• Title, Summary, Keyword: Risk-taking

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No Increase in Breast Cancer Risk in Japanese Women Taking Oral Contraceptives: a Case-Control Study Investigating Reproductive, Menstrual and Familial Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

  • Ichida, Miho;Kataoka, Akemi;Tsushima, Ruriko;Taguchi, Tetsuya
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3685-3690
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    • 2015
  • Background: Low-dose oral contraceptives (OC) were approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in 1999, yet despite their contraceptive and non-contraceptive health benefits, only 5% of the target population use them. Fear of increased cancer risk, particularly breast cancer, is one reason for this. Due to low OC uptake and low screening participation, a paucity of data is available on the risk of OC use and breast cancer in Japanese women. The present study investigated OC use and breast cancer risk, as well as menstrual, reproductive and family factors. Materials and Methods: This was a clinic-based case-control study of women aged 20-69yrs who had undergone breast screening between January 2007 and December 2013 in central Tokyo. In all, 28.8% of the participants had experience with OC use. Cases were 155 women with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer. Controls were the remaining 12,333 women. Results: Increased age was a significant risk factor for breast cancer (p<0.001). A lower risk was found in premenopausal women presently taking OC compared to never users (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22-0.90) after adjusting for age, parity and breast feeding, and a family history of breast cancer. Conclusions: Increased age rather than OC use had a greater effect on breast cancer risk. This risk may be decreased in premenopausal women with OC use, but further long-term prospective studies are necessary.

Identification of Prevailing Risk Attitudes in Various Risk Situations (다양한 위험상황에서의 지배적 위험태도의 파악)

  • Kang, Tae-Geon;Cho, Sung-Ku
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.437-447
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    • 1999
  • Previous researches on risk attitudes or on the typical utility functions have mostly focused on how the risk attitude of decision maker varies when changes are made in one or two lottery reference points such as consequence domain and magnitude of probability under assumed risk situations represented by simple lotteries. It is, however, very difficult to forecast dominant risk attitudes under risk situations which exhibit a complex combination of many reference points. In this study, twelve risk situations which a decision maker may confront in real decision-making situations were formulated by combining in various ways three reference points, that is, magnitude of probability, consequence domain, and magnitude of gain or loss. Then through a questionnaire dominant risk attitudes under every assumed risk situation were investigated, and the general shape of utility function implied by the experimental results were derived. Results of the present study show that none of the three reference points have dominant effect over the others due to complicated interaction between them, and given the twelve risk situations the observed risk attitude widely varies from strong risk taking to strong risk aversion.

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Factors Which Affect Risk Perception of Medications Containing Asbestos (의약품 사건의 리스크 인식에 영향을 주는 요인: 석면 함유 의약품 사건을 중심으로)

  • Jeon, Mi-Sook;Cheong, Jae-Hoon;Sohn, Aeree
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.269-277
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the factors which affect risk perception and attitude on government risk management over medications containing asbestos among parents of elementary school students. Methods: This research design was cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaire. The survey subjects were parents of elementary school students in Seoul, total of 1,051 subjects. The survey period was from June through July of 2011. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0. Results: The subjects perceived high risk regarding medications containing asbestos. About 83.6% of the subjects perceived that the result taking of medications containing asbestos was fatal, 82.8% felt that medications containing asbestos was a very serious social problem, 79.5% agreed that medications containing asbestos was a new type of threat. The risk perception for medications containing asbestos was related to political affiliation, attitudes of dealing medicines, main use of media, and personal communication credibility. Those who did not believe that the current government policy was correct and the government was working toward the public's benefit and not its own had the higher level of negative attitudes towards the government's risk management over the case of medications containing asbestos. Conclusion: In implementing government policy, all information should be efficiently and accurately communicated through a transparent implementation process. Also, the government must have plans for countermeasures in case of an emergency and respond efficiently in order to maintain their credibility. Moreover, this highlights the need for health authorities to exert more effort in increasing public education/awareness, especially those concerning drug and dug-taking behavior, in order to harness positive attitude and trust towards the government's policy. For a more effective risk communication, the media, health experts, government representatives, and related industries should work together.

