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The Effects of Female Wage on Fertility in Korea (여성의 임금수준이 출산율에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Kim, Jungho
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.105-138
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    • 2009
  • Although the decline in fertility rate is generally observed along the history of economic development throughout the world, the continuing decline hitting below the replacement level in Korea over the recent years gathered serious social concerns on the ground that it accelerates the process of population aging. The total fertility rate in Koreareached 2.08 in 1983, and gradually fell to the levels of 1.08 in 2005 and 1.26 in 2007. The policy debate over the role of the government has been focused mainly on the level of theoretical discussion without substantial basis on firm empirical evidence and the determinants of fertility. The objective of the paper is to empirically investigate the fertility effect of the female wage, which is understood as one of the most important determinants of fertility in Koreasince 1980 focusing on one aspect of fertility, namely birth spacing. Using the Korean National Fertility Survey conducted in 2006, I estimate a duration model of first and second births taking into account individual heterogeneity, which turned out to be an important factor to control for. Compared with previous studies in the literature on the Korean fertility, the study has an advantage of using the complete pregnancy history of women in a more representative sample. Unlike the previous studies, the analysis also deals with the endogeneity of marriage by treating a certain age, rather than age at marriage, as the time in which a woman becomes exposed to the risk of pregnancy. The study shares the common problem in the literature on birth spacing of lacking relevant wage information for respondents in a retrospective survey. I estimate the wage series as a function of the basic characteristics using the annual Wage Structure Survey from 1980 to 2005, which is considered as a nationally representative sample for wage information of employees. The results suggest that the increase in female wage by 10 percent leads to a decrease in second birth hazard by 0.56~0.92 percentage points and that the increase in spouse's wage by the equal amount is accompanied by the increase in second birth hazard by 0.36~1.13 percentage points. These estimates are more precisely estimated and of smaller magnitude than those presented by the previous studies. The results are robust to the different specifications of the wage equation. The simulation analysis based on the predicted values shows that about 17% of the change in the second birth hazard over the period 1980 to 2005 was due to the change in the female wage. Although there is some limitation in data, the results can be viewed as one estimate of the role of female wage on the recent fertility decline in Korea. The question raised by the paper is not a normative one of whether a government should promote childbearing but a positive one thatexplains fertility decline. Therefore, if there is a wide consensus on promoting childbearing, the finding suggests that the policies designed to reduce the opportunity cost of women in the labor market would be effective. The recent movement of implementing a wide range of family-friendly policies including child care support, maternity leave, parental leave and tax benefit in developed countries should be understood in this context.

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Small Aortic Annulus in Aortic Valve Replacement; Comparison between Aortic Annular Enlargement Group and Patient-prosthesis Mismatch Group (협소한 대동맥판륜 환자에서의 대동맥판막 치환술; 대동맥판륜 확장술군과 환자-인공판막 부조화군의 비교)

  • Kim, Jae-Hyun;Oh, Sam-Sae;Yie, Kil-Soo;Shin, Sung-Ho;Baek, Man-Jong;Na, Chan-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.200-208
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    • 2007
  • Background: The effect of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) on the clinical outcome following aortic valve replacement (AVR) remains controversial. This study compared the surgical outcomes of AVR between patients with a patient-prosthesis mismatch and those having undergone an aortic annular enlargement. Material and Method: Six hundred and twenty seven adult patients, who underwent AVR with stented bioprosthetic or mechanical valves, between January 1996 and February 2006, were evaluated. PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area (iEOA) ${\leq}0.85cm^2/m^2$, and Severe if the iEOA${\leq}0.65cm^2/m^2$ PPM was present in 103 (16.4%, PPM group) patients, and severe in 11 (1.8%, SPPM group). During the period of the study, 21 patients underwent an AVR with annular enlargement (AE group). Result: The mean iEOA of the AE group was larger than that of the PPM group ($0.95\;vs.\;0.76cm^2/m^2,\;p=0.00$). The AE group had longer CPB, ACC and operation times than the PPM group, and showed a tendency toward higher operative mortality (14.3% vs. 2.9%, p=0.06). The SPPM group had higher AV pressure gradients (peak/mean) than the AE group (72/45 mmHg vs. 38/25 mmHg, p=0.02/0.06) and suffered more AV related events (AV reoperation or severe aortic stenosis)(45.5% vs. 9.5%, p=0.03). LV masses were not regressed in the patients who experienced an AV related event. Conclusion: During AVR in patients with a small aortic annulus, annular enlargement should be carefully applied taking into account the high risk of operative mortality due to annular enlargement and co-morbidities of patients. Aortic annular enlargement; however, should be considered as an alternative method in patients expected to have a severe PPM after an AVR.

