• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ripeness

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Development of Tobacco Ripeness Grading Meter Using the Color Sensor (칼라센서를 이용한 담배 완숙도의 식별장치 개발)

  • 이대원;이용국
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.26-33
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    • 1994
  • A tobacco ripeness grading meter was designed and constructed using the color sensor, its performance was evaluated. A degree of ripeness grading of a leaf is very closely related to the measured tobacco leaf color. Measuring the small amount of the reflectance precisely depends on the apparatus including color sensor, light source, detector sensitivity, and geometric characteristics of appratus. To analyze and minimize the variational effects, experiments to select the proper condition were performed. Because of the combined effect mentioned above, the system has some variation on its response. Basis on the results of the experiments, prototype was developed and interfaced to a computer system. The main components of prototype included a tungsten lamp as a light source, Amorphous full color sensor with three filters, regulated D.C. power supply, OP - AMP(741 TC) for amplification, AR - B3001 board for interfacing to a computer with analog to digital conversion, and a compatible IBM PC XT computer. The experimental results of the developed ripeness tobacco leaf measurement system are summarized as following: [1] The output readings of ripeness grade meter for tobacco leaf, which is based on harvesting time, showed the apparent difference in variety of different quality. It was considered suitable that three filters(red, green, blue) in Amorphous full color sensor could be used in four different ripeness degree measurement of tobacco leaf. [2] The output readings of ripeness grade meter for tobacco leaf, which is based on government procurement, showed apparent difference in variety of different quality. Tobacco leaf varieties to stalk position are divided into tips, leaf, cutters, and primings, It is considered suitable that only red filter in the sensor could be used to classify the grade of tobacco leaf within the same kind tobacco stalk. However, the ripeness grade meter was not adequate to classify all the tobacco grades in the four different tobacco leaves.

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Acoustic Characteristics of Watermelon for Internal Quality Evaluation (내부품질 판정을 위한 수박의 음파특성)

  • 최동수;최규홍;이강진;이영희;김만수
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2002
  • The objectives of the study were to analyze the acoustic characteristics related to the internal quality factors of watermelon(Citrulus Vulgaris Schrad). Among the various internal quality factors, only four factors such as ripeness, inside cavity, yellow belt and blood flesh were considered in this study. Relationships between the internal quality factors, the day after fruit set and the day after harvest were also investigated. Test apparatus was the same as the apparatus described in the previous study(Choi et at., 2000). The selected sample was divided into four groups; 69 samples used for ripeness tests 56 samples for ripeness test along the day after fruit set and for yellow belt detection, 60 samples for ripeness along the day after harvest 44 samples fur blood flesh detection. It was shown that the first peak frequencies shifted to the lower range and the energy ratios of the bandwidths between 0∼550 Hz to the bandwidths between 850∼2500 Hz increased as the day after fruit set elapsed. Since the acoustic responses of the watermelon such as frequency and magnitude began to change from 10 days after harvest, the storage period of watermelon in a normal temperature condition seemed to be approximately 10 days after harvest. The ratios of the first peak amplitude to the maximum peak amplitude fur the sound watermelon showed the higher value than that fur watermelon with cavity inside, and the separation between the sound and cavity inside could be accomplished by the ratio value of 0.25. The energy ratios (0∼550 Hz/850∼2,500 Hz) for the watermelon with cavity inside showed the higher value than 2.3. The frequency characteristics of the yellow belt watermelon appeared mostly in the range of 600∼900 Hz frequencies. The yellow belt watermelon showing the energy spectral density function at this frequency range to be over 70 seemed to be not a marketable commodity, The energy ratios(0∼550 Hz/850∼2,500 Hz) for the blood flesh watermelon showed the higher value than 3.5.

