• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rockbolts

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A Study on the Quantitative Evaluation of the Load Distribution Factors Considering the Design Conditions of Tunnel Especially for the Ring-cut Excavation Method (터널 설계조건을 고려한 하중분배율의 정량적 산정에 관한 연구 -ring-cut 굴착공법을 중심으로-)

  • 장석부;문현구
    • Geotechnical Engineering
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.5-16
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    • 1998
  • 2-D numerical methods have been applied to analyze the stability of tunnels because of computation efficiency, though the ground around the tunnel under construction shows 3-D reformational behaviour due to the transverse and longitudinal arching effects. Load distribution factors are introduced to the 2-D analysis for the consideration of the effects of the tunnel advance in three dimensions. The load distribution factors influence significantly the ground deformation and the load of primary supports like shotcrete and rockbolts. According to the previous studies for 3-D numerical studies. it was shown that load distribution factors were heavily dependent on the ground deformational properties, tunnel size and the advance length of a tunnel. However, as the quantitative methods evaluating the factors have not been presented yet, constant values have been assigned to the factors for 2-D analysis even if the conditions for tunnel design are different. Accordingly, this paper presents the method to evaluate quantitatively the load distribution factors through the regression analysis of 3-D analysis data on 72 design cases. Also, new modification to the load distribution factors are suggested for the ring-cut excavation method because the conventional 2-D analysis is not able to consider the support effects of the core left on the tunnel face.

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Auxiliary Reinforcement Method for the Safety of Tunnelling Face (터널 막장안정성에 따른 보강공법 적용)

  • Kim, Chang-Yong;Park, Chi-Hyun;Bae, Gyu-Jin;Hong, Sung-Wan;Oh, Myung-Ryul
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.11-21
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    • 2000
  • Tunnelling has been created as a great extent in view of less land space available because the growth of population in metropolitan has been accelerated at a faster pace than the development of the cities. In tunnelling, it is often faced that measures are obliged to be taken without confirmation for such abnormality as diverged movement of surrounding rock mass, growing crack of shotcrete and yielding of rockbolts. In this case, it is usually said that the judgments of experienced engineers for the selection of measure are importance and allowed us to get over the situations in many construction sites. But decrease of such experienced engineers need us to develop the new system to assist the selection of measures for the abnormality without any experiences of similar tunnelling sites. In this study, After a lot of tunnelling reinforcement methods were surveyed and the detail application were studied, an expert system was developed to predict the safety of tunnel and choose proper tunnel reinforcement system using fuzzy quantification theory and fuzzy inference rule based on tunnel information database. The expert system developed in this study have two main parts named pre-module and post-module. Pre-module decides tunnel information imput items based on the tunnel face mapping information which can be easily obtained in-situ site. Then, using fuzzy quantification theory II, fuzzy membership function is composed and tunnel safety level is inferred through this membership function. The comparison result between the predicted reinforcement system level and measured ones was very similar. In-situ data were obtained in three tunnel sites including subway tunnel under Han river. This system will be very helpful to make the most of in-situ data and suggest proper applicability of tunnel reinforcement system developing more resonable tunnel support method from dependance of some experienced experts for the absent of guide.

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A preliminary numerical analysis on the behaviour of tunnel under construction in fracture zone considering seismic load (지진 하중을 고려한 단층파쇄대에서의 시공 중 터널 거동 분석에 관한 수치해석적 연구)

  • Oh, Dong-Wook;Hong, Soon-Kyo;Kim, Dae-Kon;Lee, Yong-Joo
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.279-299
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    • 2019
  • Recently occurred earthquake Gyeongju and Pohang served as a momentum to remind that Korean peninsular is not a safety zone from earthquake anymore. The importance of seismic design, therefore, have been realized and researches regarding design response spectrum have been actively carried out by many researchers and engineers. Current tunnel seismic design method is conducted to check safety of tunnel structure by dynamic numerical analysis with condition of completed lining installation, so, it is impossible to consider safety of tunnel behavior under construction. In this study, therefore, dynamic numerical analysis considering seismic wave propagations has been performed after back analysis using results from field monitoring of tunnel under construction in fractured zone and 1st reinforcement (shotcrete, rockbolt) behaviour are analyzed. Waves are classified by period characteristic (short and long). As a result, the difference depending on period characteristic is minor, and increasements of displacement are obtained at crown displacement due to seismic wave is 28~31%, 14~16% at left side of tunnel in the fractured zone, 13~27% at right side of tunnel in the bed rock, respectively. In case of shotcrete axial force is increased 113~115% at tunnel crown, 102% at left side, 106~110% at right side, respectively. Displacement and axial force of rockbolts which are selected by type of anchored grounds (only fractured zone, fractured zone and bed rock, only bedrock) are analyzed, as a result, rockbolt which is anchored to fractured zone and bed rock at the same time are weaker than any other case.