result - Among the 20 retail distributors, Costco, Kroger (Global), Eland World, BGF(Korea) are operating efficiently. Chinese retailers are operating inefficiently. Retailers' CRS status means the growth rate of input is equal to the growth rate of output. In the case of DRS status, the ratio of output to input variable is much smaller. In order to improve inefficiency, reducing input variables can be a solution. For the firms in IRS status, the rate of increase in output is relative greater than the input. That means efficiency is good condition. The analysis result shows that most retailers are showing DRS status especially Chinese retailers. Scale efficiency is a major cause of inefficiency rather than pure technology efficiency. It is recommended for ineffective retailers to reduce inputs to become efficient retailers. Otherwise, retrain existing employees or introducing advanced technologies to increase the output. Conclusions - Most of Chinese retailers are operating inefficiently which caused by the excessive investment in the inputs. On the other hand, Other global retailers are analyzed to be efficient by DEA. In this study, benchmarking targets of some retailers' suggested to improve the management efficiency especially in inputs.

Study on Background Music of Distributors (유통점의 배경음악에 관한 연구)

  • LEE, Joon-Pyo;HWANG, Hee-Joong
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.127-131
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    • 2019
  • Purpose - This study focuses on clues that can clearly amplify the effects of background music. Review which store environments have a direct and positive impact on consumer responses, such as purchases. Research design, data, and methodology - This study focuses on clues that can clearly amplify the effects of background music. The purpose of this study is to examine what kind of store environment, combined with background music, has a direct and positive effect on consumer reactions such as purchase, and suggest future research directions. Results - The manager decides to use background music in the store because it is relatively inexpensive and easy to identify the emotional response of the consumer. In addition, appropriate background music lowers the psychological purchasing barriers of consumers. Previous studies have often not conducted a basic review of whether consumers perceive background music when it is used in retail stores. For example, it is necessary to make sure that the volume of the background music is loud enough and that the noise is properly excluded despite the congestion of the store so that the pure influence of the background music on the consumer can be measured. A way for store managers to clarify and differentiate their identity is to create a unique and satisfying store atmosphere for their customers. In order to help customers focus on their purchases, store managers must use marketing elements to integrate the five senses. And they should plan background music aiming at synergy effect of these five senses. In other words, in order to make the store atmosphere positive, it is not enough to have a suitable visual design interior or background music in the store, and consumers should have the opportunity to smell, taste and touch it directly. Conclusions - In conclusion, we hope that the following issues will be studied by several scholars in the future. It should be clarified that the impact of background music on customers varies depending on the customer's movement in the store, the selection of the background music genre order, and the timing (interval) of background music exposure to the customer.

A study on the Regulatory Environment of the French Distribution Industry and the Intermarche's Management strategies

  • Choi, In-Sik;Lee, Sang-Youn
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 2012
  • Despite the enforcement of SSM control laws such as 'the Law of Developing the Distribution Industry (LDDI)' and 'the Law of Promoting Mutual Cooperation between Large and Small/medium Enterprises (LPMC)' stipulating the business adjustment system, the number of super-supermarkets (SSMs) has ever been expanding in Korea. In France, however, Super Centers are being regulated most strongly and directly in the whole Europe viewing that there is not a single SSM in Paris, which is emphasized to be the outcome from French government's regulation exerted on the opening of large scale retail stores. In France, the authority to approve store opening is deeply centralized and the store opening regulation is a socio-economic regulation driven by economic laws whereas EU strongly regulates the distribution industry. To control the French distribution industry, such seven laws and regulations as Commission départementale d'urbanisme commercial guidelines (CDLIC) (1969), the Royer Law (1973), the Doubin Law (1990), the Sapin Law (1993), the Raffarin Law (1996), solidarite et renouvellement urbains (SRU) (2000), and Loi de modernisation de l'économie (LME) (2009) have been promulgated one by one since the amendment of the Fontanet guidelines, through which commercial adjustment laws and regulations have been complemented and reinforced while regulatory measures have been taken. Even in the course of forming such strong regulatory laws, InterMarche, the largest supermarket chain in France, has been in existence as a global enterprise specialized in retail distribution with over 4,000 stores in Europe. InterMarche's business can be divided largely into two segments of food and non-food. As a supermarket chain, InterMarche's food segment has 2,300 stores in Europe and as a hard-discounter store chain in France, Netto has 420 stores. Restaumarch is a chain of traditional family restaurants and the steak house restaurant chain of Poivre Rouge has 4 restaurants currently. In addition, there are others like Ecomarche which is a supermarket chain for small and medium cities. In the non-food segment, the DIY and gardening chain of Bricomarche has a total of 620 stores in Europe. And the car-related chain of Roady has a total of 158 stores in Europe. There is the clothing chain of Veti as well. In view of InterMarche's management strategies, since its distribution strategy is to sell goods at cheap prices, buying goods cheap only is not enough. In other words, in order to sell goods cheap, it is all important to buy goods cheap, manage them cheap, systemize them cheap, and transport them cheap. In quality assurance, InterMarche has guaranteed the purchase safety for consumers by providing its own private brand products. InterMarche has 90 private brands of its own, thus being the retailer with the largest number of distributor brands in France. In view of its IT service strategy, InterMarche is utilizing a high performance IT system so as to obtainas much of the market information as possible and also to find out the best locations for opening stores. In its global expansion strategy of international alliance, InterMarche has established the ALDIS group together with the distribution enterprises of both Spain and Germany in order to expand its food purchase, whereas in the non-food segment, it has established the ARENA group in alliance with 11 international distribution enterprises. Such strategies of InterMarche have been intended to find out the consumer needs for both price and quality of goods and to secure the purchase and supply networks which are closely localized. It is necessary to cope promptly with the constantly changing circumstances through being unified with relevant regions and by providing diversified customer services as well. In view of the InterMarche's positive policy for promoting local partnerships as well as the assistance for enhancing the local economic structure, implications are existing for those retail distributors of our country.