Feasibility of Determining the Ripeness of Strawberry Fruit Flesh by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (Fourier 변환 적외선 분광분석법에 의한 딸기 과육의 성숙도 측정 가능성)

  • Min, Sung-Ran;Kwak, Chul-Won;Kim, Suk-Weon;Jeong, Won-Joong;Chung, Hwa-Jee;Choi, Pil-Son;Ko, Suk-Min;Park, Sang-Kyu;Chung, Hoe-Il;Liu, Jang, R.
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.277-281
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    • 2006
  • Fourier transform - infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) provides biochemical profiles containing overlapping signals from a majority of the compounds that are present when whole cell extracts are analyzed. We attempted to determine the ripeness of strawberry fruit flesh by FT-IR. Fruit ripeness was divided into four developmental stages based on fruit skin color: 'yellow-green', 'pink-green', 'pink', and 'red' stages. Principal component analysis of FT-IR data of inside fruit flesh extracts clustered samples of four different developmental stages into three discrete groups: (1) 'yellow-green' group, (2) 'pink-green' group, and (3) 'pink' and 'red' group. The most remarkable difference between four different developmental stages was found in the carbohydrate fingerprint region $(1,000-1,100cm^{-1})$ of the FT-IR spectrum, indicating that differences in carbohydrate compounds represented the ripeness of strawberry fruit. Overall results indicate that FT-IR in combination with PCA enables discrimination of the ripeness of strawberry fruit flesh.

Effect of Cutting Stage on Yield and Quality of triticale ( x triticosecale Witt ) Cultivars

  • Celen, A.Esen;Celik, Nuran
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.89-92
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    • 1997
  • The aim of the research was to investigate the herbage yield and some characteristics of three triticale cultivars (Beaguelita, Eronga and Juanillo) harvested at the boot and milky-waxy ripeness stages in 1993-94 and 1994-95. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Although there were no significant differences between the years and the cultivars, significant differences were found between the harvest stages and for most of the parameters studied superiority was observed for the late cutting (at milky-waxy ripeness). The highest crude protein (11.9%) and crude ash (9.4%) contents were obtained h m the boot stage, whereas the highest yields for green matter, dry matter, crude protein and crude ash were obtained h m the milky-waxy ripeness stage (34.94; 11.65; O.% and 0.92t/ha, respectively). Also, the dry matter content was higher at the late cutting (33.4%).

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Sensitivity of Color Indicators to Fermentation Products of Kimchi at Various Temperatures (김치 발효산물에 대한 발색지시계의 온도별 민감성)

  • Hong, Seok-In;Park, Wan-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.21-25
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    • 1997
  • Application of the color indicators to kimchi packages was investigated in order to monitor the ripeness of commercial kimchi products during storage and distribution. Kimchi was packed in polypropylene (PP) tray and nylon/cast polypropylene (Ny/CPP) lid where the indicating sachet consisting of $CO_2$ absorbent and chemical dye (bromocresol purple and methyl red) was attached. The ripeness of kimchi during storage at $0{\sim}20^{\circ}C$ was measured in terms of pH and titratable acidity (TA), which were compared with Hunter color values of the indicators. The color of bromocresol purple dye turned from light blue to purple, while that of methyl red turned from light yellow to red. Regardless of the storage temperatures, Hunter b values of bromocresol purple type and Hunter a values of methyl red type appeared to be proportional to both the pH and TA values of kimchi. These results suggest that the color indicators be employed as one of the effective techniques for sensing the ripeness of packaged kimchi products without destructing the package.

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The Development of A Device to Measure the Ripeness and Internal Quality of Watermelons

  • Yshihide-Kouno;Toshihiro-Mizuno;Hiromu-Maeda;Akinaga, T-Akayoshi;Yoshihiro-Kohda
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.1346-1353
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    • 1993
  • Recently , it has been popular for family use to sell a watermelon by the piece such as a half or a quarter. Therefore, it has been necessary to detect and sort out hollow or overripened watermelons before they are shipped. Previously, inspection and rejection of hollow or overripened watermelons were carried out by skilled inspectors with their experience and intuition based on the traditional slapping method. In recent years many inspectors have became older and are going to retire. Thus automatic quality measuring devices have to be developed. There are many reports on the measurement of internal quality for watermelons with non-destructive methods. However, there is no online device to detect and measure both hollow and ripeness of watermelons until now. We have developed the model MWA-9002 online device to detect hollow and measuring the ripeness of watermelons by acoustic impulse. The developed of this devices has enables accurate distinction and rejection at the same level of the skilled inspectors, and also has saved labor. Nowadays nine automatic watermelon sorting and packing facilities applied this device have installed in Japan.