Hybrid Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Combined with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Indications and Early Results (심폐바이패스 없이 시행하는 관상동맥우회술과 경피적 관상동맥중재술의 병합요법 : 적응증 및 조기성적)

  • Hwang Ho Young;Kim Jin Hyun;Cho Kwang Ree;Kim Ki-Bong
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.38 no.11
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    • pp.733-738
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    • 2005
  • Background: The possibility of incomplete revascularization and development of flow competition after revascularization of the borderline lesion made the hybrid strategy as an option for complete revascularization. Material and Method: From January f998 to July 2004, 25 $(3.2\%)$ patients underwent hybrid revascularization among 782 total OPCAB procedures. Clinical results and angiographic patencies were evalulated. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was peformed before CABG in 8 patients and after CABG in 47 patients. Result: The causes of PCIs before CABG were to achieve complete revascularization with minimally invasive surgery (n=7) and emergent PCI for culprit lesion (n=1). The indications of PCIs after CABG were high possibility of flow competition in the borderline lesion of right coronary artery territory (n=8), diffuse atheromatous lesion preventing anastomosis of graft (n=5), severe calcified ascending aorta with no more arterial grafi available (n=3), and intramyocardial coronary lesion (n=1). Mean number of distal anastomoses was $2.3\pm1.0$. Mean number of lesions treated by PCI was $1.2\pm0.4$. There was no operative or procedure-related mortality. PCI-related complication was periprocedural myocardial infarction in one patient, and complications related to CABG were transient atrial fibrillation (n=5), perioperative myocardial infarction (n=1), and transient renal dysfunction (n=1). Early postoperative coronary angiography $(1.8{pm}1.6days)$ revealed $100\%$ patency rate of grafts (57/57). The stenosis occurred in one patient performed PCI before CABG, which was successfully treated with re-ballooning. During midterm follow-up (mean; $25{\pm}26$ months), 1 patient died of congestive heart failure. All survivors (n=24) accomplished follow-up coronary angiographics, which showed .all grafts (56/57) were patent except one string sign. In-stent restenosis was developed in 2 patients who received bare metal stents. Conclusion: In selected patients, complete revascularization was achieved with low risk by taking the hybrid strategy.

A Study on Business Diversification and Business Performance of Korean Mass Media Enterprises (국내 매스미디어 기업의 사업다각화와 경영성과에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Yun-Hi
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.43
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    • pp.173-208
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    • 2008
  • This study analyses the business performance according to the business diversification of Korean mass media enterprises from year 2003 to 2006. The conclusions drawn which could be divided into five main parts are the followings: First, newspaper companies pursue unrelated diversification in various industrial areas, in order to gain maximum profit while broadcasting companies exert themselves to provide better service by diversifying the major contents. Second, overall the interviewed companies display a constant decline in profit gained from their major business area thus establishing strategies to broaden their focus on diversification of any sort. Third, the researcher completed group analysis in regard of diversification measure resulting in division of three groups. The group which had the most immense diversification range gained the highest ROE, the lowest ROE volatility, and lesser probability of risk taking. The analysis adresses the companies broadening their business areas by researching and focusing on diversification are relatively stable in terms of the profit they gain. Fourth, the middle level group in terms of sales scale, debts, enterprise history, major share rate and high ROE group carry out diversification progressively. The sales scale affects positively to diversification, while the major share rate affects negatively to diversification. Fifth, in accordance to the research, diversification overall contributes to obtainance of successful outcome. Since there was not an immense amount of studies to be referred in the media area, the researcher interviewed and did panel discussion with numerous strategists and managers who are in charge of diversification of media companies. However, collection of only 4 years of data limits the research to be considered to be a generalized study, and does not reflect time gap between business diversification and business performance. Development is required in future studies to be established regarding the media companies' specificity different to other industries, classified the media companies into media types, and consider the time gap in the diversification activities and business performance.