The Effects of International Entrepreneurial Proclivity of SME's on Corporate Capability and Export Performance: Focused on Consumer Goods and Industrial Goods (중소기업의 국제기업가 성향이 기업역량 및 수출성과에 미치는 영향: 산업재와 소비재를 중심으로)

  • Yang, Hee-Soon;Jung, Min-Ji
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.121-134
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    • 2015
  • This study empirically analyzed the effects of international entrepreneurial proclivity of exporting small and medium enterprises on corporate capability and export performance according to product type of industrial and consumer goods. International entrepreneurial proclivity of exporting small and medium enterprises consists of risk-taking, proactiveness, and innovativeness, and corporate capability consists of technological capability and product differentiation capability. Risk-taking, innovativeness, and proactiveness had a significant impact on technological capability in case of industrial goods, and in case of consumer goods, only risk-taking and innovativeness had significant impact. Product differentiation capability of consumer goods was significantly influenced by the order of innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking while only innovativeness had a negative impact on industrial goods. When the impact of corporate capability on export performance was examined, only technological capability had a significant impact on both financial and strategic performance in case of industrial goods while both technological capability and product differentiation capability had significant impact in case of consumer goods. After examining the direct impact of international entrepreneurial proclivity on financial performance, it was found that financial performance in the case of industrial goods was significantly influenced by the order of proactiveness and risk-taking, and in the case of consumer goods by the order of innovativeness and proactiveness. However, the impact of international entrepreneurial proclivity on strategic performance showed different results. In case of industrial goods, only risk-taking had a significant impact on strategic performance while in the case of consumer goods it was significantly influenced by the order of innovativeness, proactivenesspro, and risk-taking. The direct impact of international entrepreneurial proclivity on export performance was different in case of financial and strategic performance, and there was difference regarding product type as well. It suggests that different approach is needed according to product type in order to increase export performance since the impact of international entrepreneurial proclivity on corporate capability, the impact of corporate capability on export performance, and the impact of international entrepreneurial proclivity on export performance were all different according to product type.

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A Meta-Analysis on the Effect of Entrepreneurship on the Entrepreneurial Intention: Mediating Effect of Entrepreneur Education (기업가정신이 창업의지에 미치는 영향에 관한 메타분석: 창업교육의 매개효과)

  • Yoon, Byeong seon;Kim, Chun Kyu
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.207-221
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    • 2020
  • This study conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of innovation, risk-taking, and enterprising on entrepreneurship. From 2013 to 2020, 392 papers, which were judged as quantitative research from doctoral and master thesis, and academic journals published in Korea were selected as research subjects. 28 duplicates of thesis and thesis are excluded. A total of 52 papers were finally selected, excluding 312 papers that were insufficient to be used as research data because there were no statistical values such as correlation coefficients. For the 52 selected papers, the homogeneity of the variables was first verified. As a result of the homogeneity test, the innovativeness, risk-taking, initiative, and entrepreneurship education all showed great effects on heterogeneity, and the average effect size was analyzed by random effect model. The average effect size analyzed was 0.38 ~ 0.49, and all four variables showed moderate average effect size. As a result of analyzing the average effect size by forest plot, all showed proper results. From the results of funnel plot analysis of entrepreneurship education, published errors were confirmed asymmetric. Research data on entrepreneurship education shows that it cannot represent the whole. It is a structural equation model with entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intention as a parameter. Iinnovation and risk-taking have an impact on entrepreneurship by taking entrepreneurship education as a parameter. Initiative had an effect on the entrepreneurial intention a business, regardless of entrepreneurship education. In a number of studies, university entrepreneurship education has had an impact on the entrepreneurial intention. It should be changed to entrepreneurship education that combines theory and practice. Entrepreneurship education should be transformed into continuous and field-oriented education.