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A Study on Marketing of Cultured Laver Products (양식해태의 유통에 관한 조사 연구)

  • 유충열
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.4 no.1_2
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    • pp.19-57
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    • 1973
  • Laver io one of the most necessary and seasonal items in Korean food from oldtimes. Laver is lagely eaten in dried form, and its supply depends entirely upon culture weeds. The history of laver culture in Korea about sixty or seventy years is older than in Japan. Significance of laver culture is divided into two aspects, one is food supply in the nation, and the other is export to other countries. Houses engaged in laver culture are about foully thousands, and laver production in 1972 is estimated as 1, 3 bitten sheets. (1 sheet is a dried laver of 20 cm sq, in the shape of paper) Especcially meaning of layer production is the concentration of labour input, and systematic management of labour. From around 1920, the method of laver culture was introduced by Japanese Imperialism for mono culture in shallow seas, and mass products of laver is provided to Japan market, DOMESTIC MARKET Fundamental consume function calculates at below, $D_{(68_71)}$=16354 $Y^{0.471}$ $P^{-1.0662}$ where D is total layer demand, Y income variable, P price variable. It means income elasticity is 476. in the whole country, and price elasticity is 1, 07. But generally income elasticity is higher in urban area than in rural area, as shown at 1, 3 in Seoul city. Expence of laver in house expenditure is mutually correlated with another expence, See Table 12 about the relative function. See Table 14 and 16 about the relation between the gathering and the changes of price in auction, wholesale and retail price support system is for two effects, one of which is constraint of the upper price, the other is rise of the lower price. Before the system control, the equation in three year average calculated as below, $Y_{b}$ =18, 907.7455+15435.9364 t (r=0.89) where the origin t=0 is the November and the units are month. Post the system control, $Y_{p}$ =30, 047.9636+1, 631.1721t (r=0.97) therefore, this system has an effect only on the rise of lower price, Average annual margins of laver products at four market levels according to the consumer spent is below. EXPORTING MARKET Japanese demand function of laver products is, Log D=5, 289+1, 108 Log Y-1, 395 Log P (r=0.987) where D is Japanese laver demand, Y income variable, P price variable. according to which income elasticity is 1. 1 and price elasticity is 1.4. Laver production in 1970 tile highest record till then, is estimated as six billion sheets. But the recent improvement of laver culture techniques, the production of seeds and freezing storage of seeds has been stabilized. Futher new culture farms have been developed by means of break- water fences or by floating culture method. These improvements have been backed up with increased demand of laver products. Import quantity and price of Korean laver products are restrained by three organizations, that is producer, distributor and consumer. This relationship calculated by regression equation shows that import is influenced only producer organization, at the sacrifice of consumer profit. For increase to export of laver products, we urgently require to open foreign trade of laver products for Japanese consumer, .and Japan has political responsibility to solve Korean laver structure. But with long run timeseries, as regards Japanese production and import quantity, importing function shows increasing trend as below, 250 million sheets <3, 947.1674+0.005 $L_{g}$ >) 600 million sheets where $L_{q}$ is relative production quantity of laver in Japan. (unit; 100 thousand sheets) Our Export effort should be put on the highly processed products whithin the restraind quote.ote.

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