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The Effects of Global Entrepreneurship and Social Capital Within Supply Chain on the Export Performance (글로벌 기업가정신과 공급사슬 내 사회적 자본이 수출성과에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Heon-Deok;Kwak, Ki-Young;Seo, Ri-Bin
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2012
  • Under the international business circumstance, global supply chain management is considered a vital strategic challenge to small and medium-sized enterprises(SMEs) suffering from deficient resources and capabilities to exploit overseas markets comparing with large corporations. That is because they can expand their business domains into overseas markets by establishing strategic alliances with global supply chain partners. Although a wide range of previous researches have emphasized the cooperative networks in the chain, most are ignoring the importance of developing relational characteristics such as trust and reciprocity with the partners. Besides, verifying the relational factors influencing firms' export performances, some studies proposed different and inconsistent factors. According to the social capital theory, which is the social quality and networks facilitating close cooperation of inter-individual and inter-organization, provides the integrated view to identify the relational characteristics in the aspects of network, trust and reciprocal norm. Meanwhile, a number of researchers shows that global entrepreneurship is the internal and intangible resource necessary to promote SMEs' internationalization. Upon closer examination, however, they cannot explain clearly its influencing mechanism in the inter-firm cooperative relationships. This study is to verify the effect of social capital accumulated within global supply chain on SMEs' qualitative and quantitative export performance. In addition, we shed new light on global entrepreneurship expected to be concerned with the formation of social capital and the enhancement of export performances. For this purpose, the questionnaires, developed through literature review, were collected from 192 Korean SMEs affiliated in Korean Medium Industries Association and Global Chief Executive Officer's Club focusing on their memberships' international business. As a result of multi-regression analysis, the social capital - network, trust and reciprocal norm shared with global supply chain partner - as well as global entrepreneurship - innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking - have positive effect on SMEs' export performances. Also global entrepreneurship affects positively social capital which has mediating effect partially in the relationship between global entrepreneurship and performances. These results means that there is a structural process - global entrepreneurship(input), social capital(output), and export performances(outcome). In other words, a firm should consistently invest in and develop the social capital with global supply chain partners in order to achieve common goals, establish strategic collaborations and obtain long-term export performances. Furthermore, it is required to foster the global entrepreneurship in an organization so as to build up the social capital. More detailed practical issues and discussion are made in the conclusion.

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Effects of Cutivation Method and Planting Date in Growth and Yield of Momordica charantia L. in Spring Season (여주 봄 작형의 재배방법과 정식기가 생육과 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Dong-Mo;Kim, Seong-Jun;Kim, Hyo-Joong;Kim, Hee-Gon;Yun, Bong-Ki;Jung, Jong-Mo;Lee, Jeong-hyun
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.200-205
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects that the difference of planting time by a method of cultivation in the non-heated greenhouse and the open field with spring planting had on growth and yield. With regard to the tested variety of Momordica charantia, variety 'Dragon' (Japan Yae 農藝) was selected. And 3 treatments on March 20, April 5 and April 20 for the greenhouse cultivation and 3 treatments on April 20, May 5 and May 20 for the open-field cultivation 1 month later than those for the greenhouse cultivation were planted by the randomized complete block design, and 4 secondary vines were trained. In the results of examining 15-day average atmospheric temperature after planting according to the methods of greenhouse and open-field cultivation and planting time, it was shown that there was a tendency for atmospheric temperature inside the greenhouse to decrease as the planting time was moved up. In particular, the average atmospheric temperature was $16.7^{\circ}C$ when seedling was planted on April 20 in the open-field cultivation, which was approximately equal to $17.0^{\circ}C$ of the average atmospheric temperature when a seedling was planted on March 20 in the greenhouse cultivation. With regard to the date of first harvest by the method of cultivation, it was shown that there was a tendency for the date of first harvest to be earlier in the greenhouse cultivation than in the open-field cultivation, and the date of first harvest was moved up as a seedling was planted earlier for the planting period. The number and weight of harvested fruits per plant showed a tendency which was almost similar to that of total number of harvest days and number of harvests. Thus, the number of fruits was 189 and the weight of fruits was 31,649g in case of the greenhouse cultivation and planting on March 20, which were maximum. In case of planting on the latest planting date : May 20 in the open-field cultivation, the number of fruits was 77 and the weight of fruits was 12,502g, which were at a level of 40% of those of planting on March 20 in the greenhouse cultivation 2 months earlier. The total yield per 10a was 10,228kg in the greenhouse cultivation and was 2.2 times as heavy as 4,607kg in the open-field cultivation with regard to the method of cultivation. For the planting period in the greenhouse cultivation, it was 10,539kg and 10,517kg in planting on March 20 and April 5, which was higher by 9% than 9,629kg in planting on April 20. And in the open-field cultivation, it was 4,785kg in planting on April 20 and 4,872kg in planting on May 5, which was higher by 15~17% than 4,163kg in planting on May 20. Taking the above results into account, it is considered proper to plant Momordica charantia from March 20 to April 5 for the greenhouse cultivation and from April 20 to May 5 or thereabouts when a risk of late frost is gone for the open-field cultivation in southern area.