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불확실성 하에서의 신시장 개척을 위한 최적 마케팅 자원 배분

  • 이동주;안재현
    • Proceedings of the Korean Operations and Management Science Society Conference
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    • pp.157-160
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    • 2001
  • Firms pursue new business opportunities for growth. Market development strategy is one of the growth strategies, which develops new market segments with current products. However, new market generally has high uncertainty, or high risk. Firms should consider the risk in making and implementing the market development strategy. In this paper, an optimal marketing resource allocation model is developed, taking into account the risk attitude of a firm in market development. Under the assumption of exponential utility function, the global optimal solution is derived, and the implications are provided.

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A Study on the Risk Attitude of Intuitive Certainty Equivalence judgement in Multi-branch Lottery Games (다분지 로터리게임에 대한 직관적 확실등가 판정시 위험성향의 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 강태건;정상윤
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.19 no.38
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 1996
  • In the descriptive studies investigating people's risk taking behavior, the most used experimental technique has been the simple lotteries which consist of only no possible outcomes. However, these simple lotteries cannot always be an appropriate representation of the real world decision-making situations, where three or more possible outcomes are frequently encountered. The purpose of the present study is to investigate people's risk attitude in various multi-branch lottery games.

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The Effects of Fast-Food Franchisor's Proactiveness, Innovation, Risk-taking on Affective Commitment, Franchisee's External Representation and Service Delivery (프랜차이즈 본사의 기업가 지향성이 본사와 가맹점 간의 정서적 결속과 가맹점의 외부대표와 서비스이행에 미치는 영향: 패스트푸드를 중심으로)

  • Hong, Hee-Jeong;Ha, Dong-Hyun
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.191-209
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to identify whether franchisee-perceived franchisor's proactiveness, innovativeness and risk-taking affect franchisee-perceived affective commitment with franchisor, and the affective commitment affects franchisee-perceived external representation and service delivery. Based on total 280 samples obtained from owners or managers of franchise fast-food restaurants in located in Yeongnam province, the research findings are as follows. Firstly, the innovativeness and risk-taking positively affect the affective commitment. Secondly, the affective commitment positively affects external representation and service delivery. But proactiveness does not affect the affective commitment significantly. These findings imply that firstly, franchisor should investigate consumer trends periodically and develop new successful menus and services more than competitors do, and implement new marketing techniques innovatively towards these menus and services. Secondly, franchisor had better adopt high return/risk strategies because of deepened competition and do bold decisions of price change etc. Also, in order to increase proactiveness, franchisor needs to launch new menus and services earlier than competitors and occupy market in advance, which strengthens affective commitment with franchisees. Thirdly, in order to increase affective commitment with franchisees, franchisor needs to match franchisor's value with franchisee's value and same value means same objective. Lastly, limitations and further research directions are also discussed.

A Study on Related Risk Factors of Obesity for Primary School Children - Difference between Normal and Obese Group - (초등학생의 비만 관련 요인에 관한 연구 - 정상군과 비만군을 중심으로 -)

  • 박미아;문현경;이규한;서성제
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.1158-1164
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to provide information on the related factors for child obesity through investigation of children aged 6-12. Data was obtained on family history, dietary habits and physical examinations. Children were classified into normal(98 persons) and obese (108 persons) groups using combinations of the height f3r age, weight fir age, and weight fir height standards used by the World Health Organization. Children's height, weight and BMI showed significant differences between groups except children aged 8 for height. Birth weight, breast feeding and unbalanced diet were not associated with obesity. Overeating was a risk factor in the obese group(Odd ratio : 3.417, 95% CI 1.879-6.212). Taking nutrition pills was correlated to obesity. Odd ratio for taking nutrition pills was 0.109(95% CI : 0.024-0.492) between normal and obese group. Number of brothers didn't have any correlation to obesity. Obesity was not correlated to mother's education level or employmental status. As the result of this study, children's obesity was related to overeating and taking nutrition pills. Therefore, these results suggest that systematic dietary education and continuous parental supervision are necessary to avoid child obesity. (Korean J Nutrition 31(7) : 1158-1164, 1998)

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