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Various Color Models and Color Feature Indexes to Predict Fruit Ripeness Stages

  • Cho, Wanhyun;Na, MyungHwan;Kim, Sangkyoon
    • Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.2213-2221
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    • 2018
  • In general, farmers who grow fruits such as strawberry or tomato in greenhouses are very eager to predict the optimal harvesting time for fruits in advance. Therefore, in order to solve these farmers' needs, this paper suggests the appropriate color indexes representing a ripeness of fruit images which are essential to develop a system that can automatically determine the degree of maturity of fruit. First, we consider the definitions and properties of three color models such as CIE XYZ, CIE LAB, and CIE LUV that are commonly used to represent fruit images. Second, we examine the color components and the extracting method of color feature vectors that is most suitable to accurately determine the ripening stage of the fruit. From the experimental results, the color components that can accurately distinguish the stages of ripening of strawberry were Y component in XYZ color model, A component in LAB color model, and V component in LUV color model. Also, it can be seen that the average, skewness and kurtosis of color values can be used as color feature vectors effective for determining the degree of ripening of strawberry. Therefore, the results of our study are expected to be useful to develop a system that can automatically determine the harvesting time of fruits.

Recognition of Tabacco Ripeness & Grading based on the Neural Network (신경회로망을 이용한 담배 숙도인식 및 등급판정)

  • LEE, S.S.;LEE, C.H.;LEE, D.W.;HWANG, H.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 1995
  • Efficient algorithms for the automatic classification of flue-cured tovacco ripeness and grading have been developed The ripeness of the tobacco was classified into 4 levels vased on the color. The lab-built simple RGB color measuring system was utilized for detecting the light reflectance of the tobacco leaves. The measured data were used far training the artificial neural network The performance of the trained network was also tested far the untrained samples. The spectrophotometer was used to detect the light reflectance and absorption of the graded tobacco leaves in the frequency ranges of the visible light The measured data and the statistical analysis was performed to investigate the light characteristics of the graded samples. The measured data were obtained from samples of 5 different grades directly without considering the leaf positions. Those data were used far training the artificial neural network The performance of the trained network was also tested far the untrained samples. The neural network based sensor information processing showed successful results for grading of tobacco leaves.

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Chilling Responses of Chilli Pepper Fruits at Different Ripening Stages to Low Temperature during Storage

  • Lim, Chae-Shin;An, Chul-Geon;Huh, Moo-Ryong
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate effect of low temperature and ripeness stages on fruit quality of chilli pepper (cv. Nockgwang) during storage at 5, 7, and $10^{\circ}C$. Fruits at three ripeness stages were selected based on uniform fruit size and three maturities on peel color: S1 (fully developed fruit just before the onset of ripening), S2 (fruits in the onset of color change), and S3 (fruits in completely red in color). Lower temperature attributed to increase fruit weight loss (WL) and WL was higher in S2 than the other ripeness stages. The highest respiration rate and ethylene production was found at S2 fruit while those of fruit in green and red showed similar and remained lower level during storage. Electrolyte leakage (EL) was higher as storage temperature decreased. After 28 d storage, EL rates of fruits at $5^{\circ}C$ were 43, 36, and 17% in S1, S2, and S3 while those at $10^{\circ}C$ were 17, 19, and 14%, respectively. These results show that chilli pepper fruits are tended to lose more water at lower temperature partially associated with increased EL. Thus, threshold storage temperature must be considered for avoiding chilling during storage and for extending the storage life of fresh pepper fruits.

INFLUENCE OF HARVEST TIME ON CHARACTERISTICS OF AROMATIC-TYPE TOBACCO (향끽미종 연초의 수확시기가 건조엽의 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 류명현;김용옥;정형진;김신일;손현주;추홍구
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 1985
  • Normally cultured aromatic tobaccos, KA 101 and KA 103, were primed progressively in three-leaf segments, either 7 days before bud, bud, or early flower stage with 7 days interval, respectively, The cured leaves were weighed for yield, graded, analyzed for quality-related constituents including volatile aroma components. Also the cured leaves were manufactured and smoked by panelists. Yield and quality by price decreased with advancing ripeness. Reducing sugar, total nitrogen, protein nitrogen decreased with successive ripeness, but reverse in this trends with nicotine, petroleum ether extracts and volatile acids components. Among volatile neutral components, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, penethyl alcohol and p-cresol decreased, but solanone increased with delayed harvest. Neophytadiene, oxysolanone, furfuryl aceton was highest at mid harvest, which was judged to be best by panelists. Mid harvest, first primed at bud stage when leaf color comes to pale green to yellow green, seems to be highly recommendable.

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