Decrease of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Raw Cow’s Milk using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) System (HACCP 제도에 의한 우유의 아플라톡신 M1의 저감화)

  • Kim, Ki-Hwan;Nam, Myoung Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 2016
  • Aflatoxin M1 can be produced in cow’s milk when cows eat contaminated produce. Milk is a major source of food for infants and for children who have a weak level of immunity, and the detection of Aflatoxin M1 for risk assessment is necessary in order to reduce the amount of it in milk. In this study, the Aflatoxin M1 level was monitored for one year in raw milk samples obtained from Chungnam Province, Korea. The milk samples were divided into three categories: 1. milk samples from a standard general farm, 2. milk samples from a HACCP controlled farm, and 3. milk samples from the supply of Aflatoxin M1 reduced fodder. The average concentrations of Aflatoxin M1 in milk were 0.023±0.005 ug/l for the standard general farm, 0.017±0.004 ug/l for the HACCP controlled farm, and 0.013±0.003 ug/l for the supply of Aflatoxin M1 reduction fodder. Milk collected from the supply of Aflatoxin M1 reduction fodder had the lowest level of Aflatoxin M1. However, when efficiency and economic aspects are considered the most effective way of reducting Aflatoxin M1, could be taking milk from the HACCP controlled farm and implementing good feed management. Institutional support from the government, careful management of dairy farming, and a strict farm sanitation program are required in order to lower the level of Aflatoxin M1 in milk.

A Study on the Effects of the Dine-out Franchise Headquarter's Management and Support Policies and Franchise Business Operator's Managerial Characteristics on the Bilateral Relationship and Franchise Store's Satisfaction (외식 프랜차이즈 가맹본부의 관리 및 지원정책과 가맹점 사업자의 경영자적 특성이 양자간 관계와 가맹점의 만족에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Seo, SangYun;Jang, JaeNam
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.81-101
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    • 2012
  • A franchise system develops competitive products for a franchise store through the system established by the franchise head office. Therefore, it has advantages of expanding the marketing effect since the risk of failure is reduced for a founder and the franchise head office supports the overall sales, advertisement and promotional activities. Also, a franchise store has advantages of fulfilling necessary facilities and tools on advantageous terms, reducing expenses by purchasing in bulk, and getting a supply of products with stable qualities. However, aside from such advantages, franchise head offices are forcing franchise stores to make unnecessary investments in equipments and remodel the interior. Also, franchise business operators are being made to share the cost of marketing and multiple franchise stores are being approved within the same business district, and franchise business operators are suffering damages. Therefore, cases of shutting down a franchise store or not renewing the contract are frequent. From the position of a franchise head office, profits that are generated from franchise fees, interior remodeling fees and supplying facilities and materials will increase as the number of new franchise stores increases. However, franchise stores are faced with difficulties due to excessive competitions between similar types of businesses and the overlapping of business districts that come from increases in the number of stores, and they eventually end up shutting down. Therefore, in order for a franchise business operator and franchise head office to grow and develop continuously, opening new stores is important, but successfully renewing the contract by maintaining a relationship with an existing franchise business operator is desirable. In this aspect, a study that examines the elements that can affect the relationship between a franchise business operator and franchise head office is believed to be important for the development of the franchise industry and creating safe jobs for the public. With an emphasis on the relationship between a franchise head office and franchise store, this study attempted to examine the effect of characteristics of a franchise head office and franchise business operator on the bilateral relationship such as the faith and immersion, and wished to review the effects of such faith and immersion on the satisfaction of a franchise store, including an intention of renewing the contract. In particular, in the current situation of great uncertainties in the market, this study also wished to examine how uncertain market elements will affect the relationship between the characteristics of a franchise head office and franchise business operator, and the faith and immersion. The study revealed that among the characteristics of a franchise head office, the standardization management of a franchise head office hinders a franchise store's faith and immersion in a franchise head office. Also, a franchise head office's support was shown to increase a franchise store's faith and immersion. However, it was revealed that a franchise head office's regulation and incentive policies for a franchise store do not affect a franchise store's faith and immersion. Among characteristics of a franchise business operator, a franchise store's healthy financial status and entrepreneur spirits were shown to enhance the faith and immersion in a franchise head office. However, it was shown that excellent business abilities of a franchise business operator actually reduce the immersion for a franchise head office. Also, the faith and immersion in a franchise head office were shown to enhance the intention of renewing the contract by increasing the satisfaction for a franchise head office. In addition, it was originally believed that the effects of a franchise business operator's characteristics on the faith and immersion in a franchise head office will vary depending on the market uncertainty, but the effect of a franchise business operator's characteristics depending on the recognition of uncertainties was shown to be insignificant. Such findings show that instead of making a franchise store pay for equipment investments and marketing and obtaining profits by force, a franchise head office should actively support a franchise store so that a franchise store's business activities can be conducted well, which will bring profits to a franchise store and ultimately to a franchise head office. This is a more desirable direction for the development of both parties. Implications of such findings are summarized as follows. First, it was shown that a franchise head office's standardization management actually reduces a franchise store's faith and immersion. Therefore, it is believed that instead of conducting standardization managements for regulating and managing franchise stores, measures should be developed so that franchise stores can actually participate voluntarily. For this, a head office should put in efforts to develop and provide standardized manuals, and make sure that a self-review system takes root. Second, a franchise head office's incentives did not have significant effects on the faith and immersion, but the support was shown to be effective. Therefore, it can be seen that instead of taking post-measures for a franchise store, taking pre-measures of actively supporting is more effective in maintaining a franchise store. Third, among characteristics of a franchise head office, it was shown that a franchise store's healthy financial status increased the faith and immersion in a franchise head office. Therefore, when selecting a franchise business operator, instead of thoughtlessly opening up franchise stores for the profit of a head office, it is believed that reviewing a franchise business operator's financial firepower and credit status is necessary. As for academic implications, previous studies examined the relationship by focusing on the characteristics of a franchise head office and franchise store, but this study focused on the characteristics of a franchise business operator. Therefore, this study dealt with the importance of a franchise business operator's competence, and is significant because it revealed the fact that a franchise business operator's excellent commercialization ability can become an element that hinders the immersion in a franchise head office. It was originally believed that a franchise store's characteristics will have different effects on the faith and immersion depending on the market uncertainty, but it was shown that the effect of a franchise store's characteristics depending on the recognition of uncertainties was insignificant, and that is the limitation of this study.

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Shopping Value, Shopping Goal and WOM - Focused on Electronic-goods Buyers (쇼핑 가치 추구 성향에 따른 쇼핑 목표와 공유 의도 차이에 관한 연구 - 전자제품 구매고객을 중심으로)

  • Park, Kyoung-Won;Park, Ju-Young
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.68-79
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    • 2009
  • The interplay between hedonic and utilitarian attributes has assumed special significance in recent years; it has been proposed that consumption offerings should be viewed as experiences that stimulate both cognitions and feelings rather than as mere products or services. This research builds on previous work on hedonic versus utilitarian benefits, regulatory focus theory, customer satisfaction to address two question: (1) Is the shopping goal at the point of purchase different from the shopping value? and (2) Is the customer loyalty after the use different from the shopping value and shopping goal? We surveyed 345 peoples those who have bought the electronic-goods within 6 months. This research dealt with the shopping value which is consisted of 2 types, hedonic and utilitarian. Those who pursue the hedonic shopping value may prefer the pleasure of purchasing experience to the product itself. They tend to prefer atmosphere, arousal of the shopping experience. Consistent with previous research, we use the term "hedonic" to refer to their aesthetic, experiential and enjoyment-related value. On the contrary, Those who pursue the utilitarian shopping value may prefer the reasonable buying. It may be more functional. Consistent with previous research, we use the term "utilitarian" to refer to the functional, instrumental, and practical value of consumption offerings. Holbrook(1999) notes that consumer value is an experience that results from the consumption of such benefits. In the context of cell phones for example, the phone's battery life and sound volume are utilitarian benefits, whereas aesthetic appeal from its shape and color are hedonic benefits. Likewise, in the case of a car, fuel economics and safety are utilitarian benefits whereas the sunroof and the luxurious interior are hedonic benefits. The shopping goals are consisted of the promotion focus goal and the prevention focus goal, based on the self-regulatory focus theory. The promotion focus is characterized into focusing ideal self because they are oriented to wishes and vision. The promotion focused individuals are tend to be more risk taking. They are more sensitive to hope and achievement. On the contrary, the prevention focused individuals are characterized into focusing the responsibilities because they are oriented to safety. The prevention focused individuals are tend to be more risk avoiding. We wanted to test the relation among the shopping value, shopping goal and customer loyalty. Customers show the positive or negative feelings comparing with the expectation level which customers have at the point of the purchase. If the result were bigger than the expectation, customers may feel positive feeling such as delight or satisfaction and they would want to share their feelings with other people. And they want to buy those products again in the future time. There is converging evidence that the types of goals consumers expect to be fulfilled by the utilitarian dimension of a product are different from those they seek from the hedonic dimension (Chernev 2004). Specifically, whereas consumers expect the fulfillment of product prevention goals on the utilitarian dimension, they expect the fulfillment of promotion goals on the hedonic dimension (Chernev 2004; Chitturi, Raghunathan, and Majahan 2007; Higgins 1997, 2001) According to the regulatory focus theory, prevention goals are those that ought to be met. Fulfillment of prevention goals in the context of product consumption eliminates or significantly reduces the probability of a painful experience, thus making consumers experience emotions that result from fulfillment of prevention goals such as confidence and securities. On the contrary, fulfillment of promotion goals are those that a person aspires to meet, such as "looking cool" or "being sophisticated." Fulfillment of promotion goals in the context of product consumption significantly increases the probability of a pleasurable experience, thus enabling consumers to experience emotions that result from the fulfillment of promotion goals. The proposed conceptual framework captures that the relationships among hedonic versus utilitarian shopping values and promotion versus prevention shopping goals respectively. An analysis of the consequence of the fulfillment and frustration of utilitarian and hedonic value is theoretically worthwhile. It is also substantively relevant because it helps predict post-consumption behavior such as the promotion versus prevention shopping goals orientation. Because our primary goal is to understand how the post consumption feelings influence the variable customer loyalty: word of mouth (Jacoby and Chestnut 1978). This research result is that the utilitarian shopping value gives the positive influence to both of the promotion and prevention goal. However the influence to the prevention goal is stronger. On the contrary, hedonic shopping value gives influence to the promotion focus goal only. Additionally, both of the promotion and prevention goal show the positive relation with customer loyalty. However, the positive relation with promotion goal and customer loyalty is much stronger. The promotion focus goal gives the influence to the customer loyalty. On the contrary, the prevention focus goal relates at the low level of relation with customer loyalty than that of the promotion goal. It could be explained that it is apt to get framed the compliment of people into 'gain-non gain' situation. As the result, for those who have the promotion focus are motivated to deliver their own feeling to other people eagerly. Conversely the prevention focused individual are more sensitive to the 'loss-non loss' situation. The research result is consistent with pre-existent researches. There is a conceptual parallel between necessities-needs-utilitarian benefits and luxuries-wants-hedonic benefits (Chernev 2004; Chitturi, Raghunathan and Majaha 2007; Higginns 1997; Kivetz and Simonson 2002b). In addition, Maslow's hierarchy of needs and the precedence principle contends luxuries-wants-hedonic benefits higher than necessities-needs-utilitarian benefits. Chitturi, Raghunathan and Majaha (2007) show that consumers are focused more on the utilitarian benefits than on the hedonic benefits of a product until their minimum expectation of fulfilling prevention goals are met. Furthermore, a utilitarian benefit is a promise of a certain level of functionality by the manufacturer or the retailer. When the promise is not fulfilled, customers blame the retailer and/or the manufacturer. When negative feelings are attributable to an entity, customers feel angry. However in the case of hedonic benefit, the customer, not the manufacturer, determines at the time of purchase whether the product is stylish and attractive. Under such circumstances, customers are more likely to blame themselves than the manufacturer if their friends do not find the product stylish and attractive. Therefore, not meeting minimum utilitarian expectations of functionality generates a much more intense negative feelings, such as anger than a less intense feeling such as disappointment or dissatisfactions. The additional multi group analysis of this research shows the same result. Those who are unsatisfactory customers who have the prevention focused goal shows higher relation with WOM, comparing with satisfactory customers. The research findings in this article could have significant implication for the personal selling fields to increase the effectiveness and the efficiency of the sales such that they can develop the sales presentation strategy for the customers. For those who are the hedonic customers may be apt to show more interest to the promotion goal. Therefore it may work to strengthen the design, style or new technology of the products to the hedonic customers. On the contrary for the utilitarian customers, it may work to strengthen the price competitiveness. On the basis of the result from our studies, we demonstrated a correspondence among hedonic versus utilitarian and promotion versus prevention goal, WOM. Similarly, we also found evidence of the moderator effects of satisfaction after use, between the prevention goal and WOM. Even though the prevention goal has the low level of relation to WOM, those who are not satisfied show higher relation to WOM. The relation between the prevention goal and WOM is significantly different according to the satisfaction versus unsatisfaction. In addition, improving the promotion emotions of cheerfulness and excitement and the prevention emotion of confidence and security will further improve customer loyalty. A related potential further research could be to examine whether hedonic versus utilitarian, promotion versus prevention goals improve customer loyalty for services as well. Under the budget and time constraints, designers and managers are often compelling to choose among various attributes. If there is no budget or time constraints, perhaps the best solution is to maximize both hedonic and utilitarian dimension of benefits. However, they have to make trad-off process between various attributes. For the designers and managers have to keep in mind that without hedonic benefit satisfaction of the product it may hard to lead the customers to the customer loyalty.

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The Health Behavior Patterns of Some Rural Residents in Korea and Their Association with Health Status and Health Management Practice (일부 농촌주민의 건강행위유형과 건강상태 및 건강관련실태와의 관련성)

  • Kim, Young-Gab;Kang, Myung-Guen;Ryu, So-Yeon;Kim, Ki-Soon;Kang, Sung-Deuk
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.43-63
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to classify the patterns of health behaviors of some rural residents in Korea by sub-grouping them into populations with similar patterns of diet quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, and then to investigate the relationship between these health behavior patterns and health status or health management of them. Methods: The study subjects were 722 rural residents above 20 years old on a typical rural district in Korea, and the data used in this study was from the survey data for health planning of a health center. Study questionnaire for this survey was developed from modifying the questionnaire for 'National Nutrition and Health Study' conducted in 1998. To classify health behavior patterns, cluster analysis was conducted. And to test the association of health behavior patterns with health status or health management, multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: The results and their implications of this study were as follows: 1. We identified six health behavior typologies : 67.8% of the sample had a good diet quality but showed sedentary activity level(good diet lifestyle) and 10.9% had heavy smoking behavior(smoking lifestyle). Individuals included in fitness lifestyle cluster(6.2%) had high physical activity level and those in drinking life style(2.6%) had had mainly large amount of alcohol. Zero point six percent of sample were included in hedonic lifestyle cluster, who showed poor health behaviors in all. Those included in passive lifestyle(11.9%) had no active health promoting activities but tended to avoid risk taking health behavior such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. 2. As a result of logistic regression analysis, to compare with the individuals in good diet lifestyle, the prevalence of chronic diseases of those in fitness lifestyle showed higher and that of those in smoking lifestyle, drinking lifestyle, hedonic lifestyle, passive lifestyle showed lower than them, retrospectively. 3. Adjusting with general characteristics and health status, to compare with the individuals in good diet lifestyle, the proportion of those who had good health management practices in fitness lifestyle was higher, and the proportion of those who had health check in past 2 years was lower than them, retrospectively. Conclusions: There were some differences in health behavior patterns between rural population and national population, which influenced significantly on health status and health management practice of them. We suggested that the health promotion program for them be developed with considering these points